# All Questions

15,153 questions
5k views

### How do pilots/controllers deal with overlapping transmissions on the radio?

A disadvantage of the analogue radio1 used for communication is that it does not receive when it transmits. Everybody is trained to wait until the frequency is quiet before starting to talk, but it's ...
4k views

### What are the legal requirements to be a “crewmember”?

14 CFR 1.1 includes the following definitions related to crewmembers: Crewmember means a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time. Flightcrew member means a pilot, ...
3k views

### What should I do to become a pilot for skydivers, in France?

What are the steps needed to become a pilot that can transport skydivers? I'm more specifically interested in the situation in Europe, France. I would expect lessons / certifications, then more ...
372 views

### Why is the altimeter unwinding unevenely during a spin?

Spencer Suderman recently did a world record 81-turn inverted flat spin, and dropped over 21 thousand feet while doing so. The entire thing is documented on youtube. The spin starts at 3 minutes into ...
284 views

### Is it possible for the sensors which determine when an aircraft has landed in water to become damaged?

A plane has sensors that should transmit data back somewhere when it hits water correct? Is it possible that these can be turned off/damaged?
777 views

### What happens to the transponder, FDR and CVR in case of an explosion?

Will the above mentioned equipment still work and transmit data/location information if an explosion occurs inside the aircraft?
8k views

### How does aileron reversal work?

I want to know how aileron reversal takes place when control reversal velocity is higher than divergence speed and operating speed is in between them (for conventional wing)
3k views

### Why do I not always hear ATC read back by pilots (on required instructions)?

I enjoy tracking air traffic at my local KORD. I listen on LiveATC and use my private virtual radar setup to get "real-time" traffic info. I understand which instructions need to be read back by the ...
2k views

### Why do hydraulic jack stalls result in pitch up and right roll?

Quoting from page 162 of the book "Fatal traps for helicopter pilots" by Greg Whyte: Hydraulic jack stall (servo transparency) in (AS-350) helicopter is an aerodynamic phenomenon can occur when the ...
599 views

### Does Part 135 duty time begin at the start of a part 91 owner flight which occurred immediately before?

You are asked to fly a 91 owner trip to a destination. A 135 trip comes up after your owner flight. Does your 135 duty time start when company asked you to fly the 91 owner flight?
579 views

### Is this a glitchy ADS-B signal? [duplicate]

I was looking through my virtual radar logs one of the days and found this "glitchy" ADS-B behavior. I am almost 100% sure that this is not due to my antenna or setup since two independent different ...
5k views

### Do aircraft manufacturers produce their own black boxes?

Do the manufacturers who build airplanes use their own "black boxes" in the planes, or are there companies whose sole purpose is to develop black boxes? For example, in 2010 in the Airblue Flight 202 ...
10k views

### Like transponders, can flight data recorders be turned off?

I never knew much about airplanes before the tragic incident of Malaysia 370. I have been spending a lot of time on Twitter reading various articles and investigations; in one of the articles I read, ...
5k views

### Could an aircraft 'hide' in the aircraft shadow of another aircraft without being detected or noticed?

I just finished reading an interesting post where the author suggests that the missing Malaysian Airlines flight 370 could have 'hidden' under the cover of Singapore Airlines flight 68 to fly to a ...
1k views

### Can the safety of the Boeing 777 be extended to other models?

It is becoming accepted that the Boeing 777 is the world's safest aircraft. There must be a reason for this of course, and aircraft designers should know it. So my question is, can't we take all the ...
2k views

### Do landing strips suffer from potholes or rutting?

In companion to the other question asking about wheel tire tracks. Planes come down and stop with a significant amount of force which I would expect to cause either rutting or potholes. Are runways ...
2k views

### Do landing strips suffer from landing wheel tire tracks?

I've now seen several landing strips up close and there are lots of tire tracks from planes' landing wheels. I wonder if it somehow modifies the properties of landing strips to make for poorer landing ...
3k views

### How can Ryanair offer flights for a penny?

Of course, we all know that you're not exactly treated like a rockstar on Ryanair, and their CEO wants to charge us £1 to use the toilet; but still, how can they offer flights for a penny?! Looking ...
557 views

### Did the NSDAP help to fund Lufthansa?

During WWII, a number of German companies received financial backing and slave labourers from the government at the time. Companies such as Hugo Boss, Volkswagen and Lufthansa. A thread on Airliners....
21k views

### Where does my pee go when I flush at 35,000 ft?

One thing I guess a lot of people wonder is: what happens you flush the toilet in an aeroplane? Does it fall out the belly of the plane and disintegrate? :) A kiwi woman complains that "aeroplanes ...
38k views

### What are the advantages of a forward-swept wing over a rearward-swept wing?

What are the advantages of a forward-swept wing vs. a rearward swept one? Image credit: NASA Image credit: Paul Maritz / Wikimedia
31k views

### How do airlines pay for their planes?

Taking easyJet as an example, they have a fleet of over 200 A319's and A320's. At a price tag of around \$90m per plane, that equates to about \$18bn. Given that their turnover for 2012/13 was around ...
7k views

### Which country is responsible for prosecution if a crime is committed over international waters?

Theoretically speaking, let's say we're flying from Portugal to Cuba, on a Chinese-owned airliner. Whilst over the Atlantic, a crime is committed, and we land in the US. Which country is responsible ...
66k views

### Why are planes generally painted white?

When planes come off the assembly line at the factory, they're green: So why are most painted white? Surely a darker colour would hide dirt better? Is there a reason planes are traditionally white? ...
1k views

### How do airlines choose what food to serve? [closed]

I'd imagine there are probably reasons behind the choice of food that airlines serve, and I'm wondering what those reasons are? I guess that Air India probably serves more curries than American ...
1k views

### Where did the US 'N' registration letter come from?

Why is the first letter in US registration numbers 'N'? Other countries seem to use a letter significant to their country, for instance 'G' for Great Britain, 'F' for France, 'D' for Germany (...
1k views

### On a 777 what would happen if the aft pressurization switch was accidentally left closed?

The Boeing 777 has fore and aft pressurisation switches (see example here). If the aft switch was forgotten on takeoff, could this cause a loss of cabin pressurisation when the aircraft reaches ...
863 views

### What is the relation between aircraft altitude and ADS-B coverage?

While reading the description of ADS-B given on the FR24 website (ADS-B How it works), I came across this sentence: The farther away from the receiver an aircraft is flying, the higher it must fly ...
4k views

### Once you have passed the oral portion of a checkride, do you have to retake it ever again?

I recently attempted to take my Commercial/ME/Instrument checkride. I passed the oral exam portion, but shortly after the engine started running rough. After making it through about 3-4 maneuvers and ...
150 views

### Why after 911; do we not have “fail-safe” transponders that cannot be turned off? [duplicate]

In the 911 terror attack the transponders were turned off. Who is to blame for the lack of foresight that has allowed another jet liner to shut off their transponders. This is a ¼ billion-dollar ...
20k views

### Could a pilot incapacitate other crew/passengers by manipulating cabin air quality/pressure?

Could a pilot of an airliner incapacitate everyone outside the cockpit by somehow triggering a loss of cabin pressure while simultaneously disarming the airplane's oxygen masks, manipulating the air ...
770 views

### Is it possible to ping ACARS repeatedly and track an aircraft?

This is a followup to What data does ACARS send back to base? Can it be used to track a plane? I had asked this as a part of the earlier question, but it seems to be a large enough issue to be ...
40k views

### How does an alpha (AoA) vane work?

The alpha vane (also called AoA vane) is an external probe used to measure the angle of attack. I have been trying to understand how exactly it works, but I can't find any clear explanation or ...
530 views

### Do I need to descend towards the Minimum Descent Altitude if I have the airport in sight?

I have some questions about circle-to-land approaches. If we have the runway in sight above MDA, do we need to continue to descend to MDA on downwind? Can we just keep fly like a traffic pattern ...
2k views

### Is it legal to land in bad visibility conditions without ILS?

Korean Air Flight 801 crashed during bad visibility conditions in Guam because the ILS was out of commission and the pilot thought it wasn't. My question though is why he even tried to land there in ...
5k views

### Can I log PIC time when training for a tailwheel or high performance endorsement?

If I hire a CFI to train me for the tailwheel endorsement (this question also applies to the high performance endorsement), can I log PIC time when flying the tailwheel aircraft, or do I have to log ...
14k views

### Can a Boeing 777 be hacked?

All this confusion over flight 370 has me wondering if it would be possible to hack into an airplane and control the autopilot or other on-board systems in a way that the pilots couldn't regain ...
14k views

### Where is the airspace not covered by primary Radar?

Most ATC in the world rely primarily on secondary radar to know where planes are. This requires that the transponder on the plane works correctly. This means that maintenance and deployment of ...
10k views

### Can the pitch be very different from the angle of attack?

How much the pitch (horizontal orientation) can differ from the angle of attack? I am trying to understand the claim that "angle of attack indicator was unfortunately not available", contributing to ...
283 views

### Is there a list of what information different airlines track about their flights?

It has been suggested in the media and in some answers here that airlines vary in the information they track about the status of their flights. Is there a publicly available resource that lists what ...
5k views

### What data does ACARS send back to base? Can it be used to track a plane?

An aircraft's Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System uses line of sight HF via ground stations or satellites to communicate with its base station. This system allows for three types ...
30k views

### What is an Inertial Navigation System? How does it work?

In this question, the answer notes that some ADS-B systems are connected to Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), and says they are less accurate than GPS. What exactly is an INS? A couple sub ...
9k views

### Why do aircraft on Flight Radar 24 jump around randomly sometimes?

I use Flight Radar 24 on my iPad to track friends/families flights when they are traveling (not paranoia, just curious). I've noticed that, quite often, their plane will jump from one location to ...
32k views

### Why do pilots have the ability to turn off the transponder in-flight?

These days, when reading news about missing Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200, I keep coming across a scenario where pilot might have deliberately turned off the transponder which is used for the ...
59k views

### What is the lifespan of commercial airframes (in general)?

You always hear that the Boeing 737 have been flying for so many years and the Airbus A310 for that many years, but of course that include new airframes being produced all the time. What is the ...
826 views

### Do instrument approach procedures sometimes have a minimum temperature?

Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter ...
4k views

### What was Korean Air 672 doing at the time of Malaysia Air 370's disappearance? [duplicate]

In the first part of this YouTube video, you can see an aircraft supposedly flying 4x faster than the surrounding aircraft, at the time the Malaysian 777 went missing. After replaying this on Flight ...
9k views

### How does a flying wing keep from going into a flat spin when maneuvering?

How do flying wings, like the B-2 Stealth bomber, actually keep themselves from yawing out of control without a vertical stabilizer? For the record, I assume this has to be a simple mechanics process....