# All Questions

15,769 questions
211 views

### Is the transition altitude around Denali still 18 kft AMSL, and, if so, how is this handled?

In North America, the transition altitude - the altitude below which everyone reports their altitude in feet above mean sea level (AMSL) and sets their altimeter to whatever the weather dictates that ...
137 views

### How are military aircraft directed to targets?

How would a controller, say, AWACS or ground radar, direct via voice an aircraft to the location of an airborne target? I've seen it in movies, but don't know if they where right, nor did I ...
26 views

### What are typical naca foils for winglets for ultralights/LSA?

What are typical naca foils for winglets for ultralights?
55 views

### What is the difference between 'warning area' and 'ADIZ'? Are they overlapped with each other?

On FAR AIM, definition of warning area is Airspace of defined dimensions, extending from three nautical miles outward from the coast of the U.S, that contains activity that may be hazardous ...
78 views

### How should a newly minted instructor sign an endorsement?

A newly issued flight instructor certificate often has the word "PENDING" in the certificate number field. In 8900.1 Flight Standards, Volume 5, Section 1, Section 5, Paragraph 5-112(c)(2)(a) ...
214 views

### Why only the outboard (“low speed”) aileron drops when there is no hydraulic pressure on the 747-8?

As the title says, why only the outboard ("low speed") aileron drops when there is no hydraulic pressure on the 748? (Full resolution)
40 views

### What is the effect of aileron deflection on the centre of pressure?

Deflecting an aileron will increase or decrease the camber of the outer wing where the aileron is attached. I learnt on this platform that centre of pressure (c.p.) moves fore and aft with aileron ...
195 views

### What is a “KALP114A” ATC regulation?

My flight (in Spain) was delayed for 6h and after I submitted the claim the airline worker answered me that it was delayed due to KALP114A regulations imposed by ATC, but I didn't find any info, that ...
50 views

### Can a Captain also fly from the right-hand seat? [duplicate]

Can a captain that just finished his command upgrade to fly also from the right-hand seat if he had performed the appropriate simulator training? Does regulation have a restriction on that?
46 views

### Is airport's magnetic variation value used for terminal procedure design?

I am studying how instrument flight procedures are coded to ARINC-424 format, and since I was curious about the method used to determine the outbound/inbound magnetic courses, I checked the section ...
224 views

### Why are so many tail-strike incidents not verified until later inspection?

One often reads of a "suspected tail-strike" at take-off (for example suspected because a controller has seen something from the tower, or because a cabin crew member sitting at the back of the plane ...
119 views

### Clarification on flight hours as compensation

I've seen the phrase "flight hours as compensation" before, and would like some clarification on it. What I've read seems to generally concern operating an aircraft on a PPL for a commercial purpose, ...
205 views

### Could wing tilting be a mechanism for VTOL and high angle of attack for jetliners? [closed]

My question is about turbofan airliners, could an airplane tilt its wings 90 degrees so that the fuselage horizontal axis is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the turbo fan. This way an ...
48 views

### What kind of propellers are generally mounted on the Aeriane Sirocco?

I'm curious what propeller is used for the Aeriana Sirocco. Online I see lots of pictures of propellers with three blades, but none with only two and I cannot find many clear pictures of the proppeler....
118 views

### Has anyone tried to make an aircraft using centripetal force to hover or fly or is it not going to happen [closed]

. Air craft testing might be the idea we need
113 views

### Need to add elevator downforce to total lift when sizing wing area?

Do I need to add elevator downforce to total lift when sizing wing area? Say a small airplane weighs 1,000 lbs, and both the wing and elevator have a max Cl of 1.5, and my elevator is 20% of my wing ...
145 views

### Is there an easy way to determine where a part goes on an airplane?

In order to classify parts for export I need to determine where our parts go on the plane. (Engine or structural/body) Specifically looking at the canister, heat shield assy and lock support for the ...
110 views

### What are the major aircraft systems (LRUs) using the ARINC429 Protocol?

I want to know the different aircraft systems (LRUs) using ARINC429 protocol. Why is it used instead of the ARINC 629 ? How is it different from the different ARINC protocols like 629 and AFDX(664)?
250 views

### How much lift does the wing attach fitting actually carry?

How do I calculate the lift force that the the bolt that join the wings to the fuselage of a strutted or braced airplane carry? I know in a cantilever airplane,the bolts have to carry all of the lift ...
182 views

### How to determine the compressive force in the spars of a strutted wing?

How does one calculate the compressive force that the inner section of a strutted or braced wing (from the strut attach point to the wing root) experiences? I know how to calculate the tension in the ...
1k views

### What is wind “CALM”?

What is the exact criteria for wind speed to be considered "CALM". Different countries might have different values and i do not mind getting answers from those. But an answer from an ICAO annex would ...
123 views

### What causes harsh noise during TX/RX on VHF radio?

I am running some trial radio test on PAE VHF main radio and during TX from ATC there is harsh noise at the background even though TX is 5/5. Likewise for the incoming RX from aircrafts. So I swapped ...
106 views

### How does landing gear affect thrust on a light twin-engine airplane?

I'm working on my commercial multiengine rating. And I got this question from my examiner, and I answered: landing gear produces penalty drag, so it decreases thrust. But the examiner says this isn'...
43 views

### When are pressure-swirl atomizers and airblast atomizers used?

I am a little confused as to when (during T/O, cruise, etc.) and how the combined pressure-swirl atomizer and airblast atomizer is used. Lefebvre writes that "the merits of the pressure-swirl ...
87 views

### Cp, Cg and Np location of a tandem wing configuration, both have positive lift?

I understand that in a tandem layout( 1 wing at front of plane, 1 wing at rear, both have positive lift) , the Cp has to be ahead of the Cg, and the Np behind the Cg. Is there a rule of thumb how far ...
174 views

### How was the 747 in the China Airlines Flight 006 affected by the wing damage it sustained?

The passengers on China Airlines Flight 006 had a very memorable flight when the crew lost control and the aeroplane went into a high-speed dive. Various pieces of the aircraft were torn off. The ...
113 views

### Are there any cases on record of an aircraft crashing into an occupied air traffic control tower?

Aircraft frequently1 crash, or come close to crashing, from almost every cause imaginable, on or near airports, these being places where aircraft of all sizes take off and land and sleep with many ...
1k views

### The Mig 21 and the Mirage III have been criticized for lack of range, is this a limitation of the wing configuration?

Mig 21 Range: 1,470 km (910 mi; 790 nmi) at 10,000 m (32,800 ft) with 2 × K-13A missiles and 800 l (180 imp gal; 210 US gal) (Wikipeda) J-7 Combat radius: 850 km (459 nmi, 528 mi) (air superiority, ...
44 views

### Is ILS secured from being hacked/overriden/disturbed? [duplicate]

Since ILS uses radio frequency. Then is it possible that some one transmit a malicious signal on the same frequency ? Are there any measures to prevent that ?
277 views

### How far would an all electric A380 fly? [closed]

I have edited this to one question and thank you for all the feedback . I am trying to understand if there are any theoretical improvements in range when applying electric propulsion to large ...
4k views

### Why did the AvroCar fail to fly above 3 feet?

I don’t quite understand why the AvroCar didn’t reach more than 3 feet? Was it a ground effect keeping it at that height and it didn’t have the capability to fly higher?
68 views

### Sudden drop in speed and altitude? [duplicate]

Can someone tell me exactly what happened on this flight? It was a brief moment of sudden drop in altitude (6000 feets) almost at the same time with a drop on engine powers. It's a drop of signal from ...
287 views

### Why are Vertical tails generally tapered?

I'm just intrigued to know why the vertical tail of a majority of aircraft is tapered? Is it due to aerodynamics, structural design or due to some instrumentation or multiple other reasons?
170 views

### Could a hybrid electric steam plane be more efficient at altitude than at sea-level, and how to optimise it to frigid air?

In the thirties a steam powered plane was built. video Could a hybrid electric steam plane be more efficient at altitude than at sea-level, and how could such a steam engine be optimised to benefit ...
115 views

### How is paint embrittlement countered in high altitude aircraft?

There are cases of aircraft that are not designed for high altitudes that can still fly there and as a result the paint on these aircraft "falls off". Although most aircraft have paint that is chosen ...
66 views

### What is the name of the previous Air Traffic Management System (ATMS) of Hong Kong International Airport?

Hi I really need help for the question. The current ATMS for Hong Kong International Airport is the AutoTrac III, but does anyone know what is Hong Kong's Previous ATMS?
72 views

### Do the polar curves have large differences in takeoff than in landing?

I was wondering if the polar curve has differences in the takeoff due to the smaller extension of the flaps (this is half that in the landing) that changes the AOA for $C_ {la} = 0$. In addition, ...
30 views

### Are there equivalents to the USA's HIMS programme in other regions?

The question How to determine if pilots in crashes flew again? made me think about the Human Intervention Motivation Study programme (see the answer https://aviation.stackexchange.com/a/65410/14197) ...
142 views

### What does “FG BNK” mean in a metar?

Here's the KLAX METAR 2153Z observation: KLAX 102153Z 27010KT 10SM FEW002 BKN200 24/16 A2997 RMK AO2 SLP147 FG BNK S-NW T02390156 \$
156 views

### Are modern commercial airliners flyable without operational computer systems?

Do modern commercial airliners have manual control capability to fly and land if electric power remains on but all computer systems and digital communication/guidance fails?
4k views

### How strong someone should be in order to fly without “power steering”?

Planes these days use fly by wire systems while older ones had a mix of hydraulics with electronic assistance like the MD-11 (And maybe 737-800?). But what would happen if you lost the electronic ...
184 views

### Sukhoi Superjet 100 avionics

The Sukhoi Superjet 100 features flight control system with characteristics copied from Airbus. Side-sticks, same control laws. But does it actually use any of the hardware or software from Airbus (...
64 views

### Does/Can combustion instabilities occur in SCRAM jet?

I was told that combustion occurs at Supersonic speeds in SCRAM jet. So acoustic disturbances/ pressure fluctuations can't travel into incoming jet stream. Does this avoids combustion instabilities in ...
68 views

### What is the service cycle or interval of the Landing gear of an A380 and 747-800

What is the service cycle or interval of the Landing gear of an A380 and 747-800, i.e how long between service, eg after how many take offs and landings with particular reference to bearing checks and ...
130 views

### What would happen if one smeared a generous amount of grease on the gears of the geared turbofan jet engine

What would happen if one smeared a generous amount of grease on all the gears or parts of the gearbox of the geared turbofan engine such that no tooth is left without grease to the extent that it is ...
95 views

### How may one notify the FAA of the apparent flaw in the airspace design at KEGE?

Several questions and answers have addressed the design of the airspace around KEGE. The situation is perhaps best summarized in this answer -- Can the Class-E-to-surface airspace near Eagle County ...
4k views

### Placement of positioning lights on A320 winglets

I was flying with an A320-214 that had big winglets (I think they were called Sharklets). I noticed that the positioning lights were facing forward on the leading edge of the winglet (the "notch" in ...
25 views

### What is the difference between iSpec2200 and S1000D specifications?

I know the iSpec2200 and S1000D are the specifications which are used in the aircraft maintenance manual, I have to know how they actually work in the aviation domain and what is the difference ...