# All Questions

14,297 questions
100 views

### Where is the inclinometer “ball” in a knife edged turn?

Discussion of steep turns has lead to a question about where the inclinometer ball would be if the plane rolled to 90 degrees. Also, would there be any difference if the plane simply rolled to 90 ...
326 views

### Are passengers allowed to travel seatless(on the floor)?

I was told that a flight in Europe carried two passengers on the floor, because their purchased seats didn't exist. BBC. Is that allowed? For example, in Greece, a bus is not allowed to travel with ...
70 views

### Is there any book like the “Stick and Rudder” about the helicopter?

I have read the Stick and Rudder, that's really a classic book. Now I want to study the flight theory about helicopters, is there any book like this?
97 views

### What margin of error should one reasonably allow regarding aircraft performance?

This question generated a lot of discussion around amateur pilots often making the mistake of calculating aircraft performance based on perfect conditions and not allowing for a 'safety factor' (i.e. ...
142 views

### Why does elevator input move the turn coordinator ball in steep turns?

When practicing steep turns, I'm running into an unusual phenomenon. If the airplane is losing altitude in coordinated flight and I apply aft stick pressure to pitch up and correct, I notice that the ...
114 views

### What do I need to get my pilot license? [closed]

I am thinking of getting my pilot license, I would love to fly a helicopter or a small plane, but I don't know where to start. What do I need to get a pilot's license? Things like: How much does it ...
225 views

### Why aren't runway numbers painted in a higher aspect ratio?

I'm watching a lot of aviation youtube channels and it seems to me that when attempting a landing on a "normal" glide path, it must be quite hard to read the runway numbers until you're on short final,...
85 views

### Why were these crash location not located via ELT?

On Jan 14th 2019, at 9.10 Indonesia time, the CVR of the crashed Lion Air JT-610 has been found. Another vital device was found earlier. There are three modern airplanes crashed in to water in ...
27 views

### Oversight responsibility in the delegated airspace

Who retains the oversight authority in the delegated airspace when an airspace of one State is delegated to another State fir the provision of Air traffic Services?
7k views

### Why not make the touchdown zone of runways wider than the rest?

Reasons: Save money by making the rest of the runway narrower Larger margin of error left and right Easier to turn around, if necessary And if the reason that it isn't done is merely for regulation/...
165 views

### What changes are needed for a piston-prop aircraft to withstand saltwater environment?

I'm interested in WW2-era piston-prop aircraft. I want to know what changes are needed to make the aircraft withstand saltwater corrosion. Presumably these are different and more expensive than the ...
66 views

### Where can I find the turn radius on the ground for the Piper Seminole?

I meant to be doing a quiz for a class and one of the questions is asking for the turn radius of the Piper Seminole. However I cant find it anywhere in the POH. Do you know where I can look?
31 views

### Where am I wrong at aerodynamic center calculation?

I'm currently taking aerodynmics course.In the classical thin airfoil theory. we saw that both for symmetric and non-symmetric airfoils the term $dc_l/d\alpha= 2\pi$. But in the preceding chapter, ...
89 views

### How can I learn and practice Grid-Polar-Navigation in my simulator? [closed]

At the time before GPS navigation in the Antarctic region was done by Grid-Polar Navigation. This method I would like to learn and practice in my flightsimulator. Are there anybody who can explain ...
54 views

### Aircraft thrust [closed]

Suppose i have made light aircraft. And it has total weight of 200 kg with person and the maximum thrust given by propeller is 45 kg will it fly or not. If it cannot fly then how much thrust we need ...
112 views

### How long will an aircraft need to fly before it can land without dumping fuel? [closed]

Now, I know perfectly well that the literal and unhelpful answer to the question is long enough to burn sufficient fuel that it is no longer overweight for landing. What I'd like to understand is ...
82 views

### What are the sounds in the Boeing 738 when it's in a cold and dark state? [closed]

So, I recently noticed that I the zibo 738, when the aircraft is in a cold and dark state, it has certain sounds in the cockpit. Where are these sounds coming from?
91 views

### Fuel De-aerating Tank?

I know turbine engines (bearings) are cooled by oil jets and that when oil is scavenged from the bearings it is more of a mist than a liquid, hence the need for various types of de-aerating this mist ...
734 views

### What steps are needed to communicate with ATC on an A320?

In the description to this video, Captain Joe says that it took this inexperienced person 20 minutes to establish radio contact with ATC (in an A320 simulator). This seems like an awful lot of time ...
68 views

### How do split winglets reduce bending moment in the wings?

I am doing a study on split winglets and how they are more advantageous than blended winglets . While browsing through the net, I was reading an article about the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and they had ...
29 views

### What to be considered in designing airplane tail (vertical and horizontal stabilizer, elevators and rudder)? [closed]

I would like to make a small amateur triplane with it maximum weight approximately 400 kgs with maximum speed 100 knots (180 kph). I have read many discussions about how to calculate the wing ...
54 views

### Why does the Comet's horizontal stabilizer have so much dihedral?

The Comet's horizontal tail has a noticeably extreme amount of dihedral compared to that of, say, a 707: (Image by MilborneOne at Wikimedia Commons.) Note how the Comet's tail has about twice as ...
12k views

### Why do we say certain things *three times*, e.g., “Mayday. Mayday. Mayday”?

Repetition is a key characteristic of communication in the control tower, cockpit, and control room. Some phrases, like "Mayday" get repeated. The speaker says the same thing three times. We know ...
74 views

### What are these engine gauges in the Comet 4 for?

What are these gauges on the Comet 4's engine-gauge panel (between the captain's and first officer's instruments, above the throttle levers), marked "POWER LOSS INDICATOR", for? (Sorry for the blurry ...
86 views

### Why are the throttle levers for the Comet's outboard engines shaped funny?

The throttle levers for the Comet's outboard (#1 and #4) engines are weirdly shaped, with flanges that extend up and partially over the throttle levers for the inboard (#2 and #3) engines: (Image ...
134 views

### Why some WWII fighters still have fabric/wood control surfaces?

I've heard people say that the reason US in WWII preferred designs with fabric control surfaces with either a metal or plywood frame is they can sustain some small arms fire without disintegrating. Is ...
377 views

### Do fighter jets have deicing in their wings?

If there is such thing as deicing for fighters? If so, is bleed air or electric heating preferred? I could not imagine that a \$50MLN fighter jet would not be able to get the ice off its wings.
119 views

### Increase to Flight idle during start-up?

Ground idle takes about 5% of the total rpm, flight idle takes about 85% of the total rpm. Why is so much of the engine power wasted before it gets to flight idle?
88 views

### Do pilots get full credit hours when they fly double or augmented?

In commercial airlines, in some very long flights as far as I know they require double cockpit crew sets (2 pilots, 2 co-pilots) to operate. Do both crew sets get the full credit hours for these ...
201 views

The below image is of a converted aircraft now functioning as a hotel of sorts. I am having trouble identifying the type of the aircraft. It is not on the listing page either. Does anyone know what ...
164 views

### Can a single engine on an A320 provide wing anti ice?

Can a single engine on an A320 provide wing anti ice for both wings in the air ?
65 views

### What is the standard for tachometer calibration / Hobb's equivalency?

I've heard that 1 tach hour = 1 Hobb's hour at maximum RPM. I've also heard that tach equivalency is at "cruise" RPM, although that seems vague. I believe I've also heard that the accuracy of ...
287 views

### What are these openings around the Comet's engine intakes?

What are all these openings surrounding the Comet 1's engine intakes... (Original image by Tony Hisgett at flickr, via Wikimedia Commons; modified by me) and what is this opening between the Comet 4'...
134 views

### Why do pilots typically start out in piston-engined aircraft, rather than jets or turboprops? [duplicate]

Essentially all pilots begin flying with propeller aircraft powered by piston engines, rather than in turboprops or light jets, even though: Operating a piston engine requires adjusting the mixture ...
187 views

### Why aren’t multiengine general-aviation aircraft required to be capable of sustained single-engine flight?

While perusing the See How it Flies website, I came across this alarming statement regarding multiengine general-aviation aircraft: You must not allow yourself to think that just because airliners ...
106 views

### Why don’t most aircraft have emergency braking parachutes? [duplicate]

Braking parachutes were standard on first-generation jetliners, but have since fallen almost entirely out of use except on military aircraft; essentially the only civilian aircraft nowadays to still ...
183 views

### How is vertical speed managed in Airliners? [duplicate]

When an Airplane starts to take off, the Horizontal velocity would generate it the necessary lift, and then Airplane pitches up to further increase the lift. As the Airplane is climbing up, the net ...
185 views

### Boeing 737-MAX Control System Design Flaw? [closed]

I’m concerned about Boeing aircraft safety design flaws because it is so disturbing to see so many lives lost in aircraft accidents. I’ve attempted to contact Boeing about this. But officially they ...
86 views

Most/all of the control towers in my area have radar displays, and I know from visits that it shows all the same things as in TRACON miles away--even aircraft on the ground. I hear them occasionally ...
33 views

### When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
33 views

### Can I convert an FAA medical certificate to a Canadian one without visiting an AME?

I currently hold a first class FAA medical certificate. Can I transfer to a Canadian medical certificate without meeting with a Canadian AME? (2) The applicant may obtain a TCCA Medical ...
654 views

### Why is this video of a G36 Bonanza taking off so scary?

Why is this video of a G36 Bonanza so 'scary'? If they had clipped the top of the trees, would it really have brought the plane down? (And even if yes, it looks pretty ...
46 views

### Difference between multi slats and three slats on B737 ? (leading edge devices)

What is the difference between multi slats and three slats on a B737 ?
147 views

### Are there differences between the runway lighting on a land runway and on an aircraft carrier?

How are the lights on aircraft carriers placed and are there differences to the color/position/number of lights at normal airports?
143 views

### Can a commercial pilot get paid by friend? [duplicate]

'm a little bit headache about charge issue with commercial pilot certificate .hope someone help me figure out. IF my friend approaches to me first and ask for a flight to somewhere using my airplane ...
102 views

### When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
81 views

### Is a mode C transponder required underneath Class C airspace?

FAR 91.215 states that a mode C transponder is required for... all aircraft in all airspace above the ceiling and within the lateral boundaries of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated ...
156 views

### What is “Defense Area” on a VFR Sectional Chart?

What is "Defense Area" on a VFR Sectional Chart? The words "DEFENSE AREA" (in all caps) appear all along the US/Mexico border in blue. It's the biggest text on the chart. Interestingly enough, the ...