# Questions tagged [wing]

For questions on an airplane's main wing

49 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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181 views

### How much do the V-22 Osprey's wings weigh?

I am trying to ascertain the weight of the V-22's entire wing assembly: right, left and center including both nacelles. But excluding the engines if possible.
108 views

### What is the appropriate airfoil config for Raked Wingtips?

I'm doing a research about wingtip devices and while I'm searching about raked wingtip, I've wondered what is the best airfoil configuration for it? Should it be the same as the whole wing? My study ...
815 views

### How much does a Boeing 737 wing bend/deflect in cruise conditions?

As a part of my ongoing research of a structural joint analysis of a Boeing 737, I have been looking for sources where I may be able to find the bending/deflection data during cruise conditions. I ...
231 views

### Why do some Caravelles have a full outboard wing fence, and some only a partial outboard fence?

The Caravelle has two wing fences on each wing, so as to limit the spanwise airflow (and associated tip-stall problems) that would otherwise occur due to its rearward-swept wings. On most Caravelles, ...
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126 views

### Trailing Edge with Cavity

Question 5: I have noticed from PAPER "NASA Supercritical Airfoils - Technical Paper 2969" that they mentioned something called "Cavity" merged with the trailing edge. Although ...
691 views

### Oswalds efficiency factor for trapezoidal wing

For a part of my university project we have to approximate 2d to 3d data ideally using oswalds efficiency factor, the equations given to us are for either rectangular or swept wings however the wing I ...
170 views

### Lifting-Line Theory - Numerical solution for a wing with dihedral angle

I'm trying to calculate lift for a wing with a dihedral angle using the Lifting-Line Theory. While using the thesis "Non-Planar Lifting-Line Theory for Fixed and Deformable Geometries" as a ...
231 views

### Wing and horizontal/vertical tailplane airfoil type and relative thickness?

I've been searching for data on the airfoil type (namely if they are supercritical, aft-loading etc.) and relative thickness (average or in different positions) of the empennage (both horizontal and ...
89 views

### Modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing

As a part of the engineering thesis I work on the methods of modeling of aerodynamic characteristics of wing. In it, I rise an issue related to the impact of changes of aircraft attitude during ...
76 views

### Why is hybrid laminar flow control preferred for swept wings over other options?

As I understand it, a (the?) major form of laminar-to-turbulent transition on the swept wings of large jets is the crossflow caused by the sweep. One way to control this is laminar flow control by ...
228 views

### How much performance penalty is incurred from a WW2-era folding wing mechanism?

I'm interested in WW2-era single-engine piston-prop monoplanes. I'm interested in the folding wing mechanisms from the perspective of performance, chiefly two things: How much extra weight does it ...
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1 vote
324 views

### What is the mathematical relationship between mass and speed for constant thrust in level fight?

Imagine that we have a wing with constant thrust in level flight. Then imagine that we add mass to that wing. In order to maintain level flight, I would expect that the angle of attack would need to ...
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31 views

### Determining optimum area of parafoil, and then drag

I am designing a parafoil recovery system for a small payload of 300x100x500mm (2.4kg). I have chosen an Aspect Ratio of 3, and from a NASA wind tunnel test report, the coefficient of lift and drag is ...
1 vote
291 views

### How can I calculate torsional stiffness of a wing when the dimensions of the cross section vary?

I am working on a project and we need to calculate the torsional stiffness of a wing in order to analyze flutter and divergence. However, the dimensions of the cross section vary along the semi-span, ...
1 vote
111 views

### What is the glide ratio of the Ozone Mojo Power 2?

The ozone mojo power 2 is a paramotor wing aimed towards beginners. I am interested in purchasing it, however I have not found any data on the lift to glide ratio. Does anybody know this info?
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145 views

### How much thrust can a balloon generate with wings?

I have heard that some balloons have been made with wings, angled such that they generate some forward thrust during the ascent. Balloons can also theoretically generate thrust with wings during a ...
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75 views

### Why are there no new major aircraft in ICAO Aerodrome catagory D?

So the 757, 767, A300 and A310 all were in ICAO cat D (mainly restricted by a wingspan between 36-less than 52m). Now though all these aircraft are discontinued, and there is no new designs looking to ...
1 vote
52 views

### How to calculate the the variation of Cl wrt the angle of defection of the elevator?

I've checked the lift requirements of the aircraft and selected an optimal airfoil and designed a wing with dimensions of MAC 47cm and semi-span of 163.2 cm and a airfoil S1223. The horizontal ...
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98 views

### Could an aircraft have squashable wings that get thicker as it flies faster?

As I understand, for high speed subsonic flight a thicker wing is more aerodynamic, and at low speed, a thin wing is preferable. Could aircraft which range in speed from 180 to 620 knots (most ...
1 vote
184 views

### How do I reinforce a tubular spar that has been drilled vertically for an attachment bolt?

Previously posted a question about lift strut attachment to tubular wing spar with a bolt vertically through the spars. See drawing below. I tried using Bruhn's analysis book to formulate a a ...
1 vote
61 views

### What is the effect of wing flex on wing's airfoil shape and its performance effect on wing?

There are good amount of discussion on wing flex in this forum. I am more interested in understanding the effect of flex on aerofoil shape of the wing and its impact on flight performance. Do ...
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2k views

### What is effective airflow?

As I understood, when the relative airflow meets the wing it changes, and the resulting flow is called effective airflow?
1 vote
138 views

### What replacement wings are available for old F-16s?

Eventually, material fatigue will force any aircraft to either be grounded or have its wings rebuilt, or replaced. And please, correct me if I'm wrong. For the F-16, if one were to replace its wings, ...
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50 views

### Is some sweep beneficial with taper?

I'm developing a canard glider which requires some taper for the canard to stall first. I understand that sweep is typically only for aircraft in a compressible airflow (M >= 0.3), but is there any ...
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252 views

### What are the effective span and lifting properties of a circular wing?

Today I read an article on FlightGlobal about the Bell air taxi demonstrator. It includes some paraphrased quotes from the Bell VP of innovation, Scott Drennan, among which the following stood out: ...
1 vote
435 views

### How can Schrenk approximation be used to model lift load on a rectangular wing?

How can I use Schrenk approximation to calculate load distribution on my rectangular wing? A worked example will be appreciated.
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2k views

### How to calculate the shear force, and the bending and torsion moments on a wing?

I want to calculate the loads (shear force, bending and torsion moments). Assuming I have the force distribution along all the surfaces of the aircraft, my starting point is to consider the wing (and ...
1 vote
114 views

### What does "lower flatness" mean in airfoil terminology?

What does lower flatness mean in these parameters of a Glenn Martin airfoil?
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321 views

### Are there any lift or lift coefficient equations which factor in the flap deflection angle?

I'm asking this because I tested a NACA 2412 wing with an adjustable flap in a subsonic wind tunnel and I'm getting the lowest Cl values for the highest flap deflection angle.. which to my knowledge ...
12 views

### How do I choose Cl during cruise flight with a given MTOM and variable S?

Currently I'm challenging myself to build an airplane from scratch. I have a background in aeronautical engineering but I have no experience in actually designing an aircraft from the ground up. (FYI: ...
70 views

### What is Effective Wingspan?

what is Effective wingspan and why it is said ground effect increase "effective wingspan" of an aircraft? Why would vortex affected by surface result in an increase of "effective ...
94 views

### Has a supersonic airplane with a truss-braced wing been studied/developed?

The X-66 truss braced jet is to be transonic. But have any published studies or development programs been done for a supersonic equivalent? Seems like someone considered it, given that it allows ...
156 views

### Why does the F/A-18 use external aileron and flap hinges?

As seen in the picture, the legacy Hornet uses ailerons and flaps with external hinges, and I was wondering what were the advantages of external hinges compared to flush hinges in the land-based ...
92 views

### Incidence angle in Sailplane

I am determining the shape of the fuselage of a sailplane and I found something that gives me a little conflict, and that is that in most sailplanes it has an inclined tip, I read that this helps ...
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### Is there an equation to solve for bank angle using load factor and wing loading as variables? If so, what is it?

The problem is that I'm looking for both wing loading and load factor as variables to solve for bank angle and cannot find any equation that represents this. After searching various websites and not ...
69 views

### How to approximate the drag for rectangular vertical flat panel placed along the wind and inclined?

So on the top is the view from the top, below it is the side view. If the angle is zero it is similar to simple flat airfoil. So I calculated the Cl and Cd in xfoil and got the Cl = 0 and Cd = 0.02398 ...
246 views

### What were other possible solutions proposed to solve the problem of clean weapons separation for the F-18 Super Hornet?

I'm curious as to what other solutions were considered besides canting the pylons.
222 views

### F1A COMPETITION GLIDER

I am working on a school project. I have looked up the airfoil database. There is a wide range of airfoils I have tried to optimize for my glider to no avail. How do i choose the best airfoil for a ...
123 views

### How would I draw the Max Thickness Sweep Angle on a wing from a Top View?

I have the Max Thickness Sweep Angle, Wing Tip and Root Chord Length, and Max Thickness to Chord Ratio defined. However, I am having trouble drawing the Max Thickness Sweep Angle on the wing because I'...
91 views

### What is the effect of aspect ratio on cruise velocity?

Does the Aspect ratio affect the Maximum cruise velocity please? I was thinking it wouldn’t as Aspect ratio= b^2/S. If I wanted to go quicker I could just increase my span and decrease S?
90 views

### What characteristic my canard needs to have when the canard also carries a pair of engine?

I am in 3rd year Aerospace Engineering and trying to do a preliminary design of an airplane. My design has a front wing that also has an engine at its root on both side of the fuselage. There is ...
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### Aircraft wing stress design for 4 engine aircraft

Can anyone tell me how aircraft wings are designed for mounting the engines. My area of self study is a typical engine on the A380 weighs 8000kgs and it’s weight is forward of the wing. As the wing ...
68 views

### How to correct dynamic stability of UAV fuselages?

I was trying to design a fuselage model of UAV with considering lift coefficient (CL), after this I analyzed stability of both wing on fuselage. First I did the individual analysis for wing and ...
319 views

### How can a designer deal with a strict requirement when designing an aircraft?

I'm working on designing an aircraft with some specific requirements (Vstall, Vmax, Ceiling, Payload, Range, RoC, Slanding/takeoff etc). I'm following Anderson's and Raymer's ways (trying to find the ...
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### Calculating Lift of a closed-wing drone

A group of students and I are designing a theoretical closed-wing drone and need to calculate lift based on the NASA lift equation. We've designed fixed-wing aircraft before and when it came to ...
293 views

### What are the effects of endplate on airfoil section?

A 3D wing cannot achieve the same high lift/drag ratio (more than a hundred sometimes) displayed by a 2D profile (airfoil section). This is due to 3D effects like spanwise flow, wingtip losses(...
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### Component of net fluid force (lift + drag) along a 2D wing's chord cannot cause a torque,

I've been struggling a bit to find a satisfying explanation for why the component of net fluid force along a 2D wing's chord cannot cause a torque. At the moment (no pun intended), I'm only ...