Questions tagged [wing]

For questions on an airplane's main wing

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12 views

How do I choose Cl during cruise flight with a given MTOM and variable S?

Currently I'm challenging myself to build an airplane from scratch. I have a background in aeronautical engineering but I have no experience in actually designing an aircraft from the ground up. (FYI: ...
0 votes
2 answers
402 views

Is an airfoil's critical angle of attack measured using "geometric angle of attack" or "effective angle of attack?"

One of the first things we learn about stalls is that they occur when a wing exceeds a certain critical angle of attack, which depends on the specific design of the wing. But if a given wing has a ...
0 votes
3 answers
57 views

Lift distribution of a swept wing with twist, dihedral, taper

I am trying to get the lift distribution of a swept wing with taper (in chord and thickness along the span), twist, and dihedral. I know that Kuchemann Index method is used for swept wings but I am ...
67 votes
12 answers
50k views

How do wings generate lift?

Just the basic question that every aviation enthusiast must be curious about: exactly how does a wing generate lift?
1 vote
1 answer
291 views

How can I calculate torsional stiffness of a wing when the dimensions of the cross section vary?

I am working on a project and we need to calculate the torsional stiffness of a wing in order to analyze flutter and divergence. However, the dimensions of the cross section vary along the semi-span, ...
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

What is Effective Wingspan?

what is Effective wingspan and why it is said ground effect increase "effective wingspan" of an aircraft? Why would vortex affected by surface result in an increase of "effective ...
4 votes
2 answers
758 views

What justifies a biplane over a braced monoplane?

Biplanes became the first airplanes to enter service due to their structurally efficient design being more suitable for the weak materials then. This efficiency comes from the two wings acting as the ...
2 votes
2 answers
4k views

Does an elliptical wing planform have an elliptical lift distribution, and is that the most efficient shape?

I know that there are similar topics already here, but after reading them I still do not understand everything. From what I know an elliptical lift distribution gives the least amount of induced drag. ...
4 votes
2 answers
690 views

Airliner sharp wing tip vs elleptical [duplicate]

Now that most airliner manufacturers are using composite materials for wings, making compound curves is much easier to produce, why aren't we seeing elliptical wings, outer panels or wing tips? ...
0 votes
0 answers
94 views

Has a supersonic airplane with a truss-braced wing been studied/developed?

The X-66 truss braced jet is to be transonic. But have any published studies or development programs been done for a supersonic equivalent? Seems like someone considered it, given that it allows ...
23 votes
2 answers
5k views

Have any operational aircraft ever used over wing fuel tanks?

We are most familiar with under wing fuel tanks, has any operational aircraft ever used over wing fuel tanks?
1 vote
1 answer
103 views

Drag breakdown of a typical civil airplane wing

How much of the drag produced by a typical GA/airliner/cargo plane's wing at cruise is induced, frictional, and pressure drag?
4 votes
1 answer
916 views

Does a deflecting control surface change the wing area?

It might seem like a silly question, but bear with me. I am using the standard formula to calculate the lift force of a wing. L = (1/2) d v2 s CL My question related to the s part of the formula. ...
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is the clamshell on the AN-72 what causes the Coanda effect?

The AN-72 uses the Coandă effect to improve lift and give it better STOL features. In this image of an AN-72 (presumably on a takeoff roll) one can see a clam-shell bucket open at the top of the ...
1 vote
1 answer
73 views

Spanwise lift distribution units

I was recently reading NASA/Boeing’s report on the Transonic Truss Braced Wing (the SUGAR IV final report), and noticed that when they graph the spanload for the design they graph lift coefficient ...
1 vote
3 answers
324 views

What is the mathematical relationship between mass and speed for constant thrust in level fight?

Imagine that we have a wing with constant thrust in level flight. Then imagine that we add mass to that wing. In order to maintain level flight, I would expect that the angle of attack would need to ...
2 votes
1 answer
691 views

Oswalds efficiency factor for trapezoidal wing

For a part of my university project we have to approximate 2d to 3d data ideally using oswalds efficiency factor, the equations given to us are for either rectangular or swept wings however the wing I ...
34 votes
5 answers
59k views

What are the advantages of a forward-swept wing over a rearward-swept wing?

What are the advantages of a forward-swept wing vs. a rearward swept one? Image credit: NASA Image credit: Paul Maritz / Wikimedia
0 votes
1 answer
112 views

what are the compression forces in a strut if the strut is fixed

i am trying to match an experiment i have done and i dont know how to compute the force in the strut in terms of F given these boundary conditions. i have attempted to use fixed end moment equations ...
4 votes
2 answers
832 views

Swept outer section of the wing on turboprops

It's quite common to see turboprops having a wing with the outer part of the wing with a small sweep (around 3 deg at 1/4 of the chord). What's the reason? It's usually stated that wing taper is used ...
11 votes
5 answers
2k views

Why do wall-to-wall airfoils in wind tunnels produce no (or infinitesimal) downwash?

There are several induced drag explanations out there saying that tip/wake vortices “come from” downwash and downwash “comes from” lift. I’m using quotes because the concept is that there are no cause ...
1 vote
1 answer
125 views

How do I get rid of this chord line along the x-axis when importing an airfoil into XFLR5?

Whenever I try to import an airfoil into XFLR5, I always notice the chord centerline along the x-axis as you can see in the picture. Is there a way to somehow get rid of this line? I'd be thankful for ...
0 votes
1 answer
50 views

Are there any sources that contain information on the airfoils of the Boeing 737-500 and 737NG Aircraft?

I have found some information about this on airfoiltools.com (http://airfoiltools.com/airfoil/details?airfoil=b737a-il) but it doesn't specify the exact version of the aircraft, as the generations ...
0 votes
0 answers
156 views

Why does the F/A-18 use external aileron and flap hinges?

As seen in the picture, the legacy Hornet uses ailerons and flaps with external hinges, and I was wondering what were the advantages of external hinges compared to flush hinges in the land-based ...
2 votes
2 answers
477 views

Different Engine/Prop Sizes on Same Wing/Single Craft?

On a four propeller/engine wing, I’m wondering if theoretically at least, you could have a larger engine near the root of the wing with smaller engine(s) further out on the span..?.. If you could have ...
0 votes
0 answers
92 views

Incidence angle in Sailplane

I am determining the shape of the fuselage of a sailplane and I found something that gives me a little conflict, and that is that in most sailplanes it has an inclined tip, I read that this helps ...
2 votes
4 answers
260 views

Moving from 2D wing to 3D wing design

In terms of the design perspective of an Aircraft, once we decide on the airfoil that would be used for the wing, how would an Aerodynamics Engineer (or you) proceed to construct the wing? The ...
0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Is there an equation to solve for bank angle using load factor and wing loading as variables? If so, what is it?

The problem is that I'm looking for both wing loading and load factor as variables to solve for bank angle and cannot find any equation that represents this. After searching various websites and not ...
3 votes
1 answer
166 views

Effect of wing flexible in stall

How true is it that the deflection (due to large aspect ratio, flexible wing ) of a wing has a certain effect on the stall characteristics? I read about this in the case of large wingspan gliders. ...
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

Pitching moment due to control surface deflection

How can you predict the change in lift and pitching moment produced by control surface at a certain deflection angle? I am aware that the effectiveness of the control surface is affected by ...
3 votes
1 answer
338 views

How do coefficient of lift/drag variation with speed differs between swept and unswept wings?

Trying to understand the coefficient of lift/drag of swept and unswept wings as speed increases. Some example questions and statements- A swept wing will have a lower max Cl at subsonic and ...
2 votes
1 answer
413 views

How is the wing area of an airplane determined?

Picture source is from here. Here are wing areas of several airplanes. As we can see the Spitfire, B747-400, and Mirage 2000, their wing area are not rectangular. The line drawn from left side to the ...
3 votes
3 answers
7k views

What is the wing span in aspect ratio's calculation?

We all know that the aspect ratio of an airplane is calculate as: $$AR=\frac{b^2}{S}$$ Where: $AR=$ Aspect ratio $b=$ Wingspan $S=$ Wing's area In an airplane, wing span is the distance from tip to ...
1 vote
1 answer
509 views

How to determine the size and placement distance of vertical and horizontal stabilisers given the size of my wing? (it's a foamular250 glider)

If the wing has a Chord of 150 mm and a span of 800 mm, what about the distance to the tail? anf the size of horizontal and vertical stabilizer?
17 votes
4 answers
4k views

How would an Inverted Delta Wing planform behave, Straight part forward? Are there wings shaped this way?

There is info about straight edge wings, swept back wings, swept forward wings, delta wings. Is there also info about a Delta wing with a straight leading edge and a tapered trailing edge, the point ...
2 votes
2 answers
337 views

How is a turboprop engine mounted to the wing?

For a given turboprop plane such as the ATR-72, there doesn't seem to be a pylon as on turbofan driven planes. This question: How are engines mounted onto wings? has answers that detail how a pylon is ...
10 votes
1 answer
4k views

Do airliners stall first at the wing tip?

One of the disadvantages of the sweepback aircraft is the tendency of a stall to occur at the wingtip first. Various high lift devices are added by design to the wings of the sweepback aircraft like ...
1 vote
1 answer
292 views

What are some of the advantages of inverse-tapered wings?

Inverse tapered wings are rarely used in aviation. The only legitimate plane I know about with inverse-tapered wings is the XF-91 Thunderceptor. So why aren't they used. What are the disadvantages of ...
2 votes
2 answers
167 views

Any instances of circular wings in full scale gliders/airplanes?

As a kid building from The Great International Paper Airplane Book I was intrigued by the very unconventional plane seen near the bottom of this page with the two circular wings connected by a rigid ...
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

What’s the purpose of the small “hole” in front of wing root on A320-214?

Someone knows what’s the purpose of this little “hole”?
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

What is the material of the wing spar on the Mitsubishi MU-2?

I read that the spar on Twin Commanders are made of steel. Is this also the case for the MU-2?
5 votes
2 answers
608 views

How do I find the shear center of an unsymmetrical airfoil?

I'm quite a newbie of these systems and I am designing the wing box of a drone. I know where I want my shear centre. However, I have been trying to determine the shear centre of my idealized airfoil. ...
1 vote
3 answers
210 views

What is a wing theory?

I have an assignment to summarize the topic "wing theory", with the preferred reference used is the book Fundamentals of Aerodynamics by John D. Anderson. But there's no dedicated chapter ...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why does the trailing edge have a more pronounced taper than the leading edge on the Cessna 172?

Why does the Cessna 172 have a more pronounced taper on the trailing edge as opposed to the leading edge?
10 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why is this screw on the wing of DASH-8 Q400 sticking out, is it safe?

Was flying with the Dash-8 Q400 and saw the screw sticking out? It's on the wing near the wheel compartment as shown in the picture. Even if safe, it doesn't look pleasant to the passenger. Are loose ...
19 votes
5 answers
6k views

What control inputs to make if a wing falls off?

If a wing is severed due to structural damage or from a mid-air collision, what is the best control input to make? I would think opposite aileron and rudder, i.e. if right wing falls off, input full ...
23 votes
2 answers
83k views

What are the different wing planforms? What are each's advantages? Where are they commonly used?

I remember reading that there are four common wing planforms: Rectangular Eliptical Tapered Sweptback I'm sure there are more. What are the different types of planform out there? Each must have its ...
0 votes
1 answer
163 views

How to calculate boundary layer thickness?

So I have a flat plate with a surface of 7sqm and an aspect ratio of 12 with air blowing straight at it (like a wing) at a speed of 50km/h. I would like to manually calculate the thickness of the ...
14 votes
4 answers
3k views

What are these pipelines for between the folding wing mechanism of F4 Phantom II FGR2 and Buccaneer?

The top picture is from Buccaneer and rest are from F4 FGR2. There's not any sealing mechanism between the joints, so these can’t be fuel or hydraulic related. They might have something to do with the ...
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Determining optimum area of parafoil, and then drag

I am designing a parafoil recovery system for a small payload of 300x100x500mm (2.4kg). I have chosen an Aspect Ratio of 3, and from a NASA wind tunnel test report, the coefficient of lift and drag is ...

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