Questions tagged [wind]

The flow of air with respect to the ground. This will affect the performance and handling of aircraft and can be a limiting factor.

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1answer
61 views

How are shear winds studied experimentally?

I've played extensively with wind shear Math models, but I wonder how the aerospace researchers study it experimentally: Do they generate shear flows in a water tunnel? Or do they use a wind tunnel? ...
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Why is it safe flying in a tailwind when taking off is not? [duplicate]

If taking off in q tailwind is unsafe (due to loss of lift from reduced air speed), then why is it safe flying in tailwind, such as in jet stream?
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What is the red barb for in the NOAA weather briefing?

Wind barbs are well-defined symbols, but I noticed in my WX briefing that there are now occasional red barbs in the chart. The red appears on both the 5kt and 10kt barbs, and sometimes for largest ...
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6answers
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How does it feel like to be outside a flying airplane?

Riding a motorcycle on a freeway at over 200 kph you surely feel the rush of air around you. A typical commercial jet airliner travels at approximately 3-5 times that speed at cruise altitude. ...
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272 views

Can a slow small plane, flying at a few meters above the ground, drop to the ground if the headwind abruptly stops? [duplicate]

Why do I ask this question? Because Wilbur Wright sent a letter to Georges Spratt (an aviation enthusiast he personally knew) saying that his plane, Flyer II, once in flight, accelerated easily to 45 ...
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Can I derive the wind speed and direction? [duplicate]

If I know the IAS and GS (with directional components) of an aircraft, can I derive the wind speed and direction? I'm working on an application that simulates the flight of an aircraft. Another ...
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1answer
228 views

What surface materials do airplanes use to reduce friction?

Full swimming body suits were banned from Olympic Games a few years ago because some materials have less friction than skin and contestants that could not afford gear to increase their performance ...
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189 views

How should I attach an aircraft model in a wind tunnel when testing wind gust/yaw stability?

Where should I attach the rod to the aircraft model when simulating wind gust /weather vane effect in wind tunnel testing? At the center of gravity, behind the CG, in front of the CG...?
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161 views

What would be the challenges for a pilot taking off into a headwind of just under the clean stall speed?

If a strong and fairly steady headwind was coming down the runway at just under the stall speed for a clean configuration/weight, what challenges would a pilot face? Or would it be fairly easy? Is ...
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1answer
103 views

Does a VNAV PTH descent need the Forecast Descent winds?

If VNAV PTH, contrary to VNAV SPD, maintains a given path angle, depending on the CI chosen, and not a given Speed, then in my mind winds shouldn't affect it, since they would only cause the Vertical ...
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1answer
90 views

Can short buildings near an airport affect runway winds?

Reddit user u/ywgflyer contends for CYYZ, Toronto International Airport, 23 is the "good" runway. The 24s are garbage in a crosswind because of the localized wind effect that all the hotels ...
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4answers
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How can I estimate wind speed and direction in VFR?

I am new here, I started to do VFR navigation (no G1000) so I try to deal with the wind. I notice that I have some problems to find the wind speed and direction during flight. I am going to try to ...
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5answers
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Can airliners land with auto pilot in gusty wind conditions?

Why does the pilot make so many movements? I don't see that plane is moving all that much, but his yoke movements are strong and fast. For someone who is not a pilot, it almost looks like panicked ...
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75 views

How do I calculate the wind angle relative to the aircraft's heading? [duplicate]

If I want to calculate the wind angle relative to the aicraft's heading, I use TAS and not IAS, right? I want to calculate the relative wind angle to the aircraft. I have this information to work with:...
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2answers
111 views

What degree is crosswind? [closed]

I know that there are three type of wind, headwind, tailwind and crosswind. What degree of wind direction can distinguish it? 30 or 45 degree?
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1.VRB02KT: Is it varying more or less than 180°? 2.VRB03KT: Is it surely varying more than 180°? [duplicate]

Based on the following ICAO Annex 3 criteria for the use of the abbreviation VRB (not FAA, which is different and evident): when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind ...
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4answers
219 views

What determines the maximum ground speed of hot air balloons?

I am wondering how the ground speed of hot air balloons is controlled. The wind is obviously going to have a large influence upon the ground speed, but apart from wind effects, do hot air balloons ...
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4answers
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What is the difference between nautical air miles and nautical ground miles?

What is a simple way to understand the difference between the nautical air mile (NAM) and the nautical ground mile (NGM)? How does the wind affect the net displacement of the aircraft as that is the ...
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781 views

Can the “G” and “VRB” wind conditions be combined in METARs?

I have never seen the "VRB" (for wind direction variations < 60°; e.g. VRB12003KT) and "G" annotation (for gusts > 10KT wind speed difference; e.g. 12003GT30KT) being combined in a METAR. Until ...
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What design characteristics influence helicopter wind gust spread tolerance during takeoff and landing

Not considering pilot reaction time, what factors influence a helicopter's ability to survive high wind gust spreads (from any direction) during takeoff and landing? I have considered: Swash plate ...
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1answer
84 views

Is it possible to determine if winds were high without groundspeed, wind speed, AoA or AoS?

I have a data set that includes TAS, IAS, GPS Lat/Lon, Inertial Lat/Lon, ENU speed, inertial speeds, attitude, and accelerations. I don't need to know the exact wind speed, and I don't think that's ...
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199 views

Are bigger and / or heavier aircraft more resistant to crosswind compared to smaller / lighter aircraft?

When watching heavy crosswind video compilations, I noticed heavy aircraft like the A380 an B747 have a more stable approach compared to the B737 or A320 where the plane banks left and right on ...
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Could we make a Hybrid Plane, But not use batteries?

What if we had wind turbines on planes. These would not power a battery but would instead power a smaller engine. Perhaps once a pilot goes to the cruising level he could activate the wind turbines to ...
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How changes in Air masses, Air flow direction and intensity affect lift?

I have a question regarding the airflow an aircraft experiences during 3 distinct scenarios: An aircraft during landing, experiencing a sudden gust of 40 knots from the tail. What would be the ...
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4answers
404 views

Why do gusts change the airspeed during landing, but turning (which changes where the wind is coming from) does not?

As we know it, aircraft are extremely sensitive to gust during its final landing stage. They can lose airspeed if the wind changes to tail, ad thus loose lift or need to adjust their thrust in order o ...
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457 views

Why do eastbound transpacific flights fly at lower latitudes than their westbound counterparts?

I’ve seen some routes for flights from Asia (mainly Hong Kong and Shanghai) to the west coast of North America, which fly at lower latitudes than flights in the other direction (which they fly closer ...
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1answer
2k views

Does the coriolis force have an effect on the direction in which an aircraft travels?

Suppose an aircraft is flying from Kenya (which lies on the equator) to UK (which lies in the northern hemisphere). Does the Coriolis force veer the aircraft to the right? Do pilots have to correct ...
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133 views

How does gust affect a swept wing

I have a basic question that I cannot seem to find a solid answer for: How does a gust affect a swept wing?
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Is any device installed on airplane to measure wind speed relative to the ground, and its direction?

A device or tool which can measure actual wind speed to the ground rather than to the airplane. Also a device which detect the wind direction to the plane. The device I meant is something like this ...
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2answers
193 views

What should a pilot do when facing a sudden tail, cross, or head wind?

Consider a pilot is flying a conventional fixed wing airplane with a ground speed of 60km/h with no wind. Then suddenly the wind starts blowing at 20km/h in either of the following directions: from ...
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1answer
288 views

Does lift coefficient for maximum range change for a glider experiencing headwind?

When a glider or unpropelled aircraft experiences headwind, I understand that the flight velocity and sink velocity for the "new" maximum possible range both increase (see velocity polar from How does ...
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3answers
353 views

What is the best option when the headwind exceeds the maximum airspeed?

In a previous question, Mongo described flying his Cessna with a negative ground speed in a head wind. In this situation, what is the correct thing for a pilot to do, if there is nowhere to land ...
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1answer
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What is wind “CALM”?

What is the exact criteria for wind speed to be considered "CALM". Different countries might have different values and i do not mind getting answers from those. But an answer from an ICAO annex would ...
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11answers
14k views

Is it possible to fly backward if you have really strong headwind?

Is it possible to fly a plane backwards if you have a really really strong headwind? I mean when you are aloft, you have positive airspeed and airflow over the wings but you have negative ground speed....
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1answer
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What does “still air” mean when planning alternative airports?

When planning for a takeoff alternate, according to 14 CFR 121.617 (1) Aircraft having 2 engines. Not more than one hour from the departure airport at normal cruising speed in still air with one ...
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1answer
69 views

Identify a change in Altitude based on direction and WCA applied?

Question below is from study material for the EASA PPL license MET course. It's an unlikely question but it's interesting to review. You are flying from west to east with WCA +6°. How is your true ...
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802 views

Landing in very high winds

A few weeks ago, a storm passed through my area with winds reported at 55kt and gusting to 68kt. Many light planes managed to break their tie-down ropes and were flung around the ramp area, which isn'...
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What is the cause of this roll oscillation during BA492 go-around? [closed]

Earlier today, BA492 aborted a landing at Gibraltar due to a strong tailwind, according to this article. Videos of the go-around show the Airbus A320 undergoing pronounced oscillation in the roll axis:...
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1answer
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How can I calculate which runway to use for landing, based on the wind? [duplicate]

I have a project where the user enters the name of the airport. We fetch the wind direction (degrees) for that airport. Then we use the wind direction and the data about the runways at that airport to ...
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1answer
291 views

Wind vs high altitude cruise [duplicate]

Yesterday I flew back from Tokyo down south against great head wind around 150kt at 34000’, the original flight plan was to cruise at FL240 for a while then climb up, but the captain decided to get up ...
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3answers
172 views

How is the effect of wind on arrival time handled?

If a commercial plane encounters strong tailwinds, would the pilots set the autopilot for a fixed arrival time (if that is possible), or would it be ok to arrive way ahead of schedule? I imagine ...
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2answers
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How do engines cope with various intake airflow speeds?

On a recent trip out of Washington Dulles to San Francisco, our B777 met with 200+ mph headwinds (as per the passenger entertainment system) at 35,000 ft for the first half of the route, before ...
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How does wind affect takeoff weight limits?

Two days ago I took off from BUR in relatively windy (although dry) conditions. Flightradar showed departure from runway 33, and winds were recorded roughly mid 20s kts from the N-NNE direction. ...
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4answers
322 views

Are winds that are not from the prevailing wind direction more often gusty, and why?

It seems to me that, looking at the ground weather forecasts (as opposed to, say, low level forecasts), it's far more common for the wind to be predicted to be significantly gusty when it is blowing ...
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1answer
550 views

Is extreme wind shear an official classification? Is it rare to land in 65kts headwind, gusting 95kts?

I was a passenger in an A340 during a famous storm 65kts gusting 95kts. Resulted in a go around, but the plane sunk quite fast several times. Is this rare? Are there limits to headwind component? The ...
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2answers
643 views

How do I calculate the required heading for an aircraft carrier with an angled deck to sail into the wind?

The natural wind is from 360 degrees at 10 knots. The desired relative wind down the angled deck is 10 degrees left of the ship’s heading at 30 knots. What heading and speed must the carrier go?
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2answers
223 views

Is drag higher when flying in a crosswind?

Is this true that during a flight with a crosswind the drag increases due to the fact that the relative wind blows at a certain angle to the aircraft's nose but not precisely in the opposite direction ...
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1answer
119 views

With wind, what will a perfectly circular flight path relative to the surrounding air look like from the ground? [duplicate]

Let's suppose that an airplane flying at a uniform airspeed follows a perfect, level, closed circular trajectory with respect to the mass of air. Now, seen from the ground, and in the presence of a ...
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4answers
219 views

Does the headwind component change noticeably when transitioning from a crab to a slip on short final?

I don't know if I'm overthinking this, but it has been causing a bit of confusion in my head. Knowing that the headwind component affects the angle of climb/descent, I was wondering how it affects ...
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8answers
31k views

How safe is the Boeing 737-800 in high winds?

I'm not good with flying. However, on Wednesday morning I'm flying from Gatwick to Bergen, Norway, traveling alone with two young children. I'm trying desperately to not show my kids how afraid I am ...