Questions tagged [wind]

The flow of air with respect to the ground. This will affect the performance and handling of aircraft and can be a limiting factor.

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0answers
37 views

How are shear winds studied experimentally?

I've played extensively with wind shear Math models, but I wonder how the aerospace researchers study it experimentally: Do they generate shear flows in a water tunnel? Or do they use a wind tunnel? ...
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Why is it safe flying in a tailwind when taking off is not? [duplicate]

If taking off in q tailwind is unsafe (due to loss of lift from reduced air speed), then why is it safe flying in tailwind, such as in jet stream?
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How do I keep coordinated on a windy day?

I've noticed on windy days that keeping the aircraft coordinated can be difficult -- the ball will tend to bounce back and forth in the turn coordinator, and I will find myself "chasing" it with the ...
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What is the red barb for in the NOAA weather briefing?

Wind barbs are well-defined symbols, but I noticed in my WX briefing that there are now occasional red barbs in the chart. The red appears on both the 5kt and 10kt barbs, and sometimes for largest ...
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6answers
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How does it feel like to be outside a flying airplane?

Riding a motorcycle on a freeway at over 200 kph you surely feel the rush of air around you. A typical commercial jet airliner travels at approximately 3-5 times that speed at cruise altitude. ...
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What is the maximum wind speed a Boeing 737-800 can deal with during takeoff and landing?

I'd like to know how safe the Boeing 737-800 is during takeoff and landing when it's windy. What are the maximum wind speeds for cases of tail, head and cross winds? EDIT I've found this resource ...
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272 views

Can a slow small plane, flying at a few meters above the ground, drop to the ground if the headwind abruptly stops? [duplicate]

Why do I ask this question? Because Wilbur Wright sent a letter to Georges Spratt (an aviation enthusiast he personally knew) saying that his plane, Flyer II, once in flight, accelerated easily to 45 ...
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Does a sudden drop of the velocity of the headwind affect the airspeed by lowering it?

I had a discussion about air speeds with one of my instructors recently. He is claiming that there is a sudden drop in the wind velocity as you get closer to the ground (which is absolutely true, due ...
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Can I derive the wind speed and direction? [duplicate]

If I know the IAS and GS (with directional components) of an aircraft, can I derive the wind speed and direction? I'm working on an application that simulates the flight of an aircraft. Another ...
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471 views

I need to know how to calculate drift with a Jeppessen CR-3. Can someone help?

In my exams we are not allowed to use E-6B, just a CR-3 jeppessen flight computer and I'm having serious issues calculating W/V from other parameters like TAS/GS and HDG/TRACK. Example: Q : Given: ...
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228 views

What surface materials do airplanes use to reduce friction?

Full swimming body suits were banned from Olympic Games a few years ago because some materials have less friction than skin and contestants that could not afford gear to increase their performance ...
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How is the wind direction and wind speed measured in flight?

Most large aircraft have a wind direction and wind speed indicator. How is this measured? The vector difference between TAS and ground speed? How accurate is this? In the below picture (taken from ...
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2answers
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How should I attach an aircraft model in a wind tunnel when testing wind gust/yaw stability?

Where should I attach the rod to the aircraft model when simulating wind gust /weather vane effect in wind tunnel testing? At the center of gravity, behind the CG, in front of the CG...?
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1answer
4k views

How to calculate W/V from true HDG/TRK/GS using a CRP-5 flight computer?

I am currently studying for my EASA ATPL (airline transport pilot license) and one of my subjects is General Navigation. I have stumbled across this question (picture) that has completely stumped me, ...
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161 views

What would be the challenges for a pilot taking off into a headwind of just under the clean stall speed?

If a strong and fairly steady headwind was coming down the runway at just under the stall speed for a clean configuration/weight, what challenges would a pilot face? Or would it be fairly easy? Is ...
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How changes in Air masses, Air flow direction and intensity affect lift?

I have a question regarding the airflow an aircraft experiences during 3 distinct scenarios: An aircraft during landing, experiencing a sudden gust of 40 knots from the tail. What would be the ...
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4answers
219 views

What determines the maximum ground speed of hot air balloons?

I am wondering how the ground speed of hot air balloons is controlled. The wind is obviously going to have a large influence upon the ground speed, but apart from wind effects, do hot air balloons ...
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1answer
103 views

Does a VNAV PTH descent need the Forecast Descent winds?

If VNAV PTH, contrary to VNAV SPD, maintains a given path angle, depending on the CI chosen, and not a given Speed, then in my mind winds shouldn't affect it, since they would only cause the Vertical ...
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1answer
90 views

Can short buildings near an airport affect runway winds?

Reddit user u/ywgflyer contends for CYYZ, Toronto International Airport, 23 is the "good" runway. The 24s are garbage in a crosswind because of the localized wind effect that all the hotels ...
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How can I estimate wind speed and direction in VFR?

I am new here, I started to do VFR navigation (no G1000) so I try to deal with the wind. I notice that I have some problems to find the wind speed and direction during flight. I am going to try to ...
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5answers
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Can airliners land with auto pilot in gusty wind conditions?

Why does the pilot make so many movements? I don't see that plane is moving all that much, but his yoke movements are strong and fast. For someone who is not a pilot, it almost looks like panicked ...
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How do I calculate the wind angle relative to the aircraft's heading? [duplicate]

If I want to calculate the wind angle relative to the aicraft's heading, I use TAS and not IAS, right? I want to calculate the relative wind angle to the aircraft. I have this information to work with:...
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Is it possible to fly backward if you have really strong headwind?

Is it possible to fly a plane backwards if you have a really really strong headwind? I mean when you are aloft, you have positive airspeed and airflow over the wings but you have negative ground speed....
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111 views

What degree is crosswind? [closed]

I know that there are three type of wind, headwind, tailwind and crosswind. What degree of wind direction can distinguish it? 30 or 45 degree?
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1.VRB02KT: Is it varying more or less than 180°? 2.VRB03KT: Is it surely varying more than 180°? [duplicate]

Based on the following ICAO Annex 3 criteria for the use of the abbreviation VRB (not FAA, which is different and evident): when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind ...
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What is the difference between nautical air miles and nautical ground miles?

What is a simple way to understand the difference between the nautical air mile (NAM) and the nautical ground mile (NGM)? How does the wind affect the net displacement of the aircraft as that is the ...
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Can the “G” and “VRB” wind conditions be combined in METARs?

I have never seen the "VRB" (for wind direction variations < 60°; e.g. VRB12003KT) and "G" annotation (for gusts > 10KT wind speed difference; e.g. 12003GT30KT) being combined in a METAR. Until ...
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What design characteristics influence helicopter wind gust spread tolerance during takeoff and landing

Not considering pilot reaction time, what factors influence a helicopter's ability to survive high wind gust spreads (from any direction) during takeoff and landing? I have considered: Swash plate ...
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1answer
550 views

Is extreme wind shear an official classification? Is it rare to land in 65kts headwind, gusting 95kts?

I was a passenger in an A340 during a famous storm 65kts gusting 95kts. Resulted in a go around, but the plane sunk quite fast several times. Is this rare? Are there limits to headwind component? The ...
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4answers
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How is wind direction reported (blowing from or blowing to)?

When the tower controller, the ATIS or a METAR says Wind 270, 15 knots does it mean the wind is blowing in the westward or in the eastward direction? Is there a single convention used to express the ...
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2answers
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Why don't airships / blimps use frontal stabilizers or thrusters?

Is there any reason why frontal stabilizers aren't used on blimps or airships to ease maneuverability in, e.g., gusty winds? Even the indoor blimps have a tail rotor, not the nose rotor for rapid yaw ...
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1answer
84 views

Is it possible to determine if winds were high without groundspeed, wind speed, AoA or AoS?

I have a data set that includes TAS, IAS, GPS Lat/Lon, Inertial Lat/Lon, ENU speed, inertial speeds, attitude, and accelerations. I don't need to know the exact wind speed, and I don't think that's ...
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1answer
198 views

Are bigger and / or heavier aircraft more resistant to crosswind compared to smaller / lighter aircraft?

When watching heavy crosswind video compilations, I noticed heavy aircraft like the A380 an B747 have a more stable approach compared to the B737 or A320 where the plane banks left and right on ...
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114 views

Could we make a Hybrid Plane, But not use batteries?

What if we had wind turbines on planes. These would not power a battery but would instead power a smaller engine. Perhaps once a pilot goes to the cruising level he could activate the wind turbines to ...
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Why do gusts change the airspeed during landing, but turning (which changes where the wind is coming from) does not?

As we know it, aircraft are extremely sensitive to gust during its final landing stage. They can lose airspeed if the wind changes to tail, ad thus loose lift or need to adjust their thrust in order o ...
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How can seagulls slide in the wind without flapping their wings?

There are a lot of seagulls in a park near where I live. Sometimes I can see them somehow "sliding" forward or backward diagonally when flying against the wind, however, their wings aren't flapping. ...
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8answers
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How do head- and tailwinds affect airspeed?

I'm sure this was asked somewhere, I just can't find it. So if it's a dupe, let me know. Anyway, I'm one of those guys that actually looks at the flight information when I'm flying. I fly ...
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1answer
457 views

Why do eastbound transpacific flights fly at lower latitudes than their westbound counterparts?

I’ve seen some routes for flights from Asia (mainly Hong Kong and Shanghai) to the west coast of North America, which fly at lower latitudes than flights in the other direction (which they fly closer ...
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1answer
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Why do METARs report wind relative to true north rather than magnetic?

Why isn't the wind in a METAR given in magnetic heading, to match the runway numbers? Especially for areas where there is a double-digit magnetic declination. Secondary/optional question: does the ...
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1answer
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How do pilots clear an aircraft to fly through a hurricane?

This video shows a pilot (Tim Gallagher/NOAA) flying what looks like a small jet into the eye of hurricane Matthew by Miami. It's clear that it is quite an interesting ride. The (small) caption states ...
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Does the coriolis force have an effect on the direction in which an aircraft travels?

Suppose an aircraft is flying from Kenya (which lies on the equator) to UK (which lies in the northern hemisphere). Does the Coriolis force veer the aircraft to the right? Do pilots have to correct ...
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1answer
133 views

How does gust affect a swept wing

I have a basic question that I cannot seem to find a solid answer for: How does a gust affect a swept wing?
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4answers
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Is any device installed on airplane to measure wind speed relative to the ground, and its direction?

A device or tool which can measure actual wind speed to the ground rather than to the airplane. Also a device which detect the wind direction to the plane. The device I meant is something like this ...
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4answers
322 views

Are winds that are not from the prevailing wind direction more often gusty, and why?

It seems to me that, looking at the ground weather forecasts (as opposed to, say, low level forecasts), it's far more common for the wind to be predicted to be significantly gusty when it is blowing ...
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What should a pilot do when facing a sudden tail, cross, or head wind?

Consider a pilot is flying a conventional fixed wing airplane with a ground speed of 60km/h with no wind. Then suddenly the wind starts blowing at 20km/h in either of the following directions: from ...
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8answers
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Why might an airliner fly a large U-turn before landing?

I was on a flight1 from San Antonio, TX to Toronto and, when arriving in Toronto, the plane went quite a way past the airport, made a big U-turn, and then landed. We were coming from the west. I ...
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1answer
288 views

Does lift coefficient for maximum range change for a glider experiencing headwind?

When a glider or unpropelled aircraft experiences headwind, I understand that the flight velocity and sink velocity for the "new" maximum possible range both increase (see velocity polar from How does ...
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3answers
353 views

What is the best option when the headwind exceeds the maximum airspeed?

In a previous question, Mongo described flying his Cessna with a negative ground speed in a head wind. In this situation, what is the correct thing for a pilot to do, if there is nowhere to land ...
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1answer
5k views

What is wind “CALM”?

What is the exact criteria for wind speed to be considered "CALM". Different countries might have different values and i do not mind getting answers from those. But an answer from an ICAO annex would ...
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446 views

Why is the planned Kingdom Tower Skydeck unsuitable for use as a helipad?

Why is the planned Kingdom Tower Skydeck unsuitable for use as a helipad? Originally the skydeck was supposed to be a helipad, but this idea was subsequently rejected and the feature was repurposed as ...