Questions tagged [visual-flight-rules]

Visual flight rules (VFR) is a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. VFR permits flying and navigating by visual reference outside the aircraft.

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9
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1answer
284 views

Do FAA sectional charts show all power/transmission lines?

The FAA's sectional aeronautical charts include some power/transmission lines. How complete is this? I am specifically interested in using something like ForeFlight for aeronautical charts while hot ...
3
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1answer
137 views

What criteria do FAA VFR Charts use for High-Intensity Obstruction lights?

FAA’s website provides some symbology explanation (specifically, I’m looking at VFR Charts) and also a database of obstacles, the Digital Obstacle File (DOF). Their PDF provides an explanation of the ...
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1answer
474 views

What happens when VFR conditions change over a longer flight? [duplicate]

If I am understanding correctly, you're not really supposed to use VFRs if the weather is not clear enough that you can ensure you're not going to run into things. Usually you do this by looking at ...
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1answer
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In an unpressurized cabin, why is the cockpit ambient pressure lower than the outside pressure?

As I study for my IRA written, this (VFR) question resurfaced and continues to irk me. The annotations cite the Venturi effect as the sole reason, but I don't follow. From Wikipedia: "The Venturi ...
10
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1answer
257 views

Why are there out-of-date tower frequencies on the VFR sectional chart, without a NOTAM?

I flew today to Salinas, CA and had a little trouble reaching Salinas tower (KSNS). The current VFR sectional shows the tower frequency as 119.4. However, apparently the frequency changed to 119.525 ...
3
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1answer
724 views

How is MEF calculated for Canadian VNC?

According to the VNC, the MEF represents the highest feature in each quadrangle. It refers to AIM RAC 5.4 and CAR 602.15(2b) which basically says "lower than 500 AGL (CAR 602.14(2b)) ok, when for ...
29
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4answers
27k views

When can I request flight following?

I'm a student pilot doing all VFR flying and making flight plans for training. I've heard that most people don't file a flight plan for VFR outside of training though, and instead request "flight ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Is there a database of radio-frequencies for airfields/airports in Europe?

Is there something like a register of frequencies for airfields/airports in Europe? I am building a VFR flight planner and would be interested to autofill a form with the frequencies dependent on the ...
20
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2answers
4k views

How can pilots lacking instruments interpret vectors given by ATC?

This video is about European Air Transport flight 2939, a Boeing 737, which "lost all the instruments of the aircraft" shortly after takeoff. BCS2939: We are flying heading now, and we don't have ...
3
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1answer
273 views

Who to contact when inbound to adjoining class deltas?

Given two class delta airports that share a boundary, say you wanted to transition through one to land at the other. Who would you call first? The transitioning controller, or the destination ...
3
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2answers
131 views

Where can I find a canonical list of sources for worldwide digital GA VFR maps?

Related question: Where can I find GA VFR maps for Australia? For various areas of the world, where are authoritative General Aviation VFR maps, charts, and so on available on the web?
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3answers
525 views

What are effective ways to spot the aircraft ATC specified?

When ATC instructs me something like "There is a Skyhawk on your 2 clock, 7 miles, 6500". I am not able to spot the target at least half of the time after several ATC reports its position until ATC ...
7
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1answer
746 views

How close can I fly to a bridge?

I want to take some pictures of a bridge. How close can my pilot get me?
5
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1answer
582 views

Is there a “Quid Pro Quo” of flight following?

I like to use flight following whenever possible because who wouldn't want traffic pointed out to them for free? But just as the controllers are doing me a favor, they sometimes ask me to do them a ...
3
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1answer
595 views

Are approach and departure procedures based on visual reference points official VFR procedures?

Pilots flying VFR follow clearances like the "mall visual" or "east channel departure." These are based on features of the local area that are easy to identify. Are procedures like this official? ...
19
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2answers
8k views

How can pilots fly VFR over-the-top in overcast conditions?

It's apparently legal for pilots to fly over the top of clouds and fly VFR. However, I don't understand how it's possible to do so, especially since there is no visual reference to rely on to ensure ...
6
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1answer
1k views

What are the rules regarding (HUD) Head-up displays, especially glasses type?

What are the relevant regulations regarding use of HUD displays in non-military aviation? The specific application in mind would involve providing information to pilots of turboprop survey aircraft ...
6
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1answer
189 views

Can I use actual IMC time for the requirements in 61.109(a)(3)?

I needed extra instrument time for my VFR checkride but it was cloudy for my lesson. My CFII and I turned it into an introduction to IFR lesson and we flew 0.3 actual and 0.3 simulated (with the hood) ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Why does a pilot want to hold a Squawk Code when leaving Class B airspace?

I was listening to liveATC today... Controller clears this guy into the class B for a transition and throws him a code. Some time passes and the pilot has now transitioned the bravo and is leaving the ...
24
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3answers
3k views

Why fly VFR at all?

Really novice question here: if both the pilot and the aircraft are instrument-rated, why would anyone fly VFR? IFR lets one fly in a wider range of weather conditions and at night while there are no ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Does the “west evens / east odds” rule apply when flying without a specific destination (sightseeing, etc)?

I understand about the rule about odd / even (+500ft) separation at altitudes above 3,000ft AGL, but what about when you're flying without a definitive destination such as sightseeing where your track ...
13
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3answers
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“<Callsign>, remain VFR” — may I enter Class C airspace?

During a flight yesterday, the approach frequency for a local Class C was unusually busy. I was heading back to an underlying Class D and the frequency finally quieted down enough for me to poke in a ...
10
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1answer
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Is there a European equivalent of VFR Flight Following?

In the US, Flight Following is a radar service provided to VFR aircraft on a best-effort basis. Controllers provide traffic advisories but they don't issue clearances or instructions and the pilot is ...
8
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1answer
705 views

Can TCAS be used to confirm “traffic in sight”?

If a pilot is asked to confirm traffic in sight, but they have hard time locating the traffic visually, however, they can see it on the TCAS display. Can they confirm they have the traffic in sight ...
14
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3answers
682 views

Did Pacific Southwest Airlines ever operate flights under VFR?

Does anyone know if Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) ever flew certain routes under VFR? I've read this question and I understand that Part 121 does allow for VFR flight, but my question is specific ...
3
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1answer
4k views

How do I calculate fuel reserves for IFR and VFR flight plan?

I am trying to figure out how to calculate for IFR and VFR for a flight plan example. So from my basic understanding, VFR means you have to add extra 30 minutes to your fuel reserve, and 45 minutes ...
11
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2answers
6k views

What are the pilot responsibilities for “maintain visual separation” clearances?

ATC will sometimes give pilots the instruction to maintain visual separation from nearby traffic. I have a couple questions about this: There is a related ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Can I do a VFR climb-out on IFR flight plan?

Let’s suppose I wish to fly an IFR flight from KTUS (Tucson International Airport) to KFST (Fort Stockton-Pecos) for example. Given the surrounding terrain there is of course an ODP that reads as ...
9
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3answers
1k views

Do GA pilots routinely request “flight following” from ATC, and why?

My understanding is that private pilots are able to contact air traffic control and request "flight following", as it may help them with their situational awareness. Beyond that, however, I'm curious: ...
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2answers
3k views

Does a pilot have to request altitude changes when receiving flight following?

Let's say that during a VFR flight the pilot requests flight following from ATC, giving information about the aircraft type, type of equipment, destination and cruise altitude. ATC responds by giving ...
11
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5answers
1k views

How often do people fly SVFR?

I was going over Special Visual Flight Rules (SVFR) with my instructor recently and he told me that he has only requested it a few times, and that it is mainly used if you are flying from ...
9
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1answer
338 views

What are approach control's expectations regarding weather information for flights to satellite airports?

I have never passed through class-C airspace without intending on landing at the primary airport. If the flight is conducted under VFR, and I am planning on landing at a satellite airport to the ...
6
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1answer
6k views

What is the difference between Marginal VFR (MVFR) and Special VFR (SVFR)?

I would like to know the difference between marginal VFR (MVFR) and Special VFR (SVFR), particularly when flying in the US airspace. What does each of them mean exactly?
6
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1answer
380 views

Which FAR/AIM addresses Shortest Turn to Assigned Heading vs Runway Traffic Pattern?

Today I was in a simulator on runway 20R at KSNA. ATC gave me a VFR clearance and told me to fly heading 080 on departure. The runway has right traffic. I turned right and was told by ATC I should ...
3
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3answers
3k views

How does a small aircraft like a Cessna fly at night?

What happens when a small aircraft like Cessna is flying in daytime then night hits and its now pitch black with zero visibility? How does he not run into mountains and the like?
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3answers
1k views

Cross Country flight: what do I have to consider concerning radio communications?

I'm tasked with developing part of a cross country flight plan to cap off my ground school class. Among my group, I am handling the radio communications and regulations. However, I was not provided ...
6
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3answers
515 views

What are good apps to help with VFR navigation on my first solo?

Currently I am a student pilot in Spain (Barcelona) and I am 2 days away from my solo. I wanted to ask if there is any good application that will help me on VFR navigation since I'm allowed to go to ...
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2answers
3k views

Does “resume own navigation” also mean “altitude your discretion”?

In VFR flights from class C, I sometimes get resume own navigation, altitude your discretion after departure and sometimes just ...
5
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1answer
503 views

What software generated this VFR flight plan?

I recently came across this screenshot of a VFR flight plan. Does anyone know what software was used to generate it?
7
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1answer
3k views

What constitute “known icing conditions” and when can you fly VFR while they exist?

For flight operations conducted under 14 CFR part 91(other than subpart F) in VMC, what conditions constitute "known icing conditions"? Under what circumstances (e.g., altitude difference or no ...
7
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1answer
3k views

What is Special VFR? Why would a pilot request it? [duplicate]

I have heard about Special VFR many times but never understood this concept. What is it and when is it used?
7
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2answers
381 views

What if traffic should give way to me but doesn't appear to be?

Let's say I'm flying a GA aircraft VFR, and I don't have TCAS or similar. I see another aircraft on a converging course, and it must give way to me. (Suppose it has me on its right.) It doesn't appear ...
18
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4answers
2k views

Airplane longitudinal control: pitch or power?

I recently came across some slides from a flight school teaching, for the initial climb after take-off and for the approach, the strategy of controlling/adjusting RoC/RoD with power Speed with ...
8
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2answers
5k views

What frequency should be used for air-to-ground communication other than airport ground operation?

On a VFR flight, what frequency should be used to talk to somebody on the ground in USA? In another word, if I am overflying my house and I would like to talk to the people on the ground, what ...
6
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3answers
739 views

How can I take off in a straight line if the runway isn't visible ahead?

In a C152, flying VFR, if you point your nose up you wouldn't be able to see the runway, thus it would be difficult to keep yourself aligned to it. So once you take off with a C152, do you climb in a ...
7
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3answers
2k views

Is there a general radio frequency in Class G for broadcasting intentions?

Let’s say you’re in class G and doing some aerobatics. Is there any standard frequency you might use (perhaps MULTICOM on 122.9?) to communicate your intentions? Assume you’re not using flight ...
33
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9answers
11k views

What happens when a pilot has no Instrument Rating and visibility drops?

Note: I'm not a pilot, so I don't have much basic knowledge of how the pilot licence ratings work If a pilot doesn't have an Instrument Rating, and the weather conditions drop below VMC; what do they ...
6
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2answers
2k views

What does 'outlook … VFR' mean?

In most weather reports I see "Outlook VFR" and I am not sure what that means and as a pilot what should I expect? What is an "outlook" and what does it mean when it is "VFR"? In other words, what ...
9
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1answer
736 views

What punishment will I get from CASA if I fly in a cloud while a student pilot?

I am a student pilot in Australia. Someone said he saw me fly into a cloud at 1700 feet above ground level for five seconds. But I am sure I did not fly in the cloud. I have no instrument rating, nor ...
3
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1answer
1k views

When departing from a class C or D airfield, what is the proper VFR procedure?

Specifically, when is it legal to turn to your on-course heading? I find that sometimes the tower will give me an instruction to "turn on course" but sometimes they don't. Are you supposed to stay on ...