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Questions tagged [visual-flight-rules]

Visual flight rules (VFR) is a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. VFR permits flying and navigating by visual reference outside the aircraft.

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1 answer
227 views

What is the squawk for VFR flying?

I'm used to using squawk 7000 for VFR flight. But lately I've seen 1200 also being used. I don't know which one is the default for VFR flying, because it seems like both codes are widely used.
2 votes
2 answers
132 views

VMC Conditions for VFR flight

What does it mean by flight visibility of 5km and horizontal separation from cloud 1500m in VMC? If a cloud is ahead of us at 1500m then how could the flight visibility be 5km?
2 votes
1 answer
319 views

Practically, what should a pilot do to safely transit a UAS Operating NOTAM area when they must go through it?

Practically speaking, what should a pilot of a GA aircraft be doing differently when (if?) they have to fly through an area with a sUAS NOTAM? I have flown (while in PPL training with a CFI) in a ...
3 votes
2 answers
305 views

Can you cross an ADIZ without filing a flight plan, if departure and arrival are in the US?

I am planning a flight from Houston to Florida. The quickest way for me is to just fly direct to across the water saving many miles. I am trying to do this VFR. Is this possible without filing a ...
0 votes
1 answer
133 views

Selection of cruise FL and semi-circular rule

Let's assume I am flying VFR from A to B. B is located north-northwest of A, eg. a direct course would yield a magnetic track of, say, 350°(M). However, some legs of my route are northeastwards, ...
8 votes
3 answers
3k views

How to have a conversation about safety with new GA pilot?

I have a family member who has been an amateur VFR pilot for a year. I know very little about aviation but am concerned about his plans to pick up his new aircraft in Eastern Canada and fly it back ...
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What should I do if I have inadvertently busted class b airspace?

I was giving an introductory flight to a friend who I am trying to get interested in obtaining his pilots license. While he had the controls, I was so focused on watching and helping him that I think ...
8 votes
2 answers
14k views

What is the difference between Marginal VFR (MVFR) and Special VFR (SVFR)?

I would like to know the difference between marginal VFR (MVFR) and Special VFR (SVFR), particularly when flying in the US airspace. What does each of them mean exactly?
11 votes
2 answers
6k views

What constitute "known icing conditions" and when can you fly VFR while they exist?

For flight operations conducted under 14 CFR part 91(other than subpart F) in VMC, what conditions constitute "known icing conditions"? Under what circumstances (e.g., altitude difference or no ...
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does FAR 91.155c apply to class E surface extensions?

Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 91.155 says under (c): Except as provided in §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) within the lateral ...
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Does rain affect VFR criteria?

Does rain affect VFR criteria? In other words, if visibility is 1500m or more and you are in sight of the surface, but there is heavy rain, can you still fly VFR? Here is an example of the conditions ...
1 vote
2 answers
7k views

What is the difference between Cloud Ceiling and Cloud Base?

By definition, Cloud Ceiling is the height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half the sky. So does, Cloud Ceiling ...
2 votes
5 answers
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What's the best way to get through clouds when not instrument rated?

The obvious answer to this is... don't go into clouds. But if you are flying among scattered or broken clouds and you go up above them, then when you reach your destination it's overcast and there is ...
2 votes
1 answer
88 views

How precise is the placement of airports on VFR sectional charts?

Looking at the August 10, 2023 edition of the San Francisco VFR sectional, M45's displayed name is being changed from ALPINE CO to ALPINE COUNTY: More ambitiously, it is apparently going to be moved ...
5 votes
2 answers
216 views

Is it common for ATC to issue traffic advisories in relation to an "intersection" during VFR flight following?

I'm a student pilot working on my PPL and I just did my first solo cross country earlier today. While I was on flight following I received a call from approach that sounded like "N123 traffic 4 ...
5 votes
1 answer
362 views

Can I fly to a class D airport with an NPPL?

I wish to fly into Bristol (EGGD) in a Microlight. I can see they have a VFR approach procedure here. Can I do this? If so, what are the prerequisites? Assuming filing a flight plan is one of them.
4 votes
1 answer
328 views

Daily use of the UK airspace - VFR flights

I am considering flying to the UK this summer with a small airplane. I heard that the daily use of the airspace is somewhere published by CAA (or NATS), including the activation of Dangerous / ...
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

What aircraft maintenance logs should I have available for a private checkride?

I’m about to do my Private Pilot Checkride in my own plane. I’ve been trying to find a list of things that will be needed for the Checkride in the logbook, as I had thought it was an updated annual, ...
5 votes
2 answers
362 views

Which portions of class B and C airspace does CFR 91.157 (special VFR) apply to?

CFR 91.157 says that special VFR operations may be conducted below 10,000 ft MSL "within the airspace contained by the upward extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace ...
0 votes
0 answers
214 views

EASA procedures for radio/comm failure under VFR rules

Trying to find the VFR communication failure procedure in EASA, but can't find anything clear enough, maybe someone have a link for clear instructions for that procedure? I want to figure out what ...
3 votes
3 answers
1k views

How can I check before my flight that the cloud separation requirements in VFR flight rules are met?

How can I check before my flight that the cloud separation requirements in VFR flight rules are met? As it is known, in order to fly VFR, the rules of 1000 feet vertical and 1500 meters horizontal ...
2 votes
2 answers
958 views

What ceiling does the FAA consider to be controlling for FAR 91.155(c)?

What ceiling does the FAA consider to be controlling for FAR 91.155(c)? The ceiling reported at the airport for which the surface-level controlled airspace is designated, or the ceiling directly ...
7 votes
7 answers
37k views

How do I determine odd or even when working with altitudes?

I am always confused about how to calculate safety altitude, especially when it comes to even heights and odd heights, e.g. is 7500ft even or odd?
4 votes
1 answer
3k views

How is MEF calculated for Canadian VNC?

According to the VNC, the MEF represents the highest feature in each quadrangle. It refers to AIM RAC 5.4 and CAR 602.15(2b) which basically says "lower than 500 AGL (CAR 602.14(2b)) ok, when for ...
31 votes
7 answers
6k views

Why does flying IFR require a rating?

It may seem like a silly question, but my analogy is, some countries issue automatic-transmission-only driving licenses. Automatic transmission in this case would be the powerful avionics now ...
3 votes
4 answers
2k views

Where can I obtain official German VFR approach charts?

I am looking for the official VFR approach charts of German airports. I could found a preview here : airports.de however I do not know where I can find the official ones or where I can order them. ...
6 votes
1 answer
670 views

Can we infer whether a given approach is visual only from the track data and the meteorological conditions?

I understand that even during IFR, the ATC can authorize visual approach to the pilots. Are there any tell-tale signs from track data (for example as on FlightRadar24) that will show the aircraft is ...
2 votes
4 answers
840 views

Is there a VFR mobile app that shows other aircraft in real time?

In the UK, are there any apps available that show a real time radar / GPS of other aircraft and ideally their callsign? As I fly Microlights, I only fly VFR, but in a high wing and often with low ...
14 votes
4 answers
7k views

Why do helicopter operations avoid IFR?

In almost any airplane commercial operation, unless you’re doing something very short haul daytime ops, an Instrument Rating is all but required with airplanes (it’s even in the FARs). Generally the ...
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

How safe is IFR in class E?

In class D and E airspace, there is no separation between IFR and VFR traffic. However, most airspace in the United States below 18,500 feet MSL is class E airspace, which is exactly where non-...
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can you switch from VFR to IFR during a flight?

Is it possible for a pilot flying under VFR to switch to IFR during a flight?
4 votes
4 answers
9k views

Is it legal to fly without a transponder?

Everything is legal / airworthy. Except: Transponder is installed. It does work. It has NOT been inspected in any time frame that would show it is properly maintained. Flight is Golf, Echo, Delta &...
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Question regarding CAR 604.38

604.38 (1) No person shall conduct a take-off in an aircraft operated by a private operator unless an operational flight data sheet has been prepared and contains the following information: (a) the ...
0 votes
1 answer
335 views

Is there a general rule for picking a set heading point?

I'm currently working on a couple of Nav-logs. I have a leg where I have to climb from sea level to 9500'. This takes up about 26NM of horizontal distance. Is it bad practice or even wrong to pick a ...
20 votes
2 answers
4k views

Is there a minimum density a cloud must attain before it is, legally speaking, a cloud?

I was doing a simulated tour of local untowered airfields the other day, operating VFR on VATSIM in Class B airspace (Logan). Whenever I'm in Class B as a VFR flight I like to give ATC as boring a ...
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Where can I find VFR approach charts for Italy?

Has anyone a good source of free information for VFR approach charts in Italy? I know that for major airports (e.g. LIMW), https://www.enav.it publishes the charts. However for small airfields (e.g. ...
0 votes
2 answers
958 views

What is the vertical separation minima between IFR and VFR?

ICAO Doc 4444, 5.3.2 says The vertical separation minimum (VSM) shall be: a) a nominal 300 m (1 000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m (2 000 ft) at or above this level, except as provided for in b)...
0 votes
2 answers
310 views

Do helicopters use Ground speed or True airspeed?

Is there a limit on the speed and minimum altitude of the helicopter before switching between the two?
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

How can I legally land VFR in class D airspace with low and few clouds?

This question is a bit specific because it applies to an actual situation I'm observing for a flight I'm looking to make tomorrow. I'm a Non-IFR rated pilot looking to fly class D airspace. My ...
3 votes
1 answer
433 views

When was 91.155(b)(2) (night VFR cloud clearance and visibility in Class G airspace in traffic pattern) implemented?

We have all memorized the helpful triangle, but now this paragraph: (2) Airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft. If the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are there any "VFR corridors" in the US apart from the one in San Diego?

As far as I can tell, the only VFR Corridor (see AIM 3-5-5(b)) that exists is in San Diego. Is that correct or are there others elsewhere in the US?
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

VFR through Class C to land at Class D (located within Class C)

Student pilot (US) here prepping for long solo XC. I'll be landing at a Class D airport (KSCH) within Class C airspace (KALB). I have a few questions regarding procedure and what is appropriate for ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is Flight Service Station the same as En Route Flight Advisory Service?

As title suggests, is "Flight Service Station" the same as "En Route Flight Advisory Service?" In regards to VFR, I was told that if I get lost in flight and general lost ...
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is SVC CTC on a chart supplement?

The chart supplement for KSNA mentions the following AIRSPACE: CLASS C svc ctc APP CON svc 1415–0700Z‡ other times CLASS G. I know that SVC means service. I've gathered that KSNA is class C from ...
3 votes
1 answer
592 views

What exactly does "exercise extreme caution" mean when seeing alternating red and green light gun signals?

I've seen the light gun signals chart a hundred times but I don't quite understand when it says "use extreme caution" when you alternating green and red signals. What does that mean exactly? ...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Does endurance include the fuel reserve time?

I have been wondering if endurance time actually includes the fuel reserve time? For example: Total usable FOB = 84 litres Fuel burn rate = 16 litres/hour Aircraft's reserve fuel = 30 minutes ...
6 votes
1 answer
245 views

Does compliance with ATC instructions apply to VFR aircraft in Class G?

(U.S.) 14 CFR 91.123 (b) states: Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which air traffic control is exercised. FAR 91.123(b) was ...
18 votes
3 answers
5k views

May I enter Class C airspace if I'm told "remain VFR"?

During a flight yesterday, the approach frequency for a local Class C was unusually busy. I was heading back to an underlying Class D and the frequency finally quieted down enough for me to poke in a ...
14 votes
1 answer
3k views

VFR aircraft on a practice instrument approach—is the aircraft IFR? Do they receive separation?

A VFR aircraft contacts ATC and requests to execute a practice instrument approach (whether full-procedure or vectors-to-final). ATC issues the approach clearance, including the specific words "...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

What airspace class is the New York Hudson/East River SFRA airspace, and what is its visibility requirements?

In general, the airspace below a Class B shelf is Class E airspace until 1200' or (more often) 700' AGL, and then Class G to the surface. Immediately surrounding the Hudson and East Rivers in New York ...

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