Questions tagged [visual-flight-rules]

Visual flight rules (VFR) is a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. VFR permits flying and navigating by visual reference outside the aircraft.

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Is there a minimum density a cloud must attain before it is, legally speaking, a cloud?

I was doing a simulated tour of local untowered airfields the other day, operating VFR on VATSIM in Class B airspace (Logan). Whenever I'm in Class B as a VFR flight I like to give ATC as boring a ...
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What is the vertical separation minima between IFR and VFR?

ICAO Doc 4444, 5.3.2 says The vertical separation minimum (VSM) shall be: a) a nominal 300 m (1 000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m (2 000 ft) at or above this level, except as provided for in b)...
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Do helicopters use Ground speed or True airspeed?

Is there a limit on the speed and minimum altitude of the helicopter before switching between the two?
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When was 91.155(b)(2) (night VFR cloud clearance and visibility in Class G airspace in traffic pattern) implemented?

We have all memorized the helpful triangle, but now this paragraph: (2) Airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft. If the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less ...
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4 votes
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Are there any "VFR corridors" in the US apart from the one in San Diego?

As far as I can tell, the only VFR Corridor (see AIM 3-5-5(b)) that exists is in San Diego. Is that correct or are there others elsewhere in the US?
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Where can I find VFR approach charts for Italy?

Has anyone a good source of free information for VFR approach charts in Italy? I know that for major airports (e.g. LIMW), https://www.enav.it publishes the charts. However for small airfields (e.g. ...
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1 vote
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VFR through Class C to land at Class D (located within Class C)

Student pilot (US) here prepping for long solo XC. I'll be landing at a Class D airport (KSCH) within Class C airspace (KALB). I have a few questions regarding procedure and what is appropriate for ...
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What is SVC CTC on a chart supplement?

The chart supplement for KSNA mentions the following AIRSPACE: CLASS C svc ctc APP CON svc 1415–0700Z‡ other times CLASS G. I know that SVC means service. I've gathered that KSNA is class C from ...
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Is Flight Service Station the same as En Route Flight Advisory Service?

As title suggests, is "Flight Service Station" the same as "En Route Flight Advisory Service?" In regards to VFR, I was told that if I get lost in flight and general lost ...
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3 votes
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What exactly does "exercise extreme caution" mean when seeing alternating red and green light gun signals?

I've seen the light gun signals chart a hundred times but I don't quite understand when it says "use extreme caution" when you alternating green and red signals. What does that mean exactly? ...
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Does endurance include the fuel reserve time?

I have been wondering if endurance time actually includes the fuel reserve time? For example: Total usable FOB = 84 litres Fuel burn rate = 16 litres/hour Aircraft's reserve fuel = 30 minutes ...
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1 answer
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Does compliance with ATC instructions apply to VFR aircraft in Class G?

(U.S.) 14 CFR 91.123 (b) states: Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which air traffic control is exercised. FAR 91.123(b) was ...
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VFR aircraft on a practice instrument approach—is the aircraft IFR? Do they receive separation?

A VFR aircraft contacts ATC and requests to execute a practice instrument approach (whether full-procedure or vectors-to-final). ATC issues the approach clearance, including the specific words "...
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What airspace class is the New York Hudson/East River SFRA airspace, and what is its visibility requirements?

In general, the airspace below a Class B shelf is Class E airspace until 1200' or (more often) 700' AGL, and then Class G to the surface. Immediately surrounding the Hudson and East Rivers in New York ...
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Does accepting a VFR Descent cancel IFR?

After flying on an IFR clearance through a line of Thunderstorms, ATC provided me the option of a "VFR descent at own discretion". After descending and with the field in sight I requested to ...
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Why is the minimum for VFR 1000/3 while there are VFR weather minimums for every single airspace?

It seems like I have a concept error here. I don't understand why "the VFR min is 1000/3" when I think I would need to check in which airspace I am to then check for its respective weather ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Class G Airspace ceiling: 700' versus 1200'

Why does on various images, such as below, have 1200' and 700' AGL for Class G Airspace? Why is it sometimes 1200' and other times 700' AGL? Other than the altitude, how are the 1200' and 700' ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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What does "1000ft above" mean in the context of VFR flight minimums?

There are a bunch of VFR flight minimums. My question here is the follows: Lets say one of the minimums is '1000 feet above'. Does that mean. A. The flight should be 1000 feet above clouds? B. The ...
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1 vote
2 answers
466 views

Standard Size to Print a sectional chart?

What sizes does the sectional charts are sold at? I downloaded it from here, and was able to print it on a large format printer. https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/productcatalog/...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Is it necessary to switch from VFR to IFR when using ILS approach?

I have flown at an airport and asked for vectors for an ILS approach in VMC for practice. But the controller refused to give me vectors and told me that I could only have a visual approach. I got the ...
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7 votes
1 answer
616 views

Can an aircraft flying VFR with a squawk code enter adjacent class C or D airspace after being handed over to the destination tower? [duplicate]

In the US, a VFR aircraft request VFR flight following and is given a squawk code after takeoff. 15nm before arriving at it's destination class D airport, the TRACON facility instructs the pilot to &...
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5 votes
2 answers
780 views

When filing a VFR Flight Plan, where/how do you include intent to use a Class B transition?

When intending to use a VFR transition route through Class B airspace, do you put the intended route on the flight plan, the alternate route (if you don't get clearance for some reason), or both? ...
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5 votes
4 answers
618 views

Can I fly a practice LNAV approach with an iPad?

I'm doing training for an instrument rating, and I'm thinking I'd like to do some solo VFR cross country flying and do some practice instrument approaches. The C152 I'll be flying doesn't have a GPS ...
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3 votes
2 answers
289 views

What are cloud clearance requirements around scuds?

I'm a private pilot (in the U.S.) and I was doing hood instrument training with my instructor under VFR. I put on the hood and we did an instrument takeoff, and I flew up to 4,500 feet to do some VOR ...
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4 answers
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Can "Center" provide VFR flight following?

Whenever I've requested VFR flight following, I've always requested it from So Cal Approach/Departure because I'm usually flying within their reach. If I'm flying outside the reach of So Cal Approach ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Why is scud-running necessarily dangerous? [duplicate]

(Disclaimer: Please do not take the below as an endorsement of scud-running.) Scud-running is when a pilot flying in poor weather operates their aircraft at a lower-than-normal height above terrain in ...
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How is optimal Glide Path Altitude calculated?

Good day, On a PPL checkride quite a while ago I got asked "if you are 10 miles from the airport how high should you be for a 3 degree glideslope?" Can someone run me down on how to do the ...
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What is the difference between Cloud Ceiling and Cloud Base?

By definition, Cloud ceiling is The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half the sky. So does, Cloud Ceiling ...
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6 votes
1 answer
303 views

Can I do a VFR night sightseeing flight in Europe?

I am an American living in the Netherlands, and I recently converted my US PPL to an EASA PPL. I have significant night flying experience in the US, but I understand that night VFR in Europe is ...
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4 answers
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How can I estimate wind speed and direction in VFR?

I am new here, I started to do VFR navigation (no G1000) so I try to deal with the wind. I notice that I have some problems to find the wind speed and direction during flight. I am going to try to ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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During VMC conditions in terminal airspace (class B), does the pilots have to strictly follow separation standards issued by ATC?

Is it common for pilots to breach separation standards in terminal airspace while the conditions are VMC? I'm interested primarily in commercial aircraft that have scheduled operations in major ...
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1 vote
4 answers
1k views

How can I determine whether or not an airport has an ATIS?

Where can I find the ATIS code and frequency for an airport through a VFR chart? For example, in the case of Frankfort airport (in the attached image), I can see the AWOS frequency but I am unable to ...
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7 votes
1 answer
585 views

Where can I find the active time of a MOA on the VFR chart?

I am trying to find out the time when the HILLTOP MOA is active and its elevation. Where is this information located in a VFR chart?
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3 answers
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Is using a VOR considered IFR or VFR?

As the title mentioned. And also, is using it in zero visibility (or near) a real life scenario?
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1 vote
2 answers
197 views

VFR Navigation, rerouting timing corrections due to wind - rule of thumb?

Consider this reroute on a VFR nav trip from Great Malvern to Chipping Norton. Maintaining 120 TAS. Track 110 °M Heading 103 °M (taking 3/4 of Max Drift - MD) In still air this 30nm section would take ...
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2 votes
1 answer
111 views

Do dark conditions due to high-altitude smoke prevent ultralights from flying?

According to FAR103, you have to operate ultralights between sunrise and sunset, or between the times laid out in the Air Almanac (if you're in Alaska.) This means that the FAA has determined that ...
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4 votes
3 answers
3k views

Is it legal to fly without a transponder?

Everything is legal / airworthy. Except: Transponder is installed. It does work. It has NOT been inspected in any time frame that would show it is properly maintained. Flight is Golf, Echo, Delta &...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why do VFR-flights need a clearance in class D airspace?

I ask myself why VFR-traffic has to get ATC-clearances in class D airspace, because as far as I know, ATC doesn’t provide separation for VFR-traffic in this airspace class... So why for example is a ...
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19 votes
8 answers
4k views

How can I easily keep track of my landing count during pattern work?

PPL Student pilot, ~20 hrs Hi, whilst doing some pattern work I frequently find myself unable to keep accurate track of the number of landings. There's an AFIS at my home airport who keeps track (...
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13 votes
4 answers
3k views

What is the best procedure for landing at my destination if I have a full electrical failure at night?

What is the best procedure for landing VFR at the intended destination airport and I have an electrical failure, in the following scenario? Let's assume this is a VFR flight and I'm 50 miles from the ...
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2 votes
2 answers
198 views

Do I need to change cruising altitudes for really short legs?

Let's say I'm cruising on a magnetic course of 150, so I'm flying at 7,500 feet. Then I need to fly for 6 miles on a magnetic course of 210, then back to 150. Do I need to switch to 8,500 or 6,500 ...
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14 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why do helicopter operations avoid IFR?

In almost any airplane commercial operation, unless you’re doing something very short haul daytime ops, an Instrument Rating is all but required with airplanes(it’s even in the FARs). Generally the ...
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0 votes
5 answers
320 views

Could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time?

In the US, could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time? If not, where in the FARs is this spelled out? Consider the ...
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6 votes
3 answers
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For general aviation small aircraft flying VFR under 10,000 feet, can I use my phone GPS for navigation in the US?

For general aviation small aircraft flying VFR under 10,000 feet, can I use my phone GPS for navigation in the US? So no onboard GPS (which are expensive), no VOR/DME, of course there is always dead ...
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4 votes
2 answers
151 views

Are the VFR weather minimums in 91.155(d) redundant because of 91.155(a)?

14 CFR 91.155(d) specifies that: ... no person may take off or land an aircraft, or enter the traffic pattern of an airport, under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B,...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Can a VFR flight reference a waypoint in communication?

Can a VFR flight reference an IFR Waypoint when communicating position to tower or centers? For example: “N1234 at 3500’ at FERMY, request blah blah blah?” Thanks RHD! ****Adding additional ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Is an area of localized reduced visibility considered to be a cloud?

If there an area containing visible moisture in an otherwise clear sky and that area of visible moisture is transparent is it considered a "thin cloud" or simply a "localized area of reduced ...
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4 votes
3 answers
622 views

What is a circling approach?

What is a circling approach and why is it necessary? I know that if a runway is not suitable for an instrument approach, the pilots should execute landing on a runway which has an instrument approach ...
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5 votes
3 answers
612 views

How do pilots avoid clouds under night VFR?

When flying under visual flight rules (VFR), pilots have to be able to see far enough away to be able to avoid running into other aircraft or the ground. Therefore, VFR flight requires good ...
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3 votes
4 answers
849 views

What is the phraseology when leaving a TRSA?

When leaving TRSA what is the correct phraseology to tell ATC that radar service is no longer desired?
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