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What are early/inside and late/outside turns (see, e.g., PBN Manual Order 8260.58A) and when do pilots perform them?

While studying FAA's PBN Manual (Order 8260.58A), I came across the concept of early/inside and late/outside turn construction (Section 5-3. Turning Departures). For each of the possible cases, it ...
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Why does obstacle clearance area splay outward instead of being a rectangle?

I am having trouble figuring out the logic behind the way that obstacle clearance areas are constructed. Take, for example, a departure procedure where Initial Climb Area is defined in TERPS (section ...