Questions tagged [takeoff]

Takeoff is the first phase of flight, when an aircraft lifts off from the runway or other surface.

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33
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6answers
18k views

Can jet airplanes operate on 'rough' airfields?

A question I've always wondered is: can jet aircraft - not turboprop in this case - operate from 'rough' airstrips. My definition of 'rough' is grass or maybe a smooth mud airfield. I know that there'...
50
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9answers
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Could airliners use a steam or electric powered catapult for take-off?

This would have the obvious benefits: Less runway needed to take-off Fuel savings Faster turn around times for airlines Could this be implemented in busy airports?
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4answers
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Why are the F/A-18 rudders deflected in opposing directions during takeoff?

Looking at some videos and photos of F/A-18 Hornets and Super Hornets taking off from carriers and from airfields, I recognised that the left rudder is pointing right, and the right rudder pointing ...
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4answers
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How high does the ground effect last?

Up to which height is the ground effect still significant enough to be taken into account? Would this height be sufficient to actually fly above the ground, overcoming at least trivial obstacles like ...
8
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3answers
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What is the difference between Assumed Temperature and Derate takeoff thrust?

Airlines like to avoid a full thrust takeoff as it increases the wear on the engine. There are two methods to achieve this: Assumed Temperature and Derate. In the Assumed Temperature method, the ...
21
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2answers
14k views

Could the Boeing 787-9 near vertical takeoff demonstration be performed by Airbus A350 aircraft?

I am an aviation enthusiast. A couple of months back I came to know about the difference between piloting Boeing and Airbus planes here. What are the main differences piloting Boeing vs. Airbus ...
22
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10answers
10k views

Do pilots ever intentionally takeoff or land downwind?

Is there a reason a pilot would takeoff downwind or land downwind? Is it legal to do this?
10
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1answer
7k views

How do pilots use stopway, EMAS, clearway and displaced threshold?

I noticed in Why is “clearway minus stopway” used in V1 adjustments? that a stopway and an EMAS are both indicated by yellow chevrons: Same Opa-Locka stopway on the left, and San Diego EMAS on the ...
5
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3answers
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Why do most A320s make that distinct scream on takeoff?

I've noticed that the engines on the A320 make a very a distinct sound on takeoff. Is there something about the CFM-56 series that causes this? This noise can be heard in this video.
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2answers
14k views

What determines the "acceleration" and "thrust reduction" heights?

Thrust reduction height is the height at which automatic thrust reduction from takeoff thrust to climb thrust happens. And acceleration height is the height at which you start accelerating the plane ...
5
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1answer
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Is there a specific formula or way to calculate flex temperature for an Airbus A320?

I have hear of RTOW charts but I haven't seen any calculations with the runway length or slope. What is the formula or equation to finding flex temperature and V-Speeds?
33
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2answers
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Why don't helicopters always takeoff from a hover out of ground-effect?

I've read enough crash reports to see that helicopters discovering too late in takeoff that they lack the power to fly out of ground-effect is a serious problem. I am wondering why the following isn'...
29
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7answers
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Why tap the brakes on take-off in fixed gear aircraft?

The Socata TB10 checklist indicates that you should touch the brakes after lift-off. I assume this is to stop the wheels from turning, but why? In a retractable gear aircraft this would make sense to ...
16
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2answers
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Is it possible that derated thrust takeoffs are safer than normal takeoffs?

The reason for my arguments here are (assuming that you have sufficient runway distance): That with less thrust, less force should also be required to hold the aircraft as desired, and possibly the ...
16
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3answers
19k views

Why do pilots disable the air-conditioning 'packs' during takeoff?

I've realized that some pilots turn the air conditioning units (also called 'packs') OFF during takeoff, like in this video: LH456 Takeoff Video Is there any operational reason for that?
10
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3answers
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How does early rotation increase the likelihood of a tail strike at take off?

This question indicates that an early rotation can cause a tail strike. What are the (pre-)flight dynamics that would cause this to happen vs what happens when rotating at the proper time?
22
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5answers
35k views

Should full flaps be deployed on takeoff?

Are full flaps ever used on takeoff? One flying book I read strongly discouraged anything more than quarter flaps on most planes due to the amount of drag produced. I was just wondering if there are ...
15
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8answers
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What happens to the spinning wheels of the landing gear after takeoff, before retraction?

What happens to the spinning landing gear right after V2 on takeoff? Are they automatically or manually braked to a halt before gear retraction? Or are they allowed to spin to a halt in the wheel ...
10
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7answers
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Is it possible to takeoff without flaps extended?

related questions: landing wihtout flaps takeoff with full flaps My question focus on passengers jets (goes from Embraer E-jet family to Airbus A380). I don't know why pilots would attempt to ...
17
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1answer
3k views

Are rolling takeoffs now more common than powering up while holding on the brakes?

I remember back in the 90's that commercial planes would line up on the runway, stop, apply full power and then release the brake to take off. Now I've been on flight where they've literally rolled ...
9
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3answers
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Is the climb rate different for short-haul flight and long-haul flight?

A short-haul flight does not spend much time in its cruise level (let's say less than two hours). Thus, it is important to rapidly reach the optimal flight level and I think this kind of aircraft ...
16
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1answer
3k views

Why did the Concorde require a droop nose and how did it work?

As seen in the picture below, Concorde used to have a droop nose which would be deployed during takeoff/landing and would be retracted to the normal position while in cruise (do reduce drag). ...
14
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6answers
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Can a small plane be floated off of an aircraft carrier?

Would it be possible to float a small plane (say a Cessna 150) off of the deck of an aircraft carrier without the Cessna achieving any forward motion with respect to the aircraft carrier? If not a ...
14
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1answer
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How is Calculated TakeOff Time (CTOT) calculated?

This answer mentions: How these CTOT times are calculated is very complex, and deserves another question if you are interested. I'm interested. How does it work? What is the level of complexity ...
8
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1answer
4k views

What are the meanings of various reference lines and sections in a take-off distance graph?

I am trying to solve a numerical problem related to determining take-off roll using a take-off distance graph. The parameters are Temp: 90F, Press. alt: 2000ft, wt: 2500lbs, headwind: 20 Knots. I got ...
6
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1answer
910 views

How close can separation be during a landing clearance?

How close can separation between two aircraft be during landing? during visual landing clearance? Specifically, I refer to this Aviation Herald Report where: When the Boeing 777-300 was about 2....
5
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2answers
468 views

What is a Second Segment Weight Limit?

I am very interested in the principles of take-off performance optimization. During my research I found an interesting picture, showing the software used by a European carrier. However, the output ...
3
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2answers
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How much lift do planes produce before rotation?

In the takeoff roll, I'm pretty sure planes produce some lift before rotation, but how much? Is it insignificant compared to post-rotation, or is it large compared to the post-rotation lift?
18
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1answer
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How are take-off segments defined?

From take-off performance calculations I remember that the take-off and initial climb was expressed in a number of segments. Each segment had its own performance requirements. I presume they are ...
70
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3answers
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Why would seaplanes use a curved takeoff run?

I came across this interesting factoid in another SE Aviation answer (How flat does a runway need to be?): seaplanes often use a curved takeoff run. I'm trying to imagine why but cannot come up ...
49
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6answers
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Has an airplane ever been launched from a submarine?

Airplanes are routinely launched from ocean going vessels, namely carriers. Missiles are routinely launched from submarines. Has an airplane ever been launched from a submarine? From questions ...
13
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3answers
5k views

Can a commercial airliner be too heavy to take off?

According to this question's answers, MTOW (or MTOM) is the Maximum Take Off Weight, which is everything up to and including trip fuel. Then there is one step above that, MRW, or Maximum Ramp Weight, ...
32
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3answers
8k views

Why can't runway 18 at Frankfurt Airport accept takeoffs or landings in the opposite direction?

Runway 18 at Frankfurt Airport is one example of a runway which is numbered on only one side. Aircraft can only takeoff in the 18 direction, and cannot takeoff in the 36 direction, nor land in any ...
22
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4answers
3k views

Should landing light be off during line up and wait position?

What is the proper position for the landing lights when on the runway in a line up and wait position?
22
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3answers
3k views

Could fly-by-wire protect against a takeoff tail strike?

If the takeoff weight is underestimated, rotation will be done too early and may result in a case of tail strike. One example of such mistake is a 747-400 (F-HLOV) in 2006 (case 8 in this study). The ...
20
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3answers
2k views

What is the procedure for a rejected Jet/Rocket Assisted Takeoff (J/RATO)?

Seeing the image of a Lockhead LC-130 doing a jet assisted takeoff in snow mentioned in this answer, I wonder: What is the procedure for a rejected takeoff when using JATO? Can the JATO rockets be ...
14
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7answers
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Why can a plane land in zero visibility conditions but not take off in zero visibility?

After waiting hours for a flight departure delayed because of heavy fog, I wonder why planes can perform an instrument landing with no visibility, but cannot take off without a minimum visibility.
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2answers
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What would be the challenges to taking off and landing a typical passenger jet at FL300?

Suppose it was somehow possible build a runway at FL300. Yes, doing so would be incredibly expensive, and it would be a mammoth civil engineering task, and the downsides would probably by far outweigh ...
12
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4answers
7k views

What is the immediate cause of liftoff?

If I understand correctly, when a plane transitions from takeoff roll to being airborne, it is not something that happens "by itself" when the airspeed is high enough, but is caused by deliberate ...
11
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2answers
21k views

How can V1 and VR (rotate) speeds be calculated?

I want to learn about how can the V1 and VR (rotate) speeds be calculated for take off. And which factors are affecting this calculation? Basically it may depends on the aircraft weight, runway ...
10
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2answers
3k views

How dangerous is to take-off and fly with snow on the wings?

I have seen a video of a commercial aircraft taking-off with snow on the wings. I wonder how dangerous it is to take-off and fly with snow on the wings.
9
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2answers
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How can a Boeing 747 take off from Princess Juliana 7,546 ft runway?

I recently read this article that talks about 747s taking off from Princess Juliana International Airport in Sint Maarten. The Princess Juliana runway is only 7,546 ft, but according to Wikipedia, ...
9
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2answers
2k views

How much power do planes use when taking off at London City?

I watched a video of an A318 taking off at London City and it took just 20 seconds from setting takeoff thrust to getting airborne. BA A318 takeoff @ LCY (takeoff thrust @ 1:23, airborne @ 1:43) and ...
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1answer
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Is the A320 family allowed to take off with the flaps retracted?

Is it legal for the A320 family (A318, A319, A320 and A321) to take off without flaps? An answer to this question states that the A300 can take off without flaps. On the other hand, the 737 family of ...
22
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1answer
2k views

Is it legal and safe to take off or land in zero visibility?

Is it legal for planes to takeoff and land in zero visibility? Is it safe?
9
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1answer
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Does acceleration increase linearly on a takeoff roll?

I'm a relative novice when it comes to aircraft performance and was wondering if someone could both answer the following and maybe direct me to some good source material. If I wanted to model a take-...
8
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1answer
31k views

When do I need a takeoff alternate?

Under what conditions do I need to have a takeoff alternate airport listed on a dispatch release? How far away can my takeoff alternate airport be? Do I need to worry about this in part 91 ...
8
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2answers
2k views

What is needed to take off in CAT IIIb weather and how is it done?

Landing is possible down to 150 ft visibility and no useful vertical visibility using CAT IIIb ILS. This relies on ILS not only for navigating to the runway, but also for maintaining runway centreline ...
8
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1answer
34k views

Who authorizes low visibility takeoff operations for airlines, and what is required?

A previous question pondered the legality and safety of low visibility Part 91 takeoffs. I am wondering about the requirements for low visibility takeoff for commercial airline operators (e.g. Part-...
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2answers
3k views

How often are slats used on airliners?

Are slats only used when there is a short runway or on all occasions?