Questions tagged [runways]

A runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft" (ICAO definition).

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1answer
338 views

What is the origin of the practice of numbering runways by magnetic heading?

Today, runways are always named according to the magnetic heading. How did this practice start? When and where was the practice invented? Whose idea was it, and how did it catch on?
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Why do some aircraft carriers have an upward starting runway? [duplicate]

I noticed that some aircraft carriers have an upward starting runway while others don't. What's the reason for this? What are the advantages of both designs and how come not one of them has prevailed ...
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What would happen if an aircraft were to touch down on EMAS?

What would happen if a jet (say, a A330) were to touch down on the Engineered Materials Arrestor System (EMAS) just before the runway, instead of on it? According to the FAA the EMAS is designed to "...
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Why didn't planes land from the sea in the old Kai Tak Hong Kong airport?

Reading up on the old Hong Kong airport Kai Tak, I'm left with the question as to why the planes didn't land from the sea? I know that takeoff was done towards the sea, but is there any reason that ...
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How much power do planes use when taking off at London City?

I watched a video of an A318 taking off at London City and it took just 20 seconds from setting takeoff thrust to getting airborne. BA A318 takeoff @ LCY (takeoff thrust @ 1:23, airborne @ 1:43) and ...
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1answer
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Are flexible pavements not recommended in hot climates?

I've received a feedback from an airport manager that flexible pavement is not recommended for runways within the regions of an extreme hot climates; this is because of the particles of asphalt that ...
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How to find runway direction classification, code number and code letter?

I am creating a solution that generated the limitation surfaces for runways according to ICAO Annex 14. One of the parameters that I need is the runway directions classification, code number and code ...
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I'm so confused how airport numbering works [duplicate]

I'm so confused how airport numbering works. If an airport has a single runway oriented 063 degrees and 243 degrees M. What would be the runway designator?
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How to verify the runway numbers in a systematic way given the high workload during landing?

I have never had a runway number verification on my checklists because normally the landing checklist is completed and stowed by the time I am on short final and can clearly see the numbers. However, ...
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Why is the font size of runway numbers in Canada small?

I've noticed that on runways at Canadian airports, runway numbers are painted noticeably smaller than runway numbers at airports pretty much anywhere else. For instance, here's the beginning of runway ...
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How are landing aircraft handled during an emergency runway closure?

A Hypothetical scenario A landing aircraft at a busy airport such as London Gatwick LGW has an issue during landing that requires the immediate closure of the runway. My understanding is that ...
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To what requirements / assumptions RSAs & EMAS designed?

I've several questions regarding runway safety area (RSA) and engineered materials arresting system (EMAS): Is RSA/EMAS designed for impact loading at the point of touchdown and to absorb energy of ...
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What is the value allowed for runway transverse slope?

What is the range allowed for transverse slope for runways used by commercial aviation?
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How often, and how promptly, do airports have to renumber runways because of magnetic pole drift? [duplicate]

This question was prompted by this answer to another question by Jamiec. As the magnetic poles drift (usually pretty unpredictably), runway numbers become inaccurate. As noted in the linked answer, ...
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Does runway 32/33R at Madrid actually have a kink in it?

In this satellite image of Madrid airport (MAD/LEMD)... Source:Google maps satellite view Alternate link from maps.google.nl still renders incorrectly for me, but appears fine for others... ...it ...
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What is the table top runway maximum slope?

What is the maximum permissible slope for a table top Runway (elevation 1600 m) to be made on hill top ?
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How do Rapid Exit Taxiways improve aircraft movements?

I have been reading about Mumbai Airport (CSIA) (IATA: BOM ICAO: VABB). On it they mention: The airport has two intersecting runways. Both runways have been upgraded to Code F, which means they ...
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Does runway centerline lighting provide information about distance left before end?

I asked Does runway center lighting increase runway lifetime? and this video was was mentioned. I don't really understand the significance and I first assumed centreline lighting in night conditions ...
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Why are most runways made of asphalt and not concrete?

From the little I know about vehicles in cities, nowadays concrete is preferred to asphalt for road construction as, while initially more expensive, concrete is supposed to be cheaper to maintain. ...
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Which civilian airport has the most runways (current and planned)?

I just read Is the airport capacity related to number of runways? . While there are a host of factors, the idea of more runways is obviously so that more flights come in and out. Which is the biggest ...
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508 views

Does runway center lighting increase runway lifetime?

I wonder if the centerline lighting helps add a few more years to the runway, especially with heavy aircraft like A350/A380, in addition of being helpful for landing and takeoff? My question is based ...
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What are those markings on runway 25L at Frankfurt Airport?

50°01'59.15" N 8°34'05.10" E What are those markings on runway 25L at Frankfurt Airport? UPDATE: July 2016 imagery shows the runway as closed, top image is c. 2015.
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How do pilots identify the taxi path to the runway?

When the aircraft is readying to taxi, the ATC asks them to proceed to some runway number, say runway 09. In big airports, how do the pilots identify the correct path to their runway? Does the ATC ...
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How can the runway allocation process be optimised?

I would like to write a programme that would be able to find the optimal arrival sequence for a given list of aircraft on a given airport. By optimal I mean in terms of delay, fuel burn and runway ...
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What is this pattern on this runway?

What is this pattern on this runway? What is its function? Location on Google Maps
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How do we use the runway condition assessment matrix?

Starting on October 1st, 2016 the FAA is moving away from providing Mu values for runway friction reports to a new format showing contamination type and depth for each third of the runway. Along with ...
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What would be the designation for 4 parallel runways? [duplicate]

If an airport were to have 4 parallel runways (ex if KSEA added another one), what would the designations be. Would it be 34L, CL, CR, and L? I know in Orlando they are separated by the terminals, and ...
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Why did the north / south runways close at Daugherty Field (KLGB)?

The north / south runway at KLGB were recently closed. Does anyone know the reason for the runway closures?
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How do pilots use stopway, EMAS, clearway and displaced threshold?

I noticed in Why is “clearway minus stopway” used in V1 adjustments? that a stopway and an EMAS are both indicated by yellow chevrons: Same Opa-Locka stopway on the left, and San Diego EMAS on the ...
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Why is “clearway minus stopway” used in V1 adjustments?

Illustrations and/or satellite imagery to explain the difference between clearway and stopway and explaining how they are used by turbine aircraft would be great. From B787 FCOM.
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Why five touchdown zone markings for only one aiming point?

RWY 24 at Paris-Orly is a runway sustaining precision approaches. There is an aiming point and five touchdown zone markings. Orly RWY 24, source: Google Maps Aiming the visual aiming point, or ...
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Were inclined runways ever under consideration?

A long time ago I read an article (in Popular Science, probably) of a plan for an airport runway constructed on a grade, so that one end was ten stories higher than the other. The idea was to save gas:...
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Why don't light-up runway numbers similar to runway lights?

I know that some airports have lights on the runway that can be controlled with the mic transmit button. Additionally, during night flight, runway lights help the pilot determine where the runway is ...
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What are these large yellow circles painted across the runway?

There are not many yellow markings on a runway. This row of six is painted about 400m from the threshold at both ends: Montgomery Airport (Alabama) - Source: Google Maps What does it mean for a ...
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What are these symbols on the runway?

As just a passenger, not a pilot, this may be a very basic question, but when I am on an airplane leaving the terminal, it goes over a symbol on the tarmac that looks like this: Also I see ...
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Can you file a flight plan to an airport whose runway is NOTAMed closed?

We're planning a flight (under IFR) to an airport where the runway is notamed closed until 1900L. The airport authority has said it will likely be open much earlier, so we're hoping to to take off ...
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Is there a time limit for a line-up and wait?

So this was from a barrage of History Channel documentaries celebrating the century of flight, some 13 years ago. In one of the shows, I recall it being said that an airliner has a time limit for a ...
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What is this runway marking on Kirkwall Airport's runway?

What are these markings on Kirkwall Airport's runway? From where they are on the runway, they seem like the touchdown markers, is that what they are?
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Why would the runway separation for parallel triple simultaneous precision approaches be dependent on airport elevation?

Based on FAA advisory circular AC 150/5300-13A, Airport Design, when operating triple simultaneous precision instrument approaches the parallel runway separation could be reduced from 5000 feet to ...
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Are there any runways that aren't labeled reciprocally to each other?

Runways are generally labeled by their magnetic azimuth between 01 and 36. This means that runways are normally labeled on each end with a number that is reciprocal to the other by 180 degrees. Do ...
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How is the ALSF-II approach lighting system built and powered?

The ALSF-II approach lighting system includes lead-in groups, a decision bar, red side bars and sequenced strobes: ALSF-II approach lights for KRFD - Chicago-Rockford Intl (source). Does anyone know ...
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How close is an obstruction allowed to be in an instrument approach?

Inspired by this answer, and the comments that followed. City politics aside, i.e. hypothetically, can KBOS rwy 14 be used for landing aircraft that don't comfortably need more than 5,000 feet of ...
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Why does Logan Airport's Runway 32/14 only have arrivals on the 32 heading?

I was going through this PDF document on Logan International Airport's runway usage and I saw that Runway 32/14 only has arrival activity. Why is that the case? Is this the the reason or part of it ...
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Why do METARs report wind relative to true north rather than magnetic?

Why isn't the wind in a METAR given in magnetic heading, to match the runway numbers? Especially for areas where there is a double-digit magnetic declination. Secondary/optional question: does the ...
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What factors are considered when a runway is planned?

What environmental factors are considered when a new runway construction is planned (e.g. winds, weather, sun direction, etc.)?
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Is there a minimum distance between a runway and a public road?

Does the FAA require a minimum distance the between the TDZ of a runway and a public road? The reason I ask is because an aircraft landing at a small GA airport (Garnett Municipal, K68) came across ...
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1answer
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How can a 777ER fly from the 9000 ft runway at Bologna (LIPE)?

How can a 777ER be operated from the Bologna runway which is only 9000ft? I recently took the Emirates flight and the aircraft was full. I suppose that it was close to max weight. According to wiki ...
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Can you be cleared to cross a runway *behind* an aircraft on takeoff?

Taking KEWR as an example, let us say that aircraft are taking off from 4L at N and landing on 4R. Can I be cleared to cross 4L at say V, behind the aircraft taking off on 4L, without interrupting ...
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Is the Runway Visual Range (RVR) communicated to the pilots?

During CAT IIIA/IIIB approach where the decision height is 50 ft/0 ft, if the Runway Visual Range requirement for the approach is not met, what is a pilot to do? I mean, 50 ft (or even 100 ft?) seem ...
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How are runway changes performed when radar vectoring is available? [duplicate]

When the time comes to make a runway change, let's say because wind has changed direction, how is this performed? Aircraft might already be on finals, what does ATC do? Do they ask them if they want ...