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Questions tagged [runways]

A runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft" (ICAO definition).

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Why are some runways apparently wobbly? [duplicate]

In this youtube video, there are several examples at 0:34, 1:15, and 1:27. You can see the runway looks wobbly. That last one appears to have at least three wobbles in it. These are runways on which ...
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What are runway Aiming Point markers used for?

I'm interested in knowing what aiming points on runways are used for: Why do some runways have aim points and some do not? We say that pilots must use the maximum length of the runway. Therefore, why ...
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1answer
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Is white/brown-out effect hazardous during the landing roll out?

Landing on unpaved runways or runways covered by snow or dust causes a white/brown-out visibility restriction. Does it disrupt the pilot's visibility during the roll out in a fixed-wing aircraft?
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For what reasons might a taxiway be mistaken for a runway?

In this article, an airliner landed on a taxiway instead of a runway. What might be the reasons that a pilot can mistake a taxiway for a runway? (I mostly know the answer for this question, but I ...
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How are runway conditions measured?

Which method is used to measure the runway conditions? Is it impossible to land on a contaminated runway?
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Which came to be first - bigger airplanes, or longer runways?

I'm generally speaking about airports with runways long enough for airliners, be historic or still in use. In order not to turn this question to a chicken-egg discussion, here are my points: Would ...
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When an airport has helipads, why would a helicopter take-off or land on a runway?

At an airport with both runway and helipad (KASH) I have seen both being used for helicopter takeoffs and landings. Is there anything that causes the helicopter pilot to choose to use the runway ...
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Why would aircraft take-off in the opposite direction as landing despite wind direction?

I have visited and flown out of Harare International Airport, Zimbabwe a number of times and the thing that always baffles me is: Why do aircraft use runway 23 to depart, but runway 05 to land? At ...
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Why would an airport use crossing runways for takeoff and landings?

I was listening to some RealATC this evening and came to this one about an accident at LaGuardia airport. This question is not about the accident in any way, but I am using this video because it has ...
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1answer
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What are the specs for runways at international airports? [duplicate]

1) What are the materials that international airport runways are made of? If runways consists of several layers, what are they made of, and what is their depth and other specifications? 2) What are ...
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1answer
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What's the point of having ILS on runway signs?

Runway signs show the ILS category next to the runway designation. But if you flew and didn't drive to the airport, you already know (hopefully). Either way, you are taking off, so you don't really ...
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1answer
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Conducting a Precision Approach on a Non-Precision Runway - What are my limitations?

Let's take ILS, for example. As stated in the FARs, the minimum RVR for a CAT I ILS approach would be 2400ft (1/2 SM) for a runway that does not have TDZ and Centerline Lighting. So, that is one ...
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Why can't runway 18 at Frankfurt Airport accept takeoffs or landings in the opposite direction?

Runway 18 at Frankfurt Airport is one example of a runway which is numbered on only one side. Aircraft can only takeoff in the 18 direction, and cannot takeoff in the 36 direction, nor land in any ...
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What considerations should be taken into account for landing on gravel airstrips?

For the pilot of a Cessna or Piper 4 seater, what techniques and other considerations should be given before operating on a gravel/dirt airstrip?
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How are unpaved strips created and maintained?

I'm under the impression that some large craft are rated for "unpaved strips", which appear to be either some sort of gravel or perhaps dirt. The 727, and this runway, being a good example of this: ...
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How heavy is too heavy to land on a grass strip?

This is actually a tricky question, because it's not just about gross weight, but about how much weight each individual tire imparts into the ground. This, of course, depends on the design of the ...
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Why don't airport have heated runways to deal with winter conditions?

It is for years that I ask myself as a frequent flyer why there is no Airport using a system, like built-in electrical resistances on Runways to avoid Delays/Cancellations and even closing Airfields ...
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Are there runways that are numbered only on one side?

For all runways I've known or seen, they're numbered on both sides, with the number on the opposite direction differ by 18. Are there runways that are numbered only on one side? I.e. due to certain ...
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How can I find our FAA airport designation number?

Several years ago we were issued an airport designation number by the FAA. The information was lost when my father died. How do I find out what our designation number is?
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1answer
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Are runways “one-way”? [duplicate]

Do runways always handle traffic in the same direction? Another question asked how runways were labelled left and right (8L and 8R, for example). But of course "left" and "right" depend on your ...
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1answer
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More than one runway with the same heading. How are they labelled? [duplicate]

Given that runways are labelled by magnetic heading. What happens in airports that have more than one in the same direction? How are they labelled? Are there any such airports?
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In the U.S., Is it ever legal for an aircraft to occupy the runway turnaround area while another is taking off or landing?

In voretaq7's answer to the question Is there a name for the area for aircraft to back track near the runway threshold?, it is mentioned that runway turnaround areas are considered part of the runway ...
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Why are magnetic headings used for designating runways?

Runways are numbered based on compass heading. Why? Does this help pilots in locating the runway, even in today's GPS age? Or are there some other technical reasons behind this?
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Is there a name for the area for aircraft to back track near the runway threshold?

Some airports have an area, on the threshold, used to back track the aircraft, mainly because of the their wingspan, they look like a half wheel. Is there any designation for this area?
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1answer
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How is a runway inspection carried out?

During the Concorde's takeoff run, this piece of debris still lying on the runway, was run over, cutting a tyre and rupturing it. A runway inspection, scheduled for 15h, had not been carried out. ...
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Is reverse thrust needed on a long runway [duplicate]

Every time I have landed on a airplane reverse thrust is needed, but what if the runway is 18,000ft long. Because if the runway is longer couldn't you save fuel by not using the reverse exhaust
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1answer
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What are the safety concerns and efficiency benefits of two in-line runways?

Heathrow Hub is an independent proposal to expand capacity at Heathrow Airport by extending both of the existing runways up to a total length of about 7,000 metres and dividing them into four so that ...
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Should landing light be off during line up and wait position?

What is the proper position for the landing lights when on the runway in a line up and wait position?
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1answer
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What determines the touchdown zone and aiming point markings on a runway?

Large runways usually have a marked touchdown zone, and a marked aiming point (with two giant bars in the US). How is that location chosen? It seems like it is frequently further down the runway than ...
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What is a navigational fix? Where can I get navigational fixes for a local airport?

Amateur in aviation, so please explain the purpose of navigational fix and its characteristics. How is a navigational fix being placed around the runway, or how it is determined this would be the ...
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1answer
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Is certification required to conduct runways repairs?

I know that you need a certain certification to fix a plane, but are you required to have a certification to fix a runway? Or can anyone with the proper equipment be paid to do it?
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Is the airport capacity related to number of runways?

Lets say two different airports have the same number of runways, and terminals capable of handling any number of passengers. I realise that year round climate may have an effect on the number of days ...
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1answer
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How minimum runway length is calculated for PAC P-750 XSTOL?

I'm not a pilot, but have interest in the question from a safety perspective, as a skydiver and drop zone operator. I read the POH of PAC P-750 XSTOL, and tried reading a bit about the calculations, ...
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1answer
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What is Brake To Vacate (BTV)?

Emirates has this feature on many of its A380s. From what I've read, the feature decreases the amount of runway an aircraft uses after landing. It also helps the aircraft achieve a certain exit way. ...
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How to build a 2 mile long runway on a 1 mile square island?

On Puzzling.SE I found this question: You have a 1 mile long x 1 mile wide private island that you wish to turn into a resort. A plane requires a 2-miles long runway to take off. What do you do?...
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Who has authority to close a runway/airport?

In the recent runway excursion at LGA, visibility was bad, and an airport ops vehicle called the tower to inform them of the excursion and that runway 13 was closed, and then that the airport was ...
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What is the minimum distance allowed between two parallel runways?

Is there an international regulation for this matter or does it differ from one country to another?
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What is the “departure cable” that tower mentions?

Sometimes the tower will advise aircraft that the "departure cable" is up or down. What are they referring to? KPDX is one airport where this can be found.
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In calm winds, which runway should I select at an untowered airport?

In calm wind situations, approaching an uncontrolled airport with no other aircraft reporting on CTAF, which runway should I select that would cause the least safety hazard? Especially at an airport ...
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2answers
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What are the most efficient layouts of multiple runways?

Many airports have more than one runway. How should runways be built in order to achieve maximum usage and minimum delays? Many major airports have most, if not all, parallel runways. Examples ...
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When is runway slope most important?

Based on this other answer, a new question arose. When is runway slope most important, at take-off or at landing? Or is it equally important in both flight phases?
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1answer
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How can the same runway have two different gradients?

In an unrelated answer rbp linked to this Atlanta airport info page, and runway 8R/26L caught my eye. If I understand correctly, these two runways are the same piece of pavement, but refer to the use ...
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How flat does a runway need to be?

I always assumed that big runways are flat (or more specifically straight: they might have a slight slope in either direction), but while watching some crosswind landing footage shot at Birmingham ...
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Do runways need some special kind of tar or protective layer?

Do runways of the airports have some special kind of tar or protective layer to avoid the wear and tear in comparison to that of the Highways as they need to handle the much high pressure and the ...
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What is the rule of thumb for land/taking-off on a sloped runway?

Skyvector lists the gradient for KMCI as 0.3%. What is the rule of thumb for how large a gradient needs to be before you always take off downhill and always land uphill like they do at Lukla? Assume ...
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1answer
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How often do runways need to have typical maintenance?

At a large airport (think Heathrow, JFK, O'Hare), I would imagine that the runways take a lot of abuse from all the huge planes landing on them. So, a quick multipart question: How do large ...
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How are go-arounds safe with close parallel runways?

Some airports operate simultaneous take off and landing on parallel but close runways. By close, I mean like the pairs of runways at LAX. What if a landing aircraft makes a go-around at the same time ...
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How to know if an airport has PAPI lights?

Is there any way to identify whether an airport has PAPI lights (2-light or 4 light system, doesn't matter)? I am working on some map generation and using aerial images to identify PAPI lights for ...
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2answers
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How is the runway pavement chosen?

Wikipedia list a number of runway pavement. For specific airports, the choice is obvious (e.g. ice, snow). But there are few pavement I cannot figure out how to decide which one use. Why an airport ...
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4answers
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What determines in which direction a runway is used?

A nearby airport has a single 05/23 runway (3900m long), where airplanes start and land in one direction during certain periods and in the opposite direction during other periods. How is the ...