Questions tagged [rudder]

A directional control surface, usually mounted on an aircraft's vertical stabilizer, which causes an airplane to yaw (and, sometimes, roll) to the left or right when deflected.

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51
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4answers
19k views

Why are the F/A-18 rudders deflected in opposing directions during takeoff?

Looking at some videos and photos of F/A-18 Hornets and Super Hornets taking off from carriers and from airfields, I recognised that the left rudder is pointing right, and the right rudder pointing ...
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4answers
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When does an airliner switch from using the tiller to the rudder?

When does an airliner switch from using the tiller to steer to the rudder on takeoff? Same for landing- when does the pilot switch from using the rudder to the tiller? What is this process? Once a ...
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3answers
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What is the advantage of the two-part rudder and how does it work?

I saw that some aircraft's rudder is composed of an upper rudder and a lower rudder (B727, A380, ...) as illustrated: Image Source I wonder how does it work compare to a normal rudder and what are ...
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Did Wolfgang Langewiesche ever change his mind about rudder pedals?

I get the feeling that if aviation was a religion and had a holy book, that book would be Stick and Rudder. Mostly because it's often spoken of with great authority by people who have never read it. ...
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3answers
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Why are airplanes parked at the gate with max rudder deflection?

Quite often I see aircraft parked at the gate with rudder deflected to the max. I see this either with Boeing and Airbus aircraft so it must have been done on purpose. I know that there are dampers ...
19
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2answers
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Does an F/A-18 require a lot of rudder in turns?

I am an aspiring Navy fighter pilot and I use an X-Plane add on for FA-18 Hornet as a fighter. It's made by a creator named Colimata. I think the turns are unrealistic. When I begin a bank a lot of ...
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Did any aircraft ever use stick twist for rudder control?

Did any aircraft ever use stick twist for rudder control like some joysticks for video game flight simulators?
18
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3answers
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Why does the B-52 have such a tiny rudder?

The B-52 (aka Stratofortress, aka Grey Lady, aka BUFF) has a minuscule rudder for an aircraft of its size and wing-mounted engine placement: Compare to, for instance, the rudder on a 747: The B-52’s ...
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4answers
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Why does rudder cause roll?

In the few rudder incidents with the B737, rudder-freeze caused the airplane to roll. From what I know, the rudder causes yaw while the aileron causes roll. Why in the case of these accidents/...
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6answers
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What's the purpose of yawing?

I've never understood the purpose of yawing, i.e., rotating around the vertical axis by activating the rudder. Provided that airplanes have ailerons that allow banking (used for turning), why do they ...
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6answers
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What happens if only rudder is applied in a turn without ailerons? Do the two have to be applied together all the time?

Fresh newbie in glider flying. I was told the joystick (aileron) and the pedal (rudder) should always be applied together when making a turn. My question is, what happens if I only pedals the rudder ...
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Does the rudder need to be held throughout a coordinated turn?

It's widely known that to perform a coordinated turn, rudder must be turned as well as ailerons. My question is what to do after the desired bank angle is achieved? In the Airplane Flying Handbook we ...
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What is the advantage of combining the rudder and brake pedals in aircraft?

I've read about several aircraft having their rudder and brake pedals very close together. To me this seems confusing and prone to error. It looks easy to mistake the rudder / brake pedals and ...
14
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4answers
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Do modern aircraft require rudder input in order to perform a coordinated turn?

With today's state-of-the-art electronic systems in modern aircraft, do aircraft equipped with autopilot systems, still require pilot rudder input to keep a turn coordinated? For the context, I'm ...
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8answers
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Why is using opposite rudder and aileron necessary in left turn for coordination?

This question goes against everything I've read or heard with the exception of a suggestion from my CFI in my last flight lesson, so I was hoping to get some clarification: During a left turn into ...
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2answers
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Why isn't it possible to locate the rudder in front of an airplane's center of gravity?

Why isn't it possible to locate the rudder in front of an airplane's center of gravity? Specifically how does this relate to the stability derivative?
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How do the Beech Bonanza's ruddervators work?

How do the Beech Bonanza's ruddervators work? When the yoke is pulled completely back, is it possible to use rudder?
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4answers
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Do rudder pedals slide or hinge?

I am planning on making a pair of rudder pedals from scratch. I don't know whether they should be hinged, or slide forwards and backwards. On real aircraft, how do they work? Does it vary from plane ...
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3answers
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Why do aircraft have a crossover airspeed, and why does it increase at higher vertical load factors?

According to the NTSB accident report on the crash of USAir Flight 427, all commercial aircraft have a crossover speed (the speed at which the maximum rolling force from the aircraft’s ailerons and ...
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2answers
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How do pilots make rudder inputs during negative G flight?

During negative 'G' flight, the forces on the pilot (or pilots) will tend to push their legs up and away from the rudder pedals on your airplane. Needless to say, this is not conducive to making ...
10
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2answers
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Are the functions of ailerons and rudder similar?

The ailerons help the plane to bank left/right by increasing lift to one wing and decreasing in another. Likewise, the rudder also helps in turning the plane by yawing and deflecting the nose right/...
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Can an aircraft be turned without rudder input?

Is it possible for pilots to make a right or left turn, using just the ailerons and without rudder input in all airliners? If not why so, for what reason?
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5answers
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When was the first rudder on an aircraft used?

I have seen pictures of World War I-era airplanes that have rudders much smaller than today. When did the first rudder come out?
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4answers
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How is rudder used in a aileron roll?

Rudder is usually used to maintain coordinated flight. When banking to one side to begin a turn, the rudder is usually pushed towards that side. I guess this is still valid in inverted flight: in ...
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1answer
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Are there any incidents caused by rudder failure in Military jets?

Based on this question about the rudder position of the F/A-18 Fighter Jet. Quote from the user Rhino Driver: The logic has its limits though and if the pilot exceeds 14 AoA in a landing mode (...
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Do pilots use the pedals in flight on planes with a sidestick (Airbus)?

Do the pilots flying sidestick aircraft with fly-by-wire control systems, such as the Airbus A320, use the rudder pedals while in the air? Or does sidestick input affect both the rudder and the ...
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4answers
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Why do the F/A-18 and the F-22 Raptor have horizontal stabilizer as well as canted rudders for pitch control?

F/A-18, F-22 Raptor have a horizontal tailplane as well as canted rudders? Why can't the horizontal tailplane done away with (as in the F-117) and have only the ruddervators for pitch control?
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2answers
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What are the pros/cons of all-moving rudder?

All-moving flight control surface (stabilator instead of a stabilisator+elevator) are common on supersonic aircrafts but this is usually used for pitch control only. For rudder, this design (one all-...
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2answers
787 views

Can perfect turn coordination automation be achieved by linking rudder to aileron?

I was reading about the ERCO aircraft which apparently has a rudder-aileron linkage system that enables co-ordinated turns without the need for explicit rudder inputs. I've heard of Piper's having ...
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3answers
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Why increase or decrease rudder when using elevator in turns?

In normal 30 degree bank level turns, instructors teach students that if you are to correct your altitude you also need to change your rudder input. Why is that? For example if you are descending in ...
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5answers
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What advice would you give a novice pilot on controlling the rudder?

I've recently picked up flying lessons for ULL (similar to LSA in N.America). I've thought I've been doing pretty well (I guess my experience with computer simulation helped considerably). Yet more ...
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1answer
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How is a light plane's nose wheel straightened during retract?

Assuming a light aircraft has direct cable linkage to the rudders, during taking off in a very strong crosswind with the pilot correcting with hard rudder, what keeps the nose wheel from remaining off ...
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Why don't commercial aircraft use all-movable tail surfaces like my RC plane? [duplicate]

Many conventional RC planes use control surfaces at the tail just like the image below: You can see there is a part in front of each surface control that never moves and only the surface control ...
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2answers
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Why does the A320 use the rudder for lateral control in mechanical law?

When the Airbus A320’s flight control system is operating in mechanical law (the simplest and lowest-tech of the A320’s flight control laws, where deflections of the pilots’ joysticks are transmitted ...
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3answers
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How much rudder input does a Cessna 172 require during the take off roll?

I am part of an open-source project developing a simulation of a Cessna 172P. We are tweaking our flight dynamic model at the moment and we are looking for feedback from people with real life ...
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2answers
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Why should the ball be centered during steep turns?

I was taught to make steep turns with the ball centered, but this seems wrong to me. Shouldn’t the ball actually be held slightly to the inside of the turn? My thought is that by using some cross-...
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How to use Rudder during takeoff in single engine propeller aircraft? e.g. Cessna 172

Background: I am a complete beginner on Flight Simulator X: Steam edition, using a simulator setup with rudder pedals with realism set to the max (to simulate more realistic flying). I understand ...
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3answers
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What are the disadvantages of using just rudder to roll an airplane?

Ultralights with slight dihedral will roll and yaw on rudder input (e.g the Bloop 3, Maxair Hummer) so some don't have ailerons for the sake of simplicity. Is this kind of control input advisable, or ...
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Why don't airliners have rudders on the winglets?

There are a couple airplanes out there that use the winglet as the rudder, but why doesn't the winglet have a rudder on it to increase the turn of the aircraft?
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2answers
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What happens after a rudder hardover?

I'm sure many of you are familiar with "rudder hardover", where an aeroplane's rudder deflects to an extreme position - full left or full right. Many of you will be aware that such an event, caused by ...
6
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2answers
708 views

How does a self-centering rudder affect left-turning tendency?

In this answer to a question about controls, Peter Kämpf mentions the Klemm 35: ...the rudder has two narrow strips which are deflected slightly to the left and the right, respectively. This ...
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1answer
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Why are some vertical stabilizers painted 'after' installation?

I recently watched the Airbus videos on making the first PAL and Air China A350s. PAL’s vertical stabilizer was painted before being installed, as explained in 'Why are the tails always painted, but ...
6
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1answer
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How does rudder size influence its ability to produce lateral lift?

Does anyone know how the area, height and width of a rudder affect how well it provides lateral lift? I've heard that the most effective rudders are around 35% of the vertical stabiliser MAC but is ...
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4answers
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Do aerodynamic forces and moments change aircraft pitch and yaw in the same way?

Several questions on the Aviation SE site have dealt with the question: can the rudder alone turn the aircraft: This one, which was marked a duplicate of this one, which was itself marked as a ...
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How do I keep coordinated on a windy day?

I've noticed on windy days that keeping the aircraft coordinated can be difficult -- the ball will tend to bounce back and forth in the turn coordinator, and I will find myself "chasing" it with the ...
5
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1answer
415 views

Testing control surfaces pre flight; what feedback does pilot recieve?

During taxi / pre-take off I see a lot of commercial airliners test the deflections of their various control surfaces like the rudder, ailerons etc. What's the feedback received in this operation i....
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3answers
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How often does an airline pilot use the rudder pedals during flight?

How often does an airline pilot use the rudder pedals during flight? Is it only during takeoff and landing? I am interested to know the rudder pedal usage time in minutes per average short range ...
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4answers
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How is a sideslip maintained (aerodynamically)?

(Public domain image that I've modified.) The initial rudder deflection to the left creates a side force that points right and yaws the plane to the left. NASA puts it this way: For the vertical ...
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1answer
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How does the rudder on the Rutan Long-EZ work?

I wonder if someone can explain how the rudder on the Rutan Long-EZ works. I have an idea that it is the induced drag which yaws the plane.
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1answer
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Does the A320 Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer automatically reset after landing?

Does the A320's Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer (THS) automatically reset after landing? If so, is there any condition where it doesn't? And what about the rudder trim? I'm asking because I'm ...