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Questions tagged [rudder]

A directional control surface, usually mounted on an aircraft's vertical stabilizer, which causes an airplane to yaw (and sometime, roll) to the left or right when deflected.

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Why does the A320 use the rudder for lateral control in mechanical law?

When the Airbus A320’s flight control system is operating in mechanical law (the simplest and lowest-tech of the A320’s flight control laws, where deflections of the pilots’ joysticks are transmitted ...
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2answers
280 views

Why was the 737 main rudder servo valve’s vulnerability to causing uncommanded reversals never discovered in testing?

As was discovered during the NTSB investigation into the crash of USAir Flight 427, the design of the servo valve inside the main rudder power control unit (PCU) formerly used on 737 Original- and ...
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3answers
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Why does the B-52 have such a tiny rudder?

The B-52 (aka Stratofortress, aka Grey Lady, aka BUFF) has a minuscule rudder for an aircraft of its size and wing-mounted engine placement: Compare to, for instance, the rudder on a 747: The B-52’s ...
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Effect of Rudder on Velocity Vector

Suppose we have an aircraft flying in steady, level flight at zero angle of attack. In this configuration, the velocity vector $\vec{V}$ is perfectly aligned with the $x$ axis. At some time $t=t_0$, ...
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Why do aircraft have a crossover airspeed, and why does it increase at higher vertical load factors?

According to the NTSB accident report on the crash of USAir Flight 427, all commercial aircraft have a crossover speed (the speed at which the maximum rolling force from the aircraft’s ailerons and ...
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3answers
281 views

How often does an airline pilot use the rudder pedals during flight?

How often does an airline pilot use the rudder pedals during flight? Is it only during takeoff and landing? I am interested to know the rudder pedal usage time in minutes per average short range ...
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5answers
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Why don't commercial aircraft use all-movable tail surfaces like my RC plane? [duplicate]

Many conventional RC planes use control surfaces at the tail just like the image below: You can see there is a part in front of each surface control that never moves and only the surface control ...
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2answers
177 views

How to deal with turbulence while flying glider? (Cautions in applying rudder)

I just watched video explaining how the American Airline Flight 587 crashed It led me to think about glider flying. The cause of that crash was that the first officer ...
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What happens if only rudder is applied in a turn without ailerons? Do the two have to be applied together all the time?

Fresh newbie in glider flying. I was told the joystick (aileron) and the pedal (rudder) should always be applied together when making a turn. My question is, what happens if I only pedals the rudder ...
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1answer
429 views

Why are some vertical stabilizers painted 'after' installation?

I recently watched the Airbus videos on making the first PAL and Air China A350s. PAL’s vertical stabilizer was painted before being installed, as explained in 'Why are the tails always painted, but ...
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1answer
129 views

Why does operating the rudders in the engine slipstream offer improved rudder authority at low speed?

The above question is usually presented as an advantage for H-tail configurations. How does it help?
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593 views

Does the A320 Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer automatically reset after landing?

Does the A320's Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer (THS) automatically reset after landing? If so, is there any condition where it doesn't? And what about the rudder trim? I'm asking because I'm ...
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3answers
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What are the disadvantages of using just rudder to roll an airplane?

Ultralights with slight dihedral will roll and yaw on rudder input (e.g the Bloop 3, Maxair Hummer) so some don't have ailerons for the sake of simplicity. Is this kind of control input advisable, or ...
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1answer
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How is a light plane's nose wheel straightened during retract?

Assuming a light aircraft has direct cable linkage to the rudders, during taking off in a very strong crosswind with the pilot correcting with hard rudder, what keeps the nose wheel from remaining off ...
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2answers
806 views

What is the difference between a vertical stabilizer and a rudder?

I saw two questions on locating these surfaces ahead of CG: Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder How are these the same or different control surfaces?
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3answers
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How much rudder input does a Cessna 172 require during the take off roll?

I am part of an open-source project developing a simulation of a Cessna 172P. We are tweaking our flight dynamic model at the moment and we are looking for feedback from people with real life ...
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1answer
144 views

Is right rudder always needed during go-around/touch and go with a Diamond DA-40?

Is application of right pedal always necessary in parallel with advancing power lever in diamond aircraft (DA-40) during go-around/touch and go?
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4answers
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Do modern aircraft require rudder input in order to perform a coordinated turn?

With today's state-of-the-art electronic systems in modern aircraft, do aircraft equipped with autopilot systems, still require pilot rudder input to keep a turn coordinated? For the context, I'm ...
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3answers
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When does an airliner switch from using the tiller to the rudder?

When does an airliner switch from using the tiller to steer to the rudder on takeoff? Same for landing- when does the pilot switch from using the rudder to the tiller? What is this process? Once a ...
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2answers
292 views

What is a minimal step angle deflection for flight control surfaces?

If the flight control surfaces (ailerons, elevators, rudder) are controlled digitally by servo motors, yet disregarding the way how the input to the servo motors get generated (manually or autopilot), ...
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1answer
93 views

What kind of material should I use for rudder skins?

I’ve done some research on this topic for awhile now, but I’m not exactly sure how to go about it. I’ve heard and read that on some World War Two aircraft had fabric covered fuselages, such as the ...
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601 views

Do aerodynamic forces and moments change aircraft pitch and yaw in the same way?

Several questions on the Aviation SE site have dealt with the question: can the rudder alone turn the aircraft: This one, which was marked a duplicate of this one, which was itself marked as a ...
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5answers
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Can an aircraft be turned without rudder input?

Is it possible for pilots to make a right or left turn, using just the ailerons and without rudder input in all airliners? If not why so, for what reason?
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1answer
402 views

How does rudder size influence its ability to produce lateral lift?

Does anyone know how the area, height and width of a rudder affect how well it provides lateral lift? I've heard that the most effective rudders are around 35% of the vertical stabiliser MAC but is ...
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0answers
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Do airliners perform a dive maneuver to reduce altitude [duplicate]

DO airliners, jumbos included, like the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747 routinely perform dive (nose down) maneuvers to descend or do they rather reduce speed and descend with the nose up? If not, why not?
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1answer
370 views

Can you turn a large airliner using only rudder input? [duplicate]

Is it possible to turn a large jet like the Boeing 747, Airbus A380 or other airliner using only the rudder, i.e. without using the ailerons on the wings? Will it take longer to turn to a new heading?...
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2answers
571 views

How do pilots make rudder inputs during negative G flight?

During negative 'G' flight, the forces on the pilot (or pilots) will tend to push their legs up and away from the rudder pedals on your airplane. Needless to say, this is not conducive to making ...
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2answers
487 views

Is it possible to turn and safely land an aircraft with a malfunctioning rudder?

Is it possible to turn mid air, and land a jumbo Boeing 747, Airbus A380 or any aircraft if the vertical stabilator is jammed in a position that allows it to fly straight at cruise altitude and speed, ...
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2answers
2k views

Why should the ball be centered during steep turns?

I was taught to make steep turns with the ball centered, but this seems wrong to me. Shouldn’t the ball actually be held slightly to the inside of the turn? My thought is that by using some cross-...
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3answers
1k views

Did any aircraft ever use stick twist for rudder control?

Did any aircraft ever use stick twist for rudder control like some joysticks for video game flight simulators?
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Is there a specific relation between sideslip angle and yaw rate OR how sideslip angle depend on yaw rate?

Since, yaw rate is controlled via rudder and sideslip angle can also be controlled by rudder, I want to know if there is any dependence of sideslip angle on yaw rate in fly by wire aircraft as I am ...
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1answer
941 views

How is a sideslip maintained (aerodynamically)?

(Public domain image that I've modified.) The initial rudder deflection to the left creates a side force that points right and yaws the plane to the left. NASA puts it this way: For the vertical ...
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1answer
425 views

Why do some airplanes allow separate right and left rudder pedal adjustment?

Ideally, when a pilot adjusts the rudder pedals both pedals should move together, to have equal leg length for the left and right legs. Some aircraft like the Dornier 228 have rudder pedal ...
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3answers
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Why are airplanes parked at the gate with max rudder deflection?

Quite often I see aircraft parked at the gate with rudder deflected to the max. I see this either with Boeing and Airbus aircraft so it must have been done on purpose. I know that there are dampers ...
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2answers
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How can a flying wing style airplane recover from a spin without a vertical stabilizer? [duplicate]

I fly a Cessna C-172, and if I have any bank when stalling, I have to use rudder to level the airplane. If I use aileron, the bank angle will increase and bring the airplane into a spin. My question ...
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1answer
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Can some planes turn using just the rudder or without banking? [duplicate]

I know you use the rudder when banking to keep the plane in the correct orientation, but is it possible, when making a slight turn with say a small private cessna, could you just use the rudder to ...
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Why do the F/A-18 and the F-22 Raptor have horizontal stabilizer as well as canted rudders for pitch control?

F/A-18, F-22 Raptor have a horizontal tailplane as well as canted rudders? Why can't the horizontal tailplane done away with (as in the F-117) and have only the ruddervators for pitch control?
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Why is using opposite rudder and aileron necessary in left turn for coordination?

This question goes against everything I've read or heard with the exception of a suggestion from my CFI in my last flight lesson, so I was hoping to get some clarification: During a left turn into ...
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4answers
4k views

Why does rudder cause roll?

In the few rudder incidents with the B737, rudder-freeze caused the airplane to roll. From what I know, the rudder causes yaw while the aileron causes roll. Why in the case of these accidents/...
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2answers
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Are the functions of ailerons and rudder similar?

The ailerons help the plane to bank left/right by increasing lift to one wing and decreasing in another. Likewise, the rudder also helps in turning the plane by yawing and deflecting the nose right/...
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2answers
587 views

Can perfect turn coordination automation be achieved by linking rudder to aileron?

I was reading about the ERCO aircraft which apparently has a rudder-aileron linkage system that enables co-ordinated turns without the need for explicit rudder inputs. I've heard of Piper's having ...
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2answers
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How does a helicopter rudder work?

So occasionally I will be flying my rc helicopter and I turn it left to right (rudder) but see nothing moving on the helicopter. On an aircraft there is a vertical stabilizer that has a moving rudder. ...
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4answers
2k views

Why don't airliners have rudders on the winglets?

There are a couple airplanes out there that use the winglet as the rudder, but why doesn't the winglet have a rudder on it to increase the turn of the aircraft?
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1answer
812 views

Are there any incidents caused by rudder failure in Military jets?

Based on this question about the rudder position of the F/A-18 Fighter Jet. Quote from the user Rhino Driver: The logic has its limits though and if the pilot exceeds 14 AoA in a landing mode (...
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3answers
1k views

When was the first rudder on an aircraft used?

I wonder this because I have seen pictures of ww1 airplanes that have rudder much smaller than today, but when did the first rudder come out.
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What's the purpose of yawing?

I've never understood the purpose of yawing, i.e., rotating around the vertical axis by activating the rudder. Provided that airplanes have ailerons that allow banking (used for turning), why do they ...
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5answers
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What advice would you give a novice pilot on controlling the rudder?

I've recently picked up flying lessons for ULL (similar to LSA in N.America). I've thought I've been doing pretty well (I guess my experience with computer simulation helped considerably). Yet more ...
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2answers
2k views

What are the pros/cons of all-moving rudder?

All-moving flight control surface (stabilator instead of a stabilisator+elevator) are common on supersonic aircrafts but this is usually used for pitch control only. For rudder, this design (one all-...
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2answers
858 views

How to reduce altitude in a passenger jet without gaining forward speed in an emergency?

Assume the pilot is flying too fast and high for an emergency landing. What movement of the control surfaces must they apply to land the aircraft safely on the runway? I heard this type of manuever is ...
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4answers
7k views

How is rudder used in a aileron roll?

Rudder is usually used to maintain coordinated flight. When banking to one side to begin a turn, the rudder is usually pushed towards that side. I guess this is still valid in inverted flight: in ...