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Questions tagged [regulations]

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25 votes
4 answers
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Can civilians buy military aircraft?

Say one wanted to buy a retired F-14, or F-5, or a BAE Hawk. Could I do it? Obviously this would mean stripping out radars, weapons, rwr, and any other sensitive equipment, but after this, would it ...
Bassinator's user avatar
  • 5,490
41 votes
7 answers
42k views

Do lights on aircraft flash in a specific pattern?

On a clear night, everyone can spot planes quite easily: they have flashing lights. I have noticed that the pattern seems different for different planes, and tried to find a meaning. What I saw so ...
PlasmaHH's user avatar
  • 842
7 votes
1 answer
11k views

Where to download NATs (North Atlantic Tracks) information?

I am reading about NATs (North Atlantic Tracks) and I found out they are created and regulated by the following entities: westbound flow: Shanwick Oceanic Control eastbound flow: Gander Oceanic ...
Federico Gentile's user avatar
22 votes
4 answers
25k views

Is there a height limit to national airspace?

Given the following facts: satellites can operate at an altitude of 200km without triggering frontier violation incident aircraft can trigger diplomatic protestations if they cross a frontier at an ...
Manu H's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
44k views

What is the main difference between an ETOPS certified and non-ETOPS certified plane?

ETOPS stands for Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards, a rule which permits twin engine aircraft to fly routes which, at some point, are more than 60 minutes flying time away ...
Him's user avatar
  • 5,288
10 votes
1 answer
10k views

How do pilots use stopway, EMAS, clearway and displaced threshold?

I noticed in Why is “clearway minus stopway” used in V1 adjustments? that a stopway and an EMAS are both indicated by yellow chevrons: Same Opa-Locka stopway on the left, and San Diego EMAS on the ...
mins's user avatar
  • 73.6k
3 votes
1 answer
379 views

What happens to an airborne plane when its type is grounded by an authority?

Many countries have (temporarily I think) banned 737 Max 8s from taking off or landing. What happened to the ones in the air? Do they get special permissions or are they forced to divert to a ...
Mining15's user avatar
29 votes
3 answers
24k views

How flat does a runway need to be?

I always assumed that big runways are flat (or more specifically straight: they might have a slight slope in either direction), but while watching some crosswind landing footage shot at Birmingham ...
SztupY's user avatar
  • 393
22 votes
1 answer
21k views

What is the difference between aviation "accident" and "incident"?

When I hear speaking about aviation crashes, sometimes I hear about "accidents" and other times about "incidents". What distinguishes them? Is there an international standard that determines how ...
Federico's user avatar
  • 32.6k
16 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why are speed restrictions imposed for flights flying below 10,000 ft?

I know that restrictions do not always apply and ATC can cancel them or pilots can request for speed restriction being canceled. But why is there such a speed restriction in first place? Are there any ...
Stelios Adamantidis's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
20k views

Under what conditions would a helicopter be allowed to fly at low altitude over populated areas?

Yesterday, the Department of Energy was flying a military helicopter at low altitudes over Boston and the surrounding area as part of an experiment of some type to measure radiation. I saw one of ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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22 votes
3 answers
33k views

When does a flight require a copilot?

I was wondering if there are regulations for when a flight requires both a pilot and copilot. I always assumed a copilot is required once civilian passengers are aboard, but when I recently was a ...
McFarlane's user avatar
  • 605
21 votes
3 answers
39k views

What is the minimum distance allowed between two parallel runways?

Is there an international regulation for this matter or does it differ from one country to another?
Taher Elhouderi's user avatar
21 votes
2 answers
10k views

Can a pilot take off at his own discretion?

[I'm referring to an ATC conversation during the military coup in Turkey with an MD83 EP-TAS (ATA TBZ5402). Can a pilot take off at his own discretion? To summarize the link: a pilot is begging the ...
TesterMen Tester's user avatar
19 votes
3 answers
7k views

Why is the sound quality of onboard public address so bad?

While not a frequent flyer, I did fly common airliners quite a lot, and each time the (very) low sound quality of onboard public adress system has always struck me. We all know technology makes it ...
kebs's user avatar
  • 715
12 votes
1 answer
803 views

Where can I find regulations in different countries for flight level rules based on direction of flight?

I'm from Brazil, and here we use the West/East rule, so we use an odd flight level when we fly between 0/360 - 179, and when we fly between ...
Ygor Montenegro's user avatar
12 votes
5 answers
5k views

Do Federal Regulations really require compliance with all crewmember instructions?

On commercial flights, we're frequently told that all passengers are "required to comply with lighted signs and placards, and all crew member instructions". But when it comes to the CFRs, the ...
abelenky's user avatar
  • 30.7k
5 votes
1 answer
248 views

How are aviation regulations treated on a global stage?

I know that the two large aviation regulatory authorities are the FAA and EASA, but every country also has its own civil aviation authority. Focusing on airliners that need to operate all over the ...
Jonny's user avatar
  • 2,038
3 votes
1 answer
6k views

What is the maximum legal flight time for single pilots under Part 91/135 operations?

I'm referring to FAA Part 91 and 135 operations (or similar, EASA) and the maximum duration of one single flight (not the maximum duty time per day / week / month). If any, what are the legal flight ...
Stefan's user avatar
  • 4,692
48 votes
6 answers
36k views

How close can planes fly to each other over the ocean?

While on a recent Air Transat flight from Toronto Pearson to London Gatwick, several hours into the flight and over the Atlantic Ocean, my daughter and I noticed a plane behind ours to the left, ...
Wendy's user avatar
  • 477
29 votes
4 answers
5k views

Is there any way to relieve the Pilot in Command?

Is there any way to relieve the Pilot in Command besides hijacking and incapacitation? This question comes from a comment by rackandboneman, who says: And whose authority is sufficient to make an ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
  • 23.2k
25 votes
6 answers
24k views

Can a passenger request to visit the cockpit during a flight?

As a kid, I remember going to the cockpit of a plane with my mom (I believe the airline was AOM French Airlines). Is this still possible now? I understand the answer might differ with different ...
Antzi's user avatar
  • 4,222
20 votes
7 answers
4k views

Does Daylight Saving Time affect local airspace?

Only some countries use Daylight Saving Time. In Canada, some provinces use and don't use DST (such as Saskatchewan). However, in remote and local regions where this is not observed, what would happen?...
Zizouz212's user avatar
  • 934
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the relation between number of crew members (pilots and attendants) and fleet size in airlines?

Taking into account relevant elements like the fleet size or the type of flights (short or long haul, passengers or cargo, ...), do airlines use typical ratios between the number of aircraft and the ...
mins's user avatar
  • 73.6k
11 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are some countries' civil aviation authorities safer than others?

Okay, put down the pitchforks, I'm not pointing fingers at anyone! I'm just aware that every country has its own civil aviation authority, and I wonder if there's any reason to believe that some ...
Jae Carr's user avatar
  • 24.2k
11 votes
4 answers
3k views

Is it legal for an SEP airplane to fly above its service ceiling?

Let's take a Cessna 172R for example. According to the POH this airplane has a service ceiling of 13,500 ft. I know that the service ceiling is the maximum altitude where a 100 foot per minute climb ...
Jimy's user avatar
  • 2,152
9 votes
2 answers
4k views

How did ICAO SARPS come to include the 250 knots speed limit for aircraft below 10,000 feet?

In certain airspace classes, a speed limit of 250 knots IAS is imposed for aircraft flying below FL100/10.000FT, according to the airspace classes defined by ICAO. How did this limit find its way into ...
60levelchange's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
348 views

Can an instrument procedure be intercepted from the middle and how?

While I was reading FAA-H-8083-6 I was wondering if a pilot can be instructed to intercept a procedure from a point somewhere in the middle of it. Specifically: A pilot departs from an airport ...
Stelios Adamantidis's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do the FAR's define a cloud?

If you're talking about a big puffy cumulus cloud it's pretty obvious. But from where I am right now, looking up I see grey sky from horizon to horizon. But visibility at the surface is good. All ...
TomMcW's user avatar
  • 28.5k
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is it practical to use ground effect to extend range in an emergency?

Imagine a piston engine airplane (let's say a DC-3) flying at cruise speed and altitude over a calm sea, trying to reach an unreachable airstrip straight ahead, just above sea level. Fuel is very low ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

What, exactly is "on the MEL"?

The MEL, minimum equipment list, defines whether fault of some equipment on the aircraft prevents it from being dispatched for flight or not. However, sometimes (e.g. in comments to this question) ...
Jan Hudec's user avatar
  • 56.3k
6 votes
1 answer
3k views

Is it illegal to fly a Cessna 172S under day VFR with an inoperative vacuum gauge?

Let's say my vacuum gauge is not working on my C172S and I want to go day VFR flying. There is no MEL. 14 CFR 91.213 details procedures for inoperative instruments, and I think the following ...
bcf's user avatar
  • 807
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the regulation related to weather radar use?

I think most commercial aircraft have a weather radar located in the nose cone, like this: (Source: PhotoBucket, by intelmani5) It's well known that radar emissions can be harmful, e.g. one could ...
mins's user avatar
  • 73.6k
4 votes
5 answers
25k views

Are those devices allowed on a flight which create their own WiFi signals?

I am going from Canada to Mexico but I don't want to be dependent on in-flight entertainment. Thus I got seagate wireless plus so I can stream to my iPad. I couldn't find any policies I can use this ...
Pipsydoodles's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
3k views

What regulatory bodies are there?

Since planes traverse the Earth, and a country may deem another country's airline unsafe, yet that unsafe airline is deemed safe in its country, what is the hierarchy of the aviation regulatory bodies ...
motoDrizzt's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
208 views

Do airports have their own incident/accident investigation departments?

Do airports have their own incident/accident investigation departments? or they are restricted to the NCAA/Safety department only?
Hakimi's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Are 100 hour inspections required to rent out a plane?

According to 14 CFR § 91.409 - Inspections: (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no ...
Zaz's user avatar
  • 1,559
26 votes
6 answers
14k views

Can a private jet take off without notifying anybody and land on private land in another country? [duplicate]

If you have a friend in the USA who owns a lot of land that is suitable for landing a plane, and you own a private jet with 2 pilots in Norway, can you take off in private property without notifying ...
LineGolem's user avatar
  • 387
20 votes
4 answers
8k views

Are seaplanes allowed to taxi in residential areas?

There's a small pond/lake behind my house. A sea plane was just going around it. It was very loud and got like 10 feet from the shore. It's just going in circles and won't take off and leave. This is ...
Kelly 's user avatar
  • 227
20 votes
7 answers
5k views

What is the maximal acceptable delay between pilot's input and flight control surface actuation?

While I was watching a cockpit video of an A330 landing in which the pilot was frenetically moving its sidestick, I wander what was the reaction time of this flight by wire system. Indeed, the time ...
Manu H's user avatar
  • 16.5k
19 votes
3 answers
9k views

Has anyone ever been penalised for buzzing a control tower?

Has there ever been a pilot who was caught and penalised for performing a "circus stunt fly-by" next to a control tower? To clarify the question: I mean legal actions took place; for example ...
kevin's user avatar
  • 39.7k
16 votes
3 answers
8k views

Is it legal to fly under the Golden Gate Bridge? [duplicate]

I recently had the opportunity to rent a plane and fly in the San Francisco Bay Area. While flying in the HWD/OAK/SFO area is challenging enough, when I spoke of my adventures of flying above ...
Joe Covino's user avatar
16 votes
1 answer
936 views

Who decided that the Boeing 737 MAX planes that were airborne when the grounding was issued cannot enter and land in EU air space?

On March 12th, 2019, EASA grounded the Boeing 737 MAX series by publishing their Emergency Airworthiness Directive 2019-0051-E (AD): Effective Date: 12 March 2019, 19:00 UTC  [...] ...
bogl's user avatar
  • 10.8k
16 votes
1 answer
3k views

Is it legal to make a non-military stealth plane?

Just as military camouflage can be legally worn by civilians on most jurisdictions (e.g., in the U.S.), can I create a stealth aircraft for non-military use? More precisely, can I register and fly the ...
Mark Garcia's user avatar
15 votes
3 answers
2k views

What regulations exist for ATC real time RADAR simulator software?

Does professional ATC RADAR simulator software need to comply to some regulations or requirements in order to be used for real life controller training? Have ICAO, Eurocontrol, EASA or FAA published ...
Stelios Adamantidis's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the consequences of falsely and/or unnecessarily declaring an emergency?

I'm curious as to what would happen to a pilot should they falsely declare an emergency to expedite their landing. By 'falsely' or 'unnecessarily' I mean that the hypothetical pilot is not ...
user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
7k views

Are life jackets mandatory on planes that will never fly over water bodies?

Supposing I'm a regional carrier and my routes never pass over water bodies (sea or lakes which are over a certain size). Am I obliged to carry life jackets on my plane?
Fabrizio Mazzoni's user avatar
10 votes
8 answers
4k views

What prevents a passenger from hijacking a private jet?

I was reading another question on this site when I saw this answer. As you can see in the photo I copied below, this private jet has no cockpit door. On commercial aircraft the bullet-proof cockpit ...
collector's user avatar
  • 729
9 votes
1 answer
7k views

Why do people say aviation regulations are written in blood?

I have heard it said that all aviation regulations are "written in blood". I think this means that every rule in the book exists because someone died - and there was a lesson learned. Is this accurate?...
digitgopher's user avatar
  • 5,281
9 votes
3 answers
7k views

How or when can the 250 KIAS speed limit below 10,000ft be exceeded?

This arose out of a comments discussion in this question. The only airspace I really know is the UK. Here, a controller may issue a clearance to exceed the 250kt limit below 10,000ft for reasons ...
Simon's user avatar
  • 31.2k