Questions tagged [radar]

Radar is a surveillance technology that uses radio waves to determine the range (and azimuth) of an aircraft. It works by measuring the time difference between a radio transmission and the echo or reply to that transmission. Radars are the most common surveillance equipment used by ATC.

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2answers
481 views

ASTERIX category 240 fields placement in a UDP packet

I searched the placement of ASTERIX Category 240 radar video data fields in a UDP packet. But I cannot find any useful info. Is there a standard for this work?
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How are both squawk and altitude transmited when operating a Transponder in Mode C?

I know that in Mode $3$ (which includes Mode A and Mode C) the aircraft transmits $12$ information pulses. That corresponds to $2^{12}=4096$ squawk combinations in Mode A which are sent to ATC to ...
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What is this part on the Me 262?

I have seen this part on a me 262 model kit but I don't know what it is... I've make some research on it but I find nothing! Maybe it can be radar, or a weapon? Do you know what is this? And also its ...
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734 views

How big is the radar cross section of a modern glider?

I heard somewhere that modern glider made of plastic and composite materials are less detectable than other aircraft by primary radar. I wonder how much. What is the radar cross section of a typical ...
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How will the update from DO-260A to DO-260B improve safety and efficiency in air traffic management significantly?

From what I know, the version update from DO-260A and DO-260B offers new features such as on-ground vs airborne source selection logic, ADS-B failure annunciation, the split of the quality indicators ...
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72 views

Where is flight following available?

What local facilities are required for me to get flight following services? It seems that if I'm 100 miles from any control tower then I won't be able to get flight following. How close does a ...
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1answer
277 views

What is the broadcast rate of an ADS-B message?

From what I know, ADS-B (DF=17) message structure is 112 bits long. In terms of type of messages it transmits, there are aircraft identification, surface position, airborne position with baro altitude ...
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Can someone actually “fly under the radar”?

It is quite a common phrase, usually without having anything to do with radar or aviation. But. Is there such a thing as 'flying under the radar'? If so, why is this (and how low is that)?
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In Antonov An-225, why there are radioactive / nuclear signs?

Looking at some An-225 images, i see some radioactive signs near the nose radome. Why they are there? I'm sure it doesn't have a nuclear reactor on board or any nuclear medical equipment. The only ...
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2answers
149 views

What can cause a watchdog failure in an INDRA MSSR?

I am responsible for Mono-pulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (MSSR) system that resets itself after a watchdog failure. So far I have found the following: An unwanted number of replies are received ...
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1answer
305 views

How does an AMRAAM communicate securely with the aircraft that launched it?

From Wikipedia: It also incorporates a datalink to guide the missile to a point where its active radar turns on and makes terminal intercept of the target. An inertial reference unit and micro-...
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What prevents the use of auxiliary radar installations to allow radar control and MSAW protection in areas that would otherwise be masked by terrain?

Both primary1 and secondary2 radar, while extremely useful (nay, indispensable) for modern aviation and air traffic control, are limited to seeing only aircraft in their direct line of sight; if there ...
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Why does the radar dome on the E-3 have a white stripe down the middle?

Every picture I can find of the E-3 has a blue/black radar dome on top with a fairly thick white stripe down the middle but I can't figure out why. Is it related to the position of the radar unit ...
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1answer
248 views

Are old illegal air transfer methods still feasible today? [closed]

A retired soldier told me he used to know people who smuggled jewelries, hard drugs, guns and even people from middle eastern countries to Europe, specifically, Germany! Via planes! In fact, he said ...
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160 views

Why can’t a single-fan-beam radar determine the elevation angles of its primary targets?

A while back, I asked about the reason for one of the well-known limitations of most ATC primary radars (their inability to determine target altitudes).1 The answers boiled down to “single-beam fan-...
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How do people smuggle stuff with private airplanes? [closed]

I get it, the question seems as if I'm reaching out for answers from experienced smugglers! But no. As a matter of fact, I'm trying to get answers on air surveillance & security. Love it or hate ...
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1answer
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Converting lat long & altitude into a line of sight target? [closed]

I want to design a long-range ADS-B receiver with a directional antenna (like a Yagi), but in order to maximize its range, I'll need to orient the antenna towards a target (plane) based on existing ...
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Did the Stuka Ju-87 really have a radio altimeter? If so, when?

This is what Wikipedia says near the end of its radio altimeter article: The radio altimeter first showed up in the German Junkers Ju-87 "Stuka" dive bomber which was equipped with one for ...
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Can a CIWS engage aerial targets?

Can a Phalanx-type Close-In Weapons System (CIWS) engage small aerial targets like drones, UAVs, rotorcraft? Is there any case that Phalanx was used against aerial targets?
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1answer
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How does maneuvering affect radar detection of stealth aircraft?

Stealth aircraft like the F-22 and F-35 have very low radar cross sections. These planes have angles of their fuselage set-up in a way to deflect radar signals. As far as I understand another stealth ...
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1answer
254 views

What is garbling in the context of radar?

Garbling is a problem known to affect secondary surveillance radar (SSR). What is it and why is it a problem?
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What is in 'stealth paint' to reflect radar, and how does it work?

What is in the 'stealth paint' that coats stealth bombers e.g B-2 spirit, and stealth aircraft, e.g SR-71, and how does it absorb/deflect radar?
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What is the tolerance of SSR against signal frequency shifts?

I know that the Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) interrogates at 1030MHz, and the reply is at 1090MHz. What happens if the radio signal sent to the plane is less than/more than 1030MHz? Also what ...
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How is a missile lock detected?

How can a fighter aircraft involved in a face-off detect a missile lock from a trailing aircraft so that it can make evasive maneuvers?
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Detection of solar balloons by ATC primary surveillance radar [duplicate]

I am curious whether a 30 cubic meter solar balloon made of black nylon and filled with ambient air would be detectable by the primary radar used by ATC in Continental Europe. Due to its size and ...
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How did a Soviet SA-3 missile manage to shoot down the F-117 Nighthawk?

This question is about the F-117A that was shot down in 1999. How did an obsolete missile like the SA-3 shoot down such an advanced aircraft for its time? This question has nothing to do with how ...
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Is Doppler navigation still in use for civilian aircraft?

Is it possible to find an airliner nowadays with Doppler radar used for navigation purposes?
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Is there any current and/or upcoming technology that alerts Air Traffic Controllers in case of loss of aircraft separation?

Currently doing an assignment and it to analyse an accident where older atc systems could have been at fault. In 1995 there was an incident where two aircraft came closer than the then current ...
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Why do (or did, until very recently) aircraft transponders wait to be interrogated before broadcasting beacon signals?

An aircraft’s transponder transmits signals that announce (at the very least) the aircraft’s identity, altitude, and direction of motion (plus, for most newer aircraft, a whole slew of other useful ...
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NEXRAD—why is it 2D?

If you paid attention to NEXRAD training, you know that the colors of pixels show the maximum activity at any altitude in that air column. (It’s a “composite” view.) NEXRAD itself samples in three ...
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How did pilots avoid thunderstorms and related weather before “reliable” airborne weather radar was introduced on airliners?

How did airline and or mail pilots avoid hazardous weather especially at night before airborne weather radar systems were in use?
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401 views

On ATC's radar, does an aircraft that loses its transponder simply disappear?

If you look at shows like Air Crash Investigation, which surely take some creative license in how events are portrayed, they often portray the disappearance of an aircraft, or specifically loss of its ...
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Can radars detect small drones?

I've just started working with weather radars and such. With weather radars, it is possible to detect bird migrations with a specific algorithm and a lot of information about birds, but it would be a ...
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1answer
575 views

Are there any safety hazards when testing the F-16's fire control radar on the ground?

What are the procedures for ground testing an aircraft's fire control radar - for the F-16 or any other aircraft - and are there safety hazards associated with exposures to humans? Most importantly, ...
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1answer
194 views

How are military aircraft directed to targets?

How would a controller, say, AWACS or ground radar, direct via voice an aircraft to the location of an airborne target? I've seen it in movies, but don't know if they where right, nor did I ...
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6k views

Could an aircraft 'hide' in the aircraft shadow of another aircraft without being detected or noticed?

I just finished reading an interesting post where the author suggests that the missing Malaysian Airlines flight 370 could have 'hidden' under the cover of Singapore Airlines flight 68 to fly to a ...
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4answers
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Can a helicopter mask itself from radar?

I have read somewhere that if a helicopter is traveling under 100 km/h and below 5 meters AGL then most radars will ignore it. From what I understand of this process, the radars can pick up things ...
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What is meant by a fused radar track?

Can anyone explain what a fused track is from the perspective of radar?
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In track while scan mode of radar operation what are the methods to predict next position of target?

In a track while scan system (TWS) the algorithm states that the processor predicts the next position of the target and compares it with the actual position but what are the actual methods of ...
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What is the relation between clouds and radar effectiveness?

Recently, India's prime minister Narendra Modi commented on how cloudy weather can help a fighter jet escape from radar. Is there any technical reasoning to back these comments? Here is the quote ...
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Is it possible for ATC to see who’s transmitting on the radio on their radar?

I don’t think ATC currently has the capability of seeing who’s actually transmitting on the frequency. If technology permits (probably by making a connection between the radios and the transponder), ...
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How is radar separation assured between primary and secondary targets?

Air traffic control radars come in two flavours, with most ATC centers using both and displaying the output of both on a single screen: Primary surveillance radar (PSR) is a true radar system, which ...
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2answers
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Do military jets' radar jammers block their own radar? And, if not, why not?

Will a noise jammer block the fighter's own radar? If I have understood it, a noise jammer, e.g., a barrage jammer, will emit a noise signal across a wide frequency band. Won't this make it hard to ...
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1answer
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How fast do the F-35 weapons bay doors open/close during combat ops?

(YouTube) I came across the following Norwegian F-35 video launching a live missile from its right bay door. Of course, opening the door and launching the missile drastically increases RCS, but it ...
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Why is the AWACS' rotodome located at the back and over the aircraft?

Browsing this website, I found this question dealing with torque due to the huge piece in motion, and its answers also speak of drag. The rotodome is located above the aircraft and at the aft of the ...
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2answers
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Will a Secondary Surveillance Radar be affected by a 300m high wind turbine?

60 wind turbines are located at a distance of about 30 km away from a Secondary Surveillance Radar installation; what will be the impact of this? My less than stellar knowledge of radar systems tells ...
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1answer
388 views

What does the ASDE-X ground radar unit look like?

Above is a picture of a primary / secondary surveillance radar combo (top is secondary, bottom is primary). What does the ASDE-X radar unit look like in real life?
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Why doesn't a radar-equipped Tower say “radar contact”?

Most/all of the control towers in my area have radar displays, and I know from visits that it shows all the same things as in TRACON miles away--even aircraft on the ground. I hear them occasionally ...
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1answer
2k views

Does weather radar scare off birds?

I was told a long time ago that having the weather radar turned on when at low altitudes helps to scare birds out of your way because the can sense/feel the radar. Casey also mentioned this in ...
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1k views

Does the F-4E Phantom II have a weather radar?

Here's the cockpit of the F-4E: The Main Panel NO7 says "Radar Scope" and when you put your mouse cursor on that "magician globe", the X-Plane 8.15 tooltip says "Weather Radar". So, what is that ...