Questions tagged [phraseology]

Questions about standard words and phrases used by pilots and ATC in radio communications

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When told "call sign only" in a frequency change, how to transmit it?

For example: London Control says: BAW211 contact London Approach 118.1, call sign only. What will the pilot say to approach on 118.1? London Approach, BAW211. Or just: BAW211.
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7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Untowered communication when abeam the airport

Let's say I have the following diagram So, there's runway 28, and people take off straight out to the west towards the ocean. The runway is untowered and its right traffic for runway 28. When I'm at ...
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12 votes
4 answers
2k views

Does "Cross [FIX] at 250 knots" mean I have to maintain 250 knots after the fix?

If you are given the clearance to "cross [FIX] at 250 knots", does this specifically mean : 1 ) Cross fix at 250 knots, and then after [FIX] your assigned speed is 250 knots until otherwise ...
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14 votes
3 answers
1k views

How to use/be an airborne relay

There are some cases where a pilot may not be able to reach ATC directly due to lack of power or being below the radio horizon: On a handheld backup radio After a forced landing Over open water In ...
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14 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does "closed traffic" mean?

I'm a Japanese ATC working in Japan. I want to ask about "closed traffic". I checked 7110.65 for this. Question 1: What is successive operation? One day I was on duty and the air force pilot ...
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1 vote
2 answers
86 views

Flight directional headings [duplicate]

I listen to aircraft land and take off weekly. I noticed in taking off they usually only use about 3 to 5 different directions. I don't understand what they mean when for example they said to the ...
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15 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do I request a frequency change to listen to ATIS?

If I only have one radio, and I'm using VFR Flight Following, what do I tell ATC when I want to pick up ATIS for the landing airport before I'm told to contact the tower?
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10 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the exact meaning of "manoeuvring" when said by ATC in reference to traffic?

In the UK, when receiving a basic service, sometimes the ATC unit passes traffic information. They may say it like this: “Traffic to your three o'clock, similar level, C172 manoeuvring.” What ...
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8 votes
2 answers
2k views

What does ATC mean when they say "no longer a factor"?

During radar vectors, the ATCo informed to the pilot, "no longer a factor." Please, can you clarify to me what this radio transmission means?
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3 votes
2 answers
586 views

What are the meanings of these terms used in ATC ground communications?

Regarding ATC ground communications, what/who are the following callees? Are these aircraft, or vehicles, or people? [Airline name] maintenance [Airline name] tug [Airline name] mechanic
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  • 97
1 vote
4 answers
211 views

The ATC is unable to provide radar service to pilots, what's the standard way to inform this?

Nowadays, ATC provides radar services to pilots, such as: vectors and surveillance, however, depending on the radar status, it can be out of service; on initial call the controller will inform the ...
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8 votes
3 answers
2k views

Flight Levels shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit separately. And how should be FL200 transmitted?

It is a huge doubt I have, because I have seen on CAP 413, FL 200, transmitted as flight Level two hundred, and how should then transmit it on Europe (out of UK) and on The USA airspace?
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13 votes
4 answers
4k views

What is the difference between “affirm” and “acknowledged”?

Recently, I've watched Air Force One and I heard ATC and the pilots say "Acknowledged." instead of "affirm" or "affirmative" as I've learned.. Is it common to say both? ...
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0 votes
1 answer
221 views

"Turn right, report heading"?

I can't say anything about authenticity, but here is a quote Tower: “Delta Zulu Romeo, turn right now and report your heading.” Pilot: “Wilco. 341, 342, 343, 344, 345…” Is such an instruction even ...
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0 votes
3 answers
221 views

Taxi to spot?? Hot spot? What is meant by this?

I heard ground controller at KPHL say taxi to spot so and so? What do they mean by this during taxi procedures.
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1 vote
2 answers
425 views

What does "Request Boxing Vectors" means?

I have heard on a request from a pilot: "- Request boxing vectors!" What's the meaning of this non standard phraseology?
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0 votes
2 answers
181 views

What are the other clearance and instructions that must be read back? [duplicate]

The following items must always be read back: ATC route clearances; clearances and instructions to enter, land on, take off from, hold short of, cross or backtrack on any runway; and runway-in-use, ...
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18 votes
2 answers
3k views

How do I know how to describe my position on the airport when I contact ATC?

When asking for taxi clearance, a pilot must include his location when contacting ATC. However, I'm not quite sure exactly how to state your position in the airport. For example, I've heard some ...
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6 votes
2 answers
299 views

What is the German / European equivalent of FAA Order 7110.65?

FAA Order 7110.65 prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by personnel providing ATC services in the USA. Which documents regulate these aspects in Germany, or, more ...
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3 votes
4 answers
833 views

What is the phraseology when leaving a TRSA?

When leaving TRSA what is the correct phraseology to tell ATC that radar service is no longer desired?
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1 vote
3 answers
189 views

What is the proper phraseology for a clearance with a named obstacle departure procedure?

The Phoenix Mesa-Gateway Airport (KIWA) has a named obstacle departure procedure - the Phoenix Departure. What's the correct phraseology for when clearance assigns it to you? Is it "N123AB, cleared ...
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33 votes
4 answers
10k views

Why are there many pilots who don't say "mayday, mayday, mayday" to declare an emergency?

I've been listening to some ATC from some major commercial pilots and in every video where there's been some confusion about declaring an emergency they've used some terminology other than "mayday, ...
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5 votes
1 answer
549 views

What terminologies are used when ATC instructs a pilot to stop or proceed with his transmission?

If some pilot forgets to release his mic button, distracting everyone on the frequency, what terminology can be used by an ATC to stop it? And if another pilot stop transmitting his message until the ...
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15 votes
2 answers
7k views

What is the correct way for pilots to say the time?

While listening to Air Crash Investigations, the pilots used the 24-hour format in a different way than we do. Example: 07:57 hrs would be said as oh-seven-five-seven hours (which makes it a little ...
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  • 297
2 votes
1 answer
322 views

Is there an order for the instructions of a go-around?

Scenario: Aircraft on final is approaching the threshold. A departing aircraft is slow to roll and ATC must issue a go-around instruction. ATC: PULL UP AND GO AROUND. TURN LEFT HEADING 360 MAINTAIN ...
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  • 31
2 votes
0 answers
171 views

Is "margin final" an ATC instruction in USA?

I was south-east of the airport and the active runway was 24. The ATC said, "Make straight in and remain south." And then he said, "Margin final, cleared [to] land." What is margin final? I'm an ...
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3 votes
2 answers
479 views

How do I request a touch and go and then remain closed traffic?

When I first contact a tower to request touch-and-go, if I want to remain closed traffic after the touch-and-go, can I say '...tower, call sign, location, inbound for touch-and-go and remain closed ...
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  • 593
6 votes
2 answers
469 views

Are there different sub-types of a mayday call and do pilots use them when declaring emergencies?

I was reading this pilot's quote from the Northwest Airlines Flight 85 incident: "This was a classic application of CRM. We were blessed and lucky that we had full flight crew augmentation. We ...
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2 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the proper ICAO phraseology to activate a flight plan?

OK, so you have a flight plan filed (over internet, phone, company or however), go to the aircraft and get in the cockpit. So you call the controller and request IFR or VFR as appropriate. What is ...
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6 votes
5 answers
4k views

What is an appropriate way to practice ATC communications?

I'm a PPL trainee and I'm looking for a way to improve my radio communication. https://www.liveatc.net/ is a great way to practice but I can't fully understand the conversation between the unit and ...
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2 votes
2 answers
821 views

Is any readback required when ATC uses the phrase "RADAR CONTACT"? [duplicate]

As the title says, is a readback required? I've heard some people say that it's not required, while some others say we should readback our call sign only. Some even say just push the transmission knob ...
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4 votes
3 answers
401 views

What is the meaning of "Steer 1-2-0" in WWII texts?

I am reading some texts about WWII and English operators tell the pilots to "Steer 1-2-0". Can anyone help with the meaning of 'steer' here? Is it a synonym of 'direction', 'heading' or 'vector'?
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  • 41
2 votes
1 answer
379 views

How to correctly interpret the taxi procedures in ICAO Doc 4444?

I have a question to ICAO Doc4444, Chapter 12.3.4.7, Taxi procedures for departure, c). My question is how to interpret the following, knowing that words in parentheses are mandatory, and words in ...
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7 votes
1 answer
296 views

Why would ATC issue a takeoff clearance and also tell the same aircraft to maintain visual separation at the same time?

I heard this from the Phoenix Sky Harbor airport tower years ago on a sunny and hot day. Is it because the controller is able to take off aircraft more quickly by putting the responsibility on pilots ...
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7 votes
2 answers
859 views

What does "<aircraft type> X miles in trail, runway 25R cleared to land" mean?

I was listening to the LiveATC Phoenix North Tower feed as he was clearing aircraft to land. He said something like "Southwest fifteen sixty five, Phoenix Tower, (aircraft type), X miles in trail, ...
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1 vote
2 answers
4k views

When is 'heavy' used in callsign?

I have heared at ATC communication that some aircraft uses a heavy word in the call sign. What does heavy means? When it is used? Is it used when aircraft is heavier than 200-300 tons?
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1 vote
2 answers
716 views

What is the correct phraseology to request a climb?

If you'd like to request a climb to a higher flight level while cruising, which do you think is a more proper way to request it: Request to climb FL350 Request climb FL350 I know they have zero ...
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

How unusual were MH370's final ATC exchanges?

There are 2 noteworthy occurrences in the ATC radio transcript within just minutes of a 3rd noteworthy, quite unprecedented occurrence in aviation history: At 01:07:55 MH370 unnecessarily reported ...
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5 votes
4 answers
10k views

Are the ICAO phonetic numbers used anywhere?

I ran across a table of ICAO (NATO) approved phonetic number pronunciations. As early as I can remember (50+yrs) in the United States "nin-er" is the only one I ever remember hearing in aviation and I ...
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15 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the correct phraseology for "runway 03 R”?

What phraseology is normally used for "runway 03 R" by air-traffic control and pilots? A couple of possible options I came up with: runway zero three R runway three R runway zero three right runway ...
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8 votes
1 answer
314 views

How do I properly report sighting a drone or hobby UAV to ATC?

How would one go about reporting a drone (hobby UAV) sighted in the airspace of an airport on frequency, specifically to Tower? For example: I am doing patterns around the airport when to the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
133 views

How does ATC ask a pilot to resume flying a published SID / STAR? [duplicate]

Let's say that you are cleared for and are flying the ZZOOO2 departure out of KSAN and you get vectored off of the departure before you complete it. At some point, ATC wants to put you back onto the ...
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7 votes
2 answers
4k views

What does a pilot mean when he tells ATC that he "has the numbers"?

What does "have the numbers" mean when talking to ATC?
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  • 4,123
7 votes
3 answers
553 views

Should I inform ATC about minor deviations to maintain VFR while on practice instrument approaches?

When talking to approach control for the purpose of performing practice instrument approaches in VMC with a safety pilot, the pilot (and safety pilot) is required to "maintain VFR." However, the pilot ...
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  • 8,130
4 votes
1 answer
446 views

How far are shortened replies to ATC allowed to go?

Pilots often use non-standard-phraseology for readbacks. Some examples: ATC: DLM, switch to tower, 121.2 P: tower, for DLM or ATC: DLM, identified, climb via the RIDA9 departure P: ...
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  • 8,732
1 vote
3 answers
750 views

What is the ATC phraseology to request a parallel track?

What is the correct phraseology to request a parallel track due to weather for example? Something like: OE-DLM, request parallel track to the east, 2 nm Background: I am asking for non-airline ...
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  • 8,732
12 votes
4 answers
3k views

What does it mean when ATC says "altitude indicates"?

I've noticed that ATC sometimes calls out traffic (a traffic advisory?) to aircraft using the "altitude indicates" phraseology, and sometimes a specific altitude is given without the phrase "altitude ...
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  • 4,123
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is "LINING UP" used as the proper response to a "conditional" line-up instruction?

This is a list of the ICAO's standard phraseologies used for preparation for takeoff. I don't understand why "lining up" is (recommended to be) used as a response to a conditional line-up instruction. ...
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  • 7,407
1 vote
3 answers
336 views

Official way for tower to address all aircraft on frequency for new ATIS? [duplicate]

When there's new ATIS info available and the altimiter setting has changed, what's the official phraseology for making the announcement to all the aircraft on the frequency? I'm looking in the FAA ATC ...
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7 votes
5 answers
5k views

What is the correct ATC phraseology in the US for an immediate - no delay takeoff?

Just wondering - what's the correct ATC phraseology for a takeoff where a plane does not stop first after lining up with the runway centerline before starting their takeoff roll? Redwood five-two-six-...
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