Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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20
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1answer
3k views

Is Doppler navigation still in use for civilian aircraft?

Is it possible to find an airliner nowadays with Doppler radar used for navigation purposes?
10
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3answers
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Is it possible for a civilian to use a VORTAC station?

Suppose you have a Cessna 208 Grand Caravan Amphibian and you want to use VORTAC stations on military bases (or somewhere else). Is it possible? Is it legal?
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2answers
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Is this the correct sequence of steps to convert from true course to compass heading?

I wanted to confirm my understanding of VFR Flight Planning/Dead Reckoning with relation to heading and course calculation. Is the below correct? Using a plotter, draw a line from departure airport ...
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1answer
338 views

What is the best pair selection algorithm?

Distance Measuring Equipment selection criteria is said “those closest to the aircraft and which intersect at an angle between 30 degrees and 150 degrees" (also said one whose geometry is closest to ...
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1answer
357 views

What is the current status of the deployment of RNP 1 and RNP 2 airspaces and approaches in Europe?

Is there an overview of the deployment of RNP 1 and RNP 2 airspaces and approaches in Europe? I'm looking for a map, that shows this information. Maybe even 'special' solutions that are not quite RNP....
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1answer
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At what distance from magnetic north do pilots start referencing true north for heading?

The Earth's magnetic poles are constantly shifting, resulting in a significant distance between the true and magnetic poles. This means that while using them as references for heading at lower ...
8
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1answer
1k views

How can I triangulate a position using two DMEs?

What is the formula for determining an aircraft's position (latitude, longitude) using barometric altitude and the ranges to two DMEs?
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2answers
232 views

At what minimum height above terrain does a vertical structure need to be indicated on a sectional map?

I recently drove by what seemed like an unusually tall structure and used Google Maps satellite view, its distance measurement tool, and basic trigonometry to calculate that this building (some kind ...
7
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1answer
699 views

When passing a waypoint, when exactly are we on the next leg?

When performing one of the procedures shown in the pictures below, when exactly do we consider ourselves to be on the next leg? For example: for the fly-by waypoint, when do we consider that we are ...
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1answer
335 views

Is there a class E corridor in the class B north of San Diego International?

I am a relatively new pilot in the Los Angeles area and I have a question related to the Class B Airspace north of San Diego International, adjacent to Torrey Pines Glider Port. The LA Terminal Map ...
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3answers
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What's the difference between orientation and position?

In INS (Inertial navigation system) sensors, is there a distinction between the following? Orientation (heading, pitch and roll) Position (latitude, longitude and altitude) Is the orientation ...
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3answers
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If an aircraft flies straight ahead, does it follow an orthodrome/great circle?

I understand that an orthodrome (line on a great circle) is the line with the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. If an aircraft flies straight ahead, i.e. there is no wind, the rudder ...
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2answers
232 views

Are VOR frequencies static?

I am a brand new student pilot pursuing my private cert. I don't need to know this for a while, but I'm trying to learn about VOR navigation to enjoy my sim flights more, in the meantime. My ...
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0answers
89 views

What would happen when a pilot receives a message about Dead Reckoning Fault?

Dead Reckoning Fault will lead to some restrictions of the flight. What will happen after receiving this message?
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1answer
824 views

Is there a Non Directional Beacon(NDB) morse code sound database?

I need to know what is the morse code sound of: CALL: OZ Khz: 212 QTH: RUCKR lat: 31.2292 long:-85.7917 I found this website, but I could not find the sound of different NDBs: http://classaxe.com/dx/...
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5answers
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In the rare event that the U.S. DOD shuts off the GPS, what's the alternative?

In the U.S., the Department of Defense along with other Federal Agencies of the Government operates & maintains the GPS. In the rarest of the events, if for any reason whatsoever, the Government ...
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5answers
5k views

What is the geoid undulation used for in aviation?

In addition of the altitude found on aerodrome information, the French AIP also mentions the value of the geoid undulation:: AIP for Lyon - Saint Exupéry (LFLL) Geoid undulation is also found in ...
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1answer
817 views

What are the WAAS requirements for RNAV (GPS) approaches?

Is a WAAS GPS required to fly in RNP airspace (e.g., RNAV (GPS) approaches)? Or, can you be approved to fly RNAV (GPS) approaches with, say a military EGI (embedded GPS/INS)?
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0answers
476 views

I need to know how to calculate drift with a Jeppessen CR-3. Can someone help?

In my exams we are not allowed to use E-6B, just a CR-3 jeppessen flight computer and I'm having serious issues calculating W/V from other parameters like TAS/GS and HDG/TRACK. Example: Q : Given: ...
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4answers
8k views

Do today's aircraft still have INS (inertial navigation system)?

Do today's new aircraft like Boeing 787 still have INS (inertial navigation system)?
8
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1answer
275 views

Were there ever instrument approach procedures utilizing only Four Course Range Navigation?

Looking for information on 4 Course Range instrument approach procedures. I am aware of their navigational use as we developed the airway system, but were they ever used for final approach segment ...
4
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1answer
814 views

How are the navaids that are on the airport ground powered?

How are navaids (such as the ILS localizer) that are on the airport ground powered? Are they connected to the airport's power? Do they have their own backup power?
6
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1answer
347 views

How can I estimate Roll from Position?

I have flight test data where the IMU is junk. The roll and yaw are obviously wrong, while the pitch seems to be correct. [I know the yaw is wrong because it doesn't match the changes in headings, and ...
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2answers
4k views

What is the difference between a nautical mile and a statute mile? And what is a knot?

What is the difference between a "nautical mile" and a "statute mile?" And what is a "knot?"
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1answer
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What level of information does a PIC have about a missile crossing their aircraft route?

Recently North Korea launched a missile out of its national airspace on a trajectory which crossed the route of an aircraft from Air France. The aircraft wasn't in danger at any time, the minimal ...
6
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1answer
275 views

Is there a way to get descriptions of great circle routes?

Given that I am blind and love to know where I'm flying over, is there a online service that describes a great circle route in text form? e.g. in a format like this: A great circle from CYVR to ...
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1answer
273 views

Where are the first two waypoints for runway 4R departures from KBOS?

Departure way points for Runway 4R at Logan Airport in Boston Massachusetts. Can anyone send me a map depicting where the first 2 way-points are for 4R Departures?
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1answer
80 views

Can cellular towers be used to correct INS drift?

At a high enough altitude a line-of-sight can be established with multiple cellular towers. Can such information be used to accurately correct INS drift (assuming GNSS is not available)?
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2answers
374 views

Should the route be changed if the GPS RAIM prediction fails?

Do i have to change the route if the GPS RAIM prediction has one or more outages along my route?
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1answer
684 views

Is there a list of directs and preferred routes within USA airspace?

In Europe it is possible to find a list of directs which are contained in the Appendix 4 of the Route Availability Document from the Eurocontrol website. My goal is to find the analogous information ...
7
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1answer
202 views

Where can you find symbols (like these) that aren't on the legend?

I see a lot of these fan like symbols: ...on the Nav Canada Alaska Highway - Fort Nelson to Northway, 1:500,000 VFR Navigation Chart, but they're not anywhere on the map legend. I presume they'...
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1answer
754 views

What type of coordinate system is this?

In case you want to say spherical coordinate system: no it is not a spherical coordinate system. I found this image in a book about flight management systems where they explain the different types of ...
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2answers
110 views

Where can I find a list of rules of thumb formulas for navigation? [closed]

Is there any list of formulas for quick counting navigational parameters of the flight, if navigational computer is malfunctioned. For example, I need to recalculate how long can I fly, if the wind ...
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1answer
817 views

What is the history and process of designing new waypoints and airways?

I am interested in what goes into designing new airways and navigation fixes, especially on international routes. For example, after WWII, there were no established international air service. Now, we ...
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1answer
493 views

Is Ground Direction Finding commonly used?

I've recently come across the concept of Ground Direction Finding. My (limited) understanding of it is that it is a system that allows you to see where a VHF transmission is coming from. I gather it ...
4
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2answers
671 views

Why is UTC activation time referred to 30W in NAT-OTS?

I am reading the NORTH ATLANTIC OPERATIONS AND AIRSPACE MANUAL and I came across the following statement more than once during my reading: The activation time of the westbound OTS shall be ...
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1answer
361 views

Why are so few heliports depicted on sectionals?

Pretty much every aerodrome, from an international airport to a private grass strip is depicted on a sectional chart. But there are few or no heliports shown. Why is this? Do helicopters have a ...
10
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1answer
3k views

Why might this trans-pacific flight not follow a more direct route?

I notice that this flight from DFW to PVG has a path that’s not a single arc of a great circle. Rather, it looks like it flies to some city in California and then takes a direct route for the ...
6
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3answers
2k views

How to fly to an uncharted airport?

I'm learning X-Plane 11 and started to use an add-on called FS Economy. One of its missions is to fly to small airports that I can't find on skyvector, so I'm unable to plan a direct flight. I ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between published and unpublished waypoints?

While reading some articles about free route airspaces I found reference to two types of waypoints: Free route airspace (FRA) is a specified airspace within which users can freely plan a route ...
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3answers
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Does the tailwind component always have the same absolute value as the headwind component?

If we are on course 360 and we have crosswind from 020 at 20 kts...does the amount of head wind on this leg equal the amount of tailwind on the reciprocal course (i.e. 180)? To amplify the question ...
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3answers
795 views

Are nearest VOR stations always tuned to?

I am flying under IFR. My current leg route is Z401. I am between TIPRU and VOR VLM (VLASIM). I am on inbound radial 304° VLM: This is an RNAV route. But let us imagine it is non-RNAV and I am ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the accuracy of distance and position calculation?

I would like to learn about the flight distance calculation and positional accuracy requirement in aviation. In practice, great circle distance is calculated between two airports but earth is more ...
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1answer
635 views

What is DME Unlock?

Reading through a NOTAM I found something I don't understand, ...
4
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1answer
1k views

How to program an FMC if the database is missing the arrival airport?

Let's say you are in a 737 flying to Geita, Tanzania, as you can see this little airport/airstrip has an IATA code, but not an assigned ICAO code. What should you enter into the FMC if I want to fly ...
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1answer
2k views

How is MEF calculated for Canadian VNC?

According to the VNC, the MEF represents the highest feature in each quadrangle. It refers to AIM RAC 5.4 and CAR 602.15(2b) which basically says "lower than 500 AGL (CAR 602.14(2b)) ok, when for ...
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3answers
4k views

How does Kalman filtering work in inertial navigation systems?

As far as I understood it correctly most INS-systems use a Kalman filter to compensate measurement errors. I would like to know: Does the Kalman filter compensate the errors from all the onboard ...
4
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1answer
937 views

How does the attitude and heading reference (AHRS) work on Boeing 737 aircraft?

I would like to know how the AHRS work on Boeing 737 aircraft. If this aircraft (like every the other ones I guess) has an Inertial Reference System (IRS), composed of 3 accelerometers and 3 ...
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2answers
2k views

Why does Boeing 737 use 2 Inertial Reference Systems (IRS) and GPS?

According to this website the Boeing 737 aircraft use 2 IRS and 2 GPS: IRS L & IRS R. Why? Apparently they are totally independent of each other. Could somebody explain a little bit why they need ...
6
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1answer
530 views

What additional considerations do pilots have when deviating from the planned routing on flights dispatched under Method 2?

This article about Method 1 and Method 2 gives a brief explanation of Methods 1 and 2 in terms of dispatching flights under 14 CFR 121. Here's an excerpt. FAR 121.191 requires that we dispatch our ...

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