Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
21
votes
6answers
4k views
+200

What's the minimum number of sensors for a hobby GPS waypoint-following UAV?

I would like to develop my own guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) flight software on a Raspberry Pi, for a small hobby fixed-wing UAV. From a physical standpoint, what is the minimum set of ...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

How do I calculate LMT from UTC and vice versa? [closed]

I have to calculate the LMT from UTC and the points A and B are given: A 42°42N 102°45'W B 30°N 77°30' UTC time is 0251 27/02 Mar Also, how do I calculate UTC if LMT is given?
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Why do the align procedure before the refueling on AIRBUS A380? [closed]

I heard that large sized airplanes (like A380, B747) need to do alignment procedure before the refueling to reduce difference between FOB and the actual amount of fuel from the refueling car. But I ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

How to obtain very detailed information about certain flights(speed, elevation, heading, pitch, etc)?

For a computer science project I need very specific sensor measurements about speed, elevation, heading, pitch, and geographic position of aircraft during approach. Is there any way to access such ...
19
votes
2answers
5k views

Why was Pan Am Flight 103 flying over Lockerbie?

Pan Am Flight 103 was a flight from Frankfurt to Detroit with stops in London and New York. Why after taking off in London did it fly all the way to Lockerbie instead of going directly to New York? ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Question about CDI/OBS and HI [duplicate]

Could somebody please explain me the differences between using the OBS and the Heading Indicator? As much as I could understand, once you tune into the VOR, the OBS starts to show how much deflection/ ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

TACtical Air Navigation - Bearing Information

In the TACAN system , how does a change in bearing , would translate to a change in the time (or frequency) domain. I'll try to elaborate: I'm aware , of the TACAN operation in general. let's say ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

where can i get a aviation map of korea with the moes, and highways and vectors

ive been searching for a aviation map of South Korea and cant find anyone that sells it. does anyone know where I can find one for flight planning
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Where can I find a navigation database for Brisbane?

Does anyone know of a database that details the GPS locations of beacons within Brisbane; or a data-set that tells me air routes and associated en-route beacons, way points etc.? I'd like to be able ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

How can I overlay a VFR sectional on another map to identify features and landmarks?

How do I know which highways and landmarks on a VFR sectional align with which real-world features? Is there a way to overlay the VFR sectional map from the FAA on top of Google Maps or Bing? Edit: I'...
1
vote
2answers
146 views

How can I find a final approach fix (FAF)?

I have a problem understanding FAF - how can I find FAf on a precision approach without the lightning bolt/zigzag symbol. I know the Maltese cross means FAF for a non-precision approach. According to ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Compute great-circle track from longitude

The Aviation Formulary defines Clairut's formula to compute the intermediate track (bearing) for a GC based upon latitude, but any given GC (ignoring one passing through the poles), crosses a given ...
13
votes
2answers
383 views

How did aircraft in WW2 navigate to the carrier?

How did aircraft in WW2 navigate to the carrier after their mission? I was thinking of something like a beacon installed in the carrier but wouldn't it reveal the location of the carrier itself?
1
vote
0answers
55 views

How to find TAS for given CAS, FL and OAT?

Here is another question for my PPL Exam. If anyone can illuminate me with explaining every step to achieve TAS with given parameters, it would be great. Given: Calibrated airspeed (CAS): 155 kt. ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

How do navigation displays depict turn anticipation?

I'm working on a navigation display for a simulation and I want to know if someone can explain me how the navigation display displays the "curved lines" for fly-by waypoints.I know how to calculate ...
2
votes
3answers
161 views

What are some of the longest flights without modern navigation systems?

Context: As a private pilot, I enjoy preparing my flights with a mix of paper charts and iPad apps. In flight, my navigation is now often very assisted by the G1000 or iPad, relegating the paper maps ...
2
votes
3answers
119 views

How can I correct the heading for this navigation problem?

I'm a pilot trainee in Hungary and just encountered a navigation question problem which is from the PPL Training Questions book. Would be glad if someone can briefly explain how to do this typical ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

Measurement discrepancy on vfrmap dot com sectional — is the grid wrong?

At Nome Alaska-- KOME-- the E2 airspace (dashed magenta line) is listed as extending 13.2 (nautical) miles east of the airport-- according to this source page E-9 -- https://www.faa.gov/...
-1
votes
1answer
108 views

How do I answer this navigation problem?

This question is from the PPL questions book, navigation part. Given: QDM: 279° VAR: 5° W DEV: 5° E The QDR equals...
2
votes
3answers
144 views

How is the quadrantal rule applied to VFR flights in Hungary?

I'm looking for a clear explanation for this quadrantal rule question (it applies to Hungary): A VFR pilot is cruising, en-route in level flight, above the transition level of FL035. His magnetic ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

How would you use the mental clock code to solve this dead reckoning problem?

Can someone explain the question below in details? You plan to fly a cross country flight at 2 000 feet at a true airspeed of 120 knots. Your track is 270° (True) and the wind is from 225° (True) at ...
2
votes
1answer
211 views

What navigation systems were used by the Space Shuttle during reentry?

What equipment did the Space Shuttle orbiters carry to support navigation during reentry? Were there any differences between the individual orbiters in this regard?
1
vote
1answer
102 views

How do I calculate the heading to steer in this example?

At 1415 an aircraft was overhead a VOR maintaining radial 215°, en route for B, heading 210°(M). At 1430, the pilot decides to return to the VOR. The heading to steer is... The answer is given as ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How to calculate cross-/headwind components on Jeppesen Student flight computer?

How does one calculate the cross-/headwind components on a Jeppesen Student flight computer (CSG) given the aircraft’s true heading, the wind direction and the wind speed? Say 040 degrees, 070 degrees ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Can we use ECI coordinates for an airplane?

It is taught for navigation systems (like an airplane) on Earth we us ECEF (earth-centered, earth-fixed) and for space systems (like a satellite) we use ECI (earth-centered inertial). But why is ECEF ...
26
votes
2answers
6k views

Is the destination of a commercial flight important for the pilot?

As has been recently advertised (in here, here, here also), a recent British Airways flight from London City Airport destined for Düsseldorf mistakenly flew its passengers to Edinburgh instead. I'm a ...
5
votes
3answers
342 views

How is device control software checked for quality?

Many, many reports on the now infamous MCAS suggest a software patch is forthcoming in the next several weeks that will address the confounding single point of failure with the two AOA sensors that ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

How was the navigation managed on jetliners before having programmable routes?

This in-flight photo provides a look into the pre-FMS era (also pre-INS), i.e., not having a programmable route. How was the navigation managed back then? (Question limited to 2-crew jetliners, or ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

What is RNP and ANP in area navigation [duplicate]

RNAV often comes with RNP and ANP . I can't understand what they indicate ? Even in boeing 737 at the bottom of Navigation display RNP ANP are shown and this changes place to place . Please tell me ...
2
votes
2answers
165 views

What is the difference between RTK GPS and GBAS?

My understanding is that real-time kinematic (RTK) is also a differential GPS technology to enhance accuracy by using a ground-based station to provide the correction data to the onboard GPS receiver. ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

Is navigation around thunderheads done at the pilot's discretion?

It's my understanding that if a pilot is flying over an ocean or otherwise uncontrolled airspace and they encounter a cumulonimbus, they navigate around it at their discretion. How does this happen ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

Can you guide me about the purpose of fine alignment in inertial navigation systems?

I am new in inertial navigation field. I have some confusion about fine alignment process of INS. I want to ask that what is purpose of fine alignment? I know by process of alignment we find the ...
1
vote
1answer
203 views

Can an orienteering compass be used in place of a protractor?

First off, please forgive me if this is a stupid question. I was given a protractor during flight training, learnt to use it and obviously works quite well. However, I've started using my old maps ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Staying oriented in VFR

This is something I have been questioning more and more often on how pilots do it. So, let's say we are flying on a new location and know very little about it. When flying around and keeping the ...
3
votes
2answers
154 views

Why are waypoints not named uniquely?

Waypoint names are not unique. Why ? This is unnecessary (it would be possible to use unique names only). It introduces potential for confusion. So why are duplicate waypoint names permissible and ...
-1
votes
3answers
284 views

Did AF447 cross dangerous weather?

question Did the Air France 447 pilots endanger the passengers by not diverting around but flying straight through the weather system encountered and pictured below ? Or was this a defendable, ...
1
vote
1answer
254 views

When do pilots facing bad weather turn back (U-turn)?

Passenger aircraft are not supposed to cross red areas on the weather radar. But what if the weather system is too large to circumnavigate and red areas inside the system are too large/prevalent to ...
0
votes
3answers
282 views

How can I use an ADS-B receiver to make my aircraft visible in Flightradar24?

I recently bought a SENTRY ADS-B receiver for the aircraft in order to track the flight. How could I make Flightradar24 or Flightaware show my aircraft and how to register my aircraft on the website?
2
votes
3answers
331 views

How do pilots decide whether to circumnavigate bad weather?

How does an airline pilot decide in the air whether to circumnavigate or fly through bad weather visibly looming ahead and/or displayed on the weather radar ?
2
votes
4answers
112 views

How can pilot remember when or where to do tasks such as changing radio frequency and change fuel tank? [duplicate]

As a student pilot, I sometime forget tasks such as changing radio frequency after reaching a location or switching fuel tank in long navigation. These tasks happen in specific time or location ...
3
votes
4answers
263 views

Can longer paths consume less fuel than the (shorter) great circle path?

Is the most fuel-efficient route between points A and B always along a great circle ? Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this comment on an aviation blog seems to suggest that longer paths (in ...
3
votes
2answers
125 views

When must airliners follow airways? [duplicate]

Please give a basic explanation of how commercial aviation traffic is routed for readers without any foreknowledge: Can commercial aircraft only follow airways like cars on highways ? Or are ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How to accurately determine Navigation Accuracy from FAA's PBN Criteria (Order 8260.58A)?

I am trying to understand how to determine the Navigation Accuracy for a given flight phase of an Instrument Flight Procedure, from the US Standard for PBN Instrument Procedure Design (Order 8260.58A)....
2
votes
1answer
171 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
3
votes
1answer
321 views

What are the FAI rules for circumnavigating the world?

If I want to solo circumnavigate the world by plane as the youngest pilot, what are the FAI requirements regarding the routing? Most standard routings include the Hawaii to California leg, which is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What are RNP and ANP in area navigation?

What are Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Actual Navigation Performance (ANP)?
7
votes
1answer
189 views

Is there a serious effort underway to move from a highways-in-the-sky approach to a mesh-network approach?

As far as I'm aware, there are certain "motorways" or corridors which air traffic uses, rather than navigating more directly from origin to destination. I remember listening to a documentary which ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

How to navigate an aircraft without GPS? [duplicate]

In case of loss of GPS: how can an aircraft not only be navigated but navigated so precisely that it can pinpoint its destination airport ? (case in point: Finland and Norway are telling airline ...
3
votes
2answers
333 views

Why do RNAV airways exist?

I assume there's some stupidly obvious reason that I'm missing, but why bother creating RNAV airways when I thought the entire point of RNAV was not needing to fly along a suboptimal preset path? I ...