Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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Can TCAS and GPWS work at the same time?

A manoeuvre to avoid a collision with terrain, might put you onto a collision course with traffic above you. Can TCAS and (E)GPWS work at the same time? Are they coordinating?
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What are dry and saturated lapse rates values or ranges for a rising or lowering parcel of air in degrees Celsius?

Environmental lapse rate average is rounded to 2 degrees celsius per 1000 ft.(Note that environmental lapse rate varies through the day).What about parcel of air lapse rate.? Dry lapse rate is a ...
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Why is the true proportional guidance law considered closed form? What does 'closed form' mean over here and how does it apply to other guidance laws?

Can someone please explain why they refer to the solution as closed-form? From my understanding, the term closed form would imply that the command constant 'c' can only take values from a finite set? ...
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How to fix JeppView VFR charts font display [closed]

Some of the VFR charts printed by JeppView for Windows incorrectly display various letters on the map. This is especially visible in the NDB/DME designations ("INN", "PAT", "...
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26 votes
1 answer
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When was the need for a truer Earth shape for aeronautical navigation realized?

Motivated by Federico's answer to Can a great circle be drawn between any two points on Earth? Earth is not a perfect sphere, and it can be argued that the degree of oblateness is negligible. So is ...
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11 votes
6 answers
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Can a great circle be drawn between any two points on Earth?

If the two points are on the same parallel of latitude, then I can't imagine a great circle through them. Is it right?
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4 answers
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How do missiles navigate and determine their orientation without GPS?

When a missile is engaged in a GPS free tracking loop how is its internal orientation estimated with respect to ground? I'm assuming this orientation is needed because the force of gravity will be ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Do GPS systems in modern avionics mitigate against spoofing attacks?

There exist a number of different techniques [PDF] to mitigate (or at least detect) GPS spoofing, but the most effective techniques require access to the military-only M-code [PDF]. However, there was ...
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How do I calculate the point of no return for a flight with multiple legs?

In every textbook where Points of No Return (PNR) are discussed (or at least, those I've read), the method of calculating them is always between point A to point B as a direct route. This is simple ...
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4 answers
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Do airlines use GPS for critical purposes? If so, why?

It is being reported that airlines in Finland have noticed interference with their GPS signals near Russia. This is causing them to be unable to land at at least one airport: Lithuanian airline ...
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Why is the listed sectional for KEIK Cheyenne instead of Denver?

I'm confused why a municipal airport (KEIK in Erie, CO) lists Cheyenne as its appropriate sectional, instead of Denver? It's just over 20nm WNW of KDEN under its outer class bravo shelf and is well ...
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Do large cities contain enough iron to significantly affect an aircraft's magnetic compass?

In most areas of the world, the magnetic compass is the ultimate heading reference. Although pilots look to the directional gyro most of the time when flying (because the directional gyro's reading ...
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Does SkyVector's flight plan give wrong magnetic variation corrections?

Lately I have noticed that Skyvector's Flight Planning tool "Nav Log" has been showing very wrong magnetic variation corrections for particular legs of my flight plans. The corrections ...
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4 votes
1 answer
239 views

How do you realign a directional gyro in an area of magnetic unreliability?

The primary means of determining heading in most small aircraft is the directional gyro, as this instrument is unaffected by the magnetic dip errors that cause a magnetic compass to give the wrong ...
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What are all the different ways pilots can navigate?

What are all the different ways pilots can navigate? What are they in simple terms and their unique advantages/disadvantages? EX: Dead-reckoning? VOR? GPS? ATC Directives? Others?
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Is it possible to fly to any destination on a rhumb line track?

If we follow a constant rhumb line track, it would eventually lead to the pole (depending on your hemisphere) , so then it may not be possible to fly between any two points on a rhumb line track? ...
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3 answers
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Explaining a "Great Circle Route" to young Civil Air Patrol cadets

What would be an easily understood explanation of a "Great Circle Route" for young Civil Air Patrol cadets who are being introduced to aviation and navigation principles for the first time?
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How does IRS estimate the alignment time?

In modern airliners, e.g. A320, once the IRS is starting the alignment process, there is an ECAM message that indicates the alignment time, e.g. ...
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Does the radial needle of a HSI automatically deflect to the correct position when tuning the NAV radio to a localizer / ILS?

At least on small aircraft, the HSI is slaved to the NAV1 radio. The NAV1 radial is selected with a small knob of the HSI. Now, when I want to fly an ILS approach I don't need to set a radial myself ...
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4 votes
2 answers
229 views

What are these 3 stages of twilight?

The extreme left is Day and Extreme Right is Night. In between are those Civil twilight, Nautical and Astronomical Twilight ?
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1 vote
1 answer
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What are those polygons on the Garmin avionics navigation display?

I'm not pilot yet, just an enthusiast having some fun in MSFS2020. What do those colored lines mean in Garmin avionics?
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1 answer
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Can single engine/smaller aircraft turn off ADS-B?

I was just looking at the adsbexchange website, and was wondering if it was possible for smaller, private aircraft to turn off their ADS-B? I was wondering this because id figure that maybe not ...
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7 votes
4 answers
3k views

What navigation actions does a pilot take when simply told to "go around"?

In this recording of ATC during the 2008 crash of a British Airways Boeing 777 at London Heathrow the controller is heard to say "Qatari 011, go around". How would the pilot of Qatari 011 ...
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What is the meaning of this "Navigational Warning" and does it apply to the aviation industry? [closed]

This was posted at https://sattrackcam.blogspot.com/2021/09/an-upcoming-trident-ii-d5-slbm-test-in.html Th blog post notes something as a "navigational warning". A few days ago a ...
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9 votes
2 answers
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Are there two navaids on the same frequency close enough to be confused?

Several RTCA DO standards require checks for bad navaid tuning including, "In lieu of using ground-based navigation aid designated operational coverage (DOC), the system should provide, checks ...
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4 votes
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How many degrees deviation from the defined final course can I have to start the descent?

To do a VOR, ILS or RNP approach, I am turning to establish the final approach course. The approach chart shows I should descend to a lower altitude for intercepting the final descent path. So, my ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Why does my distance calculation not match the distance given in the definition of a danger area?

I'm looking at the definition of a danger area in an AIP section "ENR 5.1 Prohibited, restricted and danger areas", and it's the following. ...
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2 votes
4 answers
469 views

Can a private pilot land at any category of airport?

I'm aware that commercial pilots require special training for landing at Category C airports (e.g. Innsbruck), but I was wondering if, as a private pilot I could land at an airport such as this, ...
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1 answer
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Is there a regulation that defines when to use QFE or QNH for landing?

Is there an EASA regulation that says to use QFE or QNH when landing?
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How to figure unusable sectors if the VOR is not colocated at/near an airport?

Stemming from Why am I not getting the "TO" VOR flag as I think I should? If a VOR is not colocated at an airport (i.e. not in that airport's chart supplement page), how does one figure out ...
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13 votes
1 answer
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Why am I not getting the "TO" VOR flag as I think I should?

I would appreciate some insight as to what I’m doing wrong or missing. I just completed a XC flight practicing VOR/GPS Navigation. I was inbound to KLOL from KRNO with the lovelock VOR frequency (116....
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56 votes
8 answers
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Why don’t airplanes use turn signals?

Why don’t airplanes use turn signals like cars do? Would this improve safety for ground operations at uncontrolled airports? Could a similar concept be used to indicate in air maneuvers? For example: ...
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When I use a plotter to identify a direction from a VOR, what heading or course is it exactly?

When I use my ASA IFR plotter and I'm working off a VOR, what direction am I getting? True course, true heading, magnetic heading, magnetic course?
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1 answer
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How does the heading selector on the ADF work?

How does the ADF indicator work in terms of pointing the needle in the direction of the NDB signal? I understand that the ADF needle points towards the direction of the NDB signal for a given ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How do I calculate the impact of the winds aloft in this test question?

I was flying through this section in the ASA test prep book, I thought I had mastered this E6B. But this has me stumped: I can’t do the math to figure out how many knots I’ve traveled. But in the ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Help reading a FAA departure procedure chart

I was hoping to get a few answers regarding how to read a FAA departure procedure chart. Let's take the JUDTH SEVEN DEPARTURE chart shown below: From what I can tell, it seems that the diagram in ...
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1 answer
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What is the difference between a navigation database and an airport mapping database?

What is the difference between "navigation database" and "airport mapping database"? Are those both required by flight management software for flight planning?
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3 votes
4 answers
727 views

How can I estimate wind speed and direction in VFR?

I am new here, I started to do VFR navigation (no G1000) so I try to deal with the wind. I notice that I have some problems to find the wind speed and direction during flight. I am going to try to ...
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3 answers
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Why don't the magnetic compass and direction indicator spin the same direction?

You set a direction indicator (DI) based on the magnetic compass in certain GA aircraft, e.g. Cessna 172. During training you're taught how to align the DI with the compass, the DI being the opposite ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between IAN and LNAV/VNAV?

Is there a real difference or benefit in using Integrated Approach Navigation (IAN) instead of LNAV/VNAV for a non-precision approach (NPA)? Both give you lateral and vertical guidance during an NPA. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
87 views

What are the units for the bearing to center of an airport from radio aids to navigation in chart supplement?

Is the bearing to the center of airport for a radio aid to navigation in the chart supplement, true course, magnetic course, is it based on the VOR's radials, or is it something else?
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1 vote
2 answers
197 views

VFR Navigation, rerouting timing corrections due to wind - rule of thumb?

Consider this reroute on a VFR nav trip from Great Malvern to Chipping Norton. Maintaining 120 TAS. Track 110 °M Heading 103 °M (taking 3/4 of Max Drift - MD) In still air this 30nm section would take ...
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13 votes
1 answer
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Why are true headings followed above 73N in the northern hemisphere, whereas in the southern hemisphere the change is made at 60S?

The question is in regards to the asymmetry of the changeover latitudes and NOT about why it needs to be changed.
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3 votes
2 answers
473 views

When not cleared straight in for a VOR approach, how is this type of procedure executed?

You are flying to the GDM VOR on a 097 heading. The ATC clears you for the approach, but does not specify straight in. The procedure turn is marked by the barb and specifies remaining within 10nm. My ...
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3 votes
2 answers
501 views

Why is the NAV ADR 1 ECAM caution a NO GO as per the MEL on the A320?

There isn't much more I can post about the question but in the MEL out of the 3 ADRs if ADR 1 fails on ground the MEL doesn't allow for a dispatch.
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5 votes
1 answer
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Why are the MSA direction needles not oriented to north?

Why is it when you look at an MSA the arrows are pointed opposite of where they should be?
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1 vote
1 answer
187 views

Do navigation databases (by e.g. Aeronavdata or Jeppesen) include company routes?

Does the navigation database provided by database providers like Aeronavdata or Jeppesen etc include company routes? How are the company routes maintained; are they modifiable by the OEMs? Is the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What do the Airway Letters and the following numbers mean? [duplicate]

For example, from RCTP - ZGGG the route is AJENT MKG A1 ANPOG R200 GLN W22 IDUMA via the AJENT SID to the IDUMA STAR. What does "A1 or R200 or W22" mean? Are they just randomly allocated letters with ...
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What is meant by Manual Tuning of ADF/NDB using BFO? [duplicate]

As NDB transmission is either N0NA1A(requires BFO to be turned on for Manual Tuning, Identification and Monitoring) or N0NA2A(BFO turned on only for Manual Tuning). My question is what exactly is ...
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1 answer
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Why are heading in PFD and map off by exactly 10 degrees? [duplicate]

I was flying on my X-plane 11 flight simulator today and noticed something quite unsettling. This was a VFR flight between KIAD and KDCA. I pulled up my map for reference and noticed I was flying ...
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