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Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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Aircraft EFIS Configurability [duplicate]

What should be the general logic to automatically switch between different pages of EFIS during failure of single or multiple displays?
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243 views

Why did my transatlantic flight meander off the great circle?

I recently flew commercial to Scotland and was tracking our progress on my iPad using Foreflight. I made a direct-to line that followed the great circle route, but noticed that we meandered off of it ...
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2answers
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What does LNAV engagement exactly mean?

I notice the term LNAV engagement being frequently mentioned in aviation related discussions or in several FAA's relevant material. Take, for example, this quote from Order 8260.58A (PBN Instrument ...
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1answer
55 views

How to call a cartesian (END) coordinate system, that is referenced in surrounding air?

I'm looking for the correct/usual terminology for a coordinate system, that is moving with the wind. I do calculations in a Cartesian East-North-Down (END) system. When taking wind into account I'd ...
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3answers
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Are NDBs and VORs dying as a navigational method?

I am new to aviation, so bear with me on this question: I have read in multiple places that the VOR/NDB navigational aids are dying out to GPS. Is this true? Are more modern aircraft being built with ...
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1answer
73 views

Reading the VOR dial to find magnetic bearing to station

In my PPL trial test, I have the following question regarding VOR: Consult Figure 3, Illustration 6. On a magnetic heading of 160°, the magnetic bearing to the station is: 045° 205° 165° 270° (See ...
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128 views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
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3k views

How do hot air balloons navigate?

Hot air balloons are quite obviously carried along with the wind, so how can they be navigated? Choosing the correct launch point relative to the desired landing point would seem to play a major part ...
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1answer
98 views

How do I calculate the aircraft's deviation from track in this exam question?

I’ll have my PPL exam soon. I asked my instructor at the school about this question and even he doesn’t know the answer. I’ll appreciate your help. Question 22 Flight from point A to point ...
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2answers
305 views

Is there a difference between a chart and map?

Does the use or meaning of "chart" or "map" vary worldwide? Is there a difference between a chart and map?
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29 views

Explain navigation terminology [duplicate]

Can anyone Explain the following terms associated with airborne navigation using suitable diagrams: Bearing, Radial, Course, Homing, Heading , and Track.
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49 views

What are some of the bigger differences world wide in VFR charts?

While discussing Aviation Charts in this SE question, JanHudec & Jwentin commented that VFR chart symbols are not internationally standardized - including airspace names and procedures. What are ...
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1answer
115 views

How to navigate at night after a complete navigation systems failure? [duplicate]

How do pilots deal with incorrect navigation readings at night? How do they know where to fly? At low altitude do they have to know the shapes of cities and villages? At high altitude and speeds over ...
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6k views

When flying VFR without GPS, how do pilots know if they are inside controlled airspace or not?

How do VFR pilots know whether or not they are inside controlled airspace if they don't have GPS onboard?
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1answer
1k views

What means of navigation did commercial Soviet airplanes use in the 50s-90s?

Nowadays, practically all Western commercial airplanes use some kind of GNSS/GPS as primary means of navigation, sometimes paired with inertial navigation systems and user-friendly computer interfaces ...
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1answer
205 views

What is “picture flying” and does the FAA define it?

What is "picture flying" and does the FAA define it in any of their literature? Here is an example situation. You are instructed to depart using a SID. The SID states that at 1.5NM from ABC VORTAC a ...
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3answers
360 views

How did KAL 007 get so far off course?

Regarding Flight 007 that got shot down in the Soviet Union, this was reported in the New York Times: Study Says Korean Airliner Was on Its Intended Course When Downed in '83 (nytimes.com) Excerpt: ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the numbers in boxes on an A320 ND when terrain is shown?

When the TERR On ND button is pressed on the Airbus A320 Cockpit, the TERR information apears on the ND, and 2 boxes in yellow appear. What do the numbers 146 and 073 mean respectively?
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879 views

What is the difference between RNAV and RNP?

What is the difference between RNAV and RNP? I know that RNAV doesn't need monitoring and alerting, but RNP does.
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3answers
151 views

What does “inertial” refer to in “inertial reference”?

An ADIRU makes use of air data reference and inertial reference. Inertial reference calculates the heading, position, ground speed and attitude. I was wondering why is it called inertial. Is it ...
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1answer
268 views

What is the english term for “vol en ficelle”?

From what I have read online and understood, "vol en ficelle" is basically a low altitude flight preparation method that requires calculating a set of altitudes to be followed in order not to crash. ...
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1answer
158 views

How to find the distance if the points are above Earth's surface? [closed]

There is a lot of information online about how to find the distance between two points if both the points are on the surface of the earth. But no article mentions about how to find the distance if ...
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1answer
74 views

Position update rate of GPS [closed]

GPS satellites send data at the rate of 50 bits per second. One GPS subframe is 6 seconds long. How is it possible to update one's position faster than once in 30 seconds when we require the whole ...
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1answer
299 views

Is it true that there are VOR/DME and/or TACAN stations in the oceans?

Are there any VORs placed in the oceans for navigation. Is it true that VORs or TACANs are placed on ships to help oceanic flights, for example flights across the Atlantic?
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2answers
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How should I interpret this raw SID data from the FAA?

I am trying to make sense of the SID structures from the FAA's 28 day NASR subscription files (SSD and/or STARDP, raw data in txt files), and I have two questions. First, I notice that there are ...
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1answer
601 views

What clues would have indicated KAL 902 was off course?

Korean Airlines Flight 902 was shot down by a Soviet fighter in April 1978 after the pilot turned through 150 degrees and entered Russian airspace. The New York Times reported it happened around 8.30 ...
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220 views

How does an API (air position indicator) work?

I was looking for WW2 aircraft indicators and I found one navigation equipment called API (air position indicator). But I couldn't find how it works exactly????
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1answer
305 views

What sensors are required to fly RNAV 5 airways?

In the example shown above: Is an aircraft required to have all 3 sensors listed or just one of them to fly the L512 airway? What ICAO reference confirms the answer? Does 'critical DME' (bottom row) ...
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1answer
324 views

Do pilots of modern aircrafts still use maps, gps and compasses to find airports? [duplicate]

Do pilots of modern aircraft still need to navigate using maps, GPS and compasses to find airports? Alternatively do they use some sort of fully automated system that navigates the aircraft via ...
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1answer
184 views

Where is the weather data for the Garmin G1000 retrieved from?

In a few videos I saw the possibility of looking for example at wind data. Now my question would be where does the G1000 gets the data from?
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3answers
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Is it always the case that any one STAR leads to all the runways?

I was making an addon for a flight simulator and I am having a problem figuring this scenario out: Let's take CYOW - Macdonald Cartier international. It has 6 runways: 04, 07, 14, 22, 25, 32. It has ...
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Where did the 22NM come from in acceptable VOR signal on a MOCA? Why 22NM?

SO a MOCA provides ROC along entire route but acceptable VOR nav signal for only 22NM. Why 22NM?
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1answer
827 views

Can a lost aircraft get a DF Steer?

When I got my pilots license in 1975, a lost airplane could call almost any FSS and get a DF (Directional Finder) steer. The range was probably upto 30mi. I would request a practice one every 3-4 ...
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1answer
109 views

S-tec 50 with gns 430 [closed]

S Tec 50 with an gas 430 navigation question flying a 172p with a gns430 and an s-tec 50 , my question is to fly a gps track the 50 has to be in just nav mode ? Some Manuel’s say apr should be on ...
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1answer
566 views

why would an aircraft use 3 red flashing lights?

i saw an aircraft taking off from a supposedly disused airfield with 3 flashing red lights. i live close to Woodford Aerodrome and saw it taking off from there with 3 flashing red lights! i was stood ...
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1answer
319 views

How to set frequency and distance in ARINC 429?

How can I set frequency & read distance in ARINC 429? For example can you give an example to tune a 1105.5 MHz and read 25786 ft. ...
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1answer
211 views

How was the 'steer' bearing given? [duplicate]

From the USAF c. 1955 training film No Sweat, there is a technique called 'steer'. By pressing the PTT button for a few seconds, the tower controller is able to determine the pilot's bearing. What ...
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What aircraft manufacturer uses an HSI with DME, VOR, and G/S in one Instrument?

Which aircraft manufacturer uses a horizontal situation indicator (HSI) with DME, Glide Slope, VOR, and ADF in one Instrument?
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How is varying modulation depth achieved by localizer ground transmitters?

An approaching aircraft's navigation receiver uses the difference in depth of modulation between the 90Hz and 150Hz signals which are amplitude modulated onto an RF carrier (on a channel between ...
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120 views

How does one reverse direction on a VOR radial?

Tracking inbound, say on R-270, how do I track outbound on the same R-270? What intercept heading shall I fly?
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1answer
209 views

What is the distance unit on a navigation display?

I want to learn what is the distance unit on a navigation display. I pointed the distance marks with red circles on the navigation display. What are these 10, 15 etc. values' unit? Are they ...
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1answer
288 views

Are sequenced waypoints still displayed on the Navigation Display / FMS legs page?

This question relates to the Flight Management System of a large airliner, e.g. Boeing 787: During a flight, when the aircraft passes a waypoint, is this just passed waypoint (and the previous ones) ...
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2answers
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Could a pilot navigate using distances and radials from an RNAV waypoint, similar to VOR navigation?

I know that typically RNAV navigation involves a list of waypoints, and the aircraft simply flies from one point to the next. What I'm curious about is if a procedure could be developed (as a special ...
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2answers
208 views

Does the altitude or attitude of an aircraft affect GPS accuracy?

Of course we are assuming an effective signal is being received. I live near Idaho Falls, Idaho with a field elev of 5300ft. If I shoot an approach will GPS be more or less accurate then landing at ...
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1answer
69 views

What is the possibility of technology like Google's balloon reducing overall connectivity and internet costs? [closed]

What is the possibility of technology like Google's balloon and its Facebook equivalent replacing satelite technology for internet access in aircraft given the rise in the next tech revolution on the ...
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278 views

What are the differences between VORTAC's and NDB's?

What are the differences between VORTAC's and NDB's?
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1answer
2k views

Is Doppler navigation still in use for civilian aircraft?

Is it possible to find an airliner nowadays with Doppler radar used for navigation purposes?
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3answers
2k views

Is it possible for a civilian to use a VORTAC station?

Suppose you have a Cessna 208 Grand Caravan Amphibian and you want to use VORTAC stations on military bases (or somewhere else). Is it possible? Is it legal?
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352 views

What are the differences between VOR/DME and VORTAC? [duplicate]

Yes, long answers are needed but what are the differences ?
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428 views

Is this the correct sequence of steps to convert from true course to compass heading?

I wanted to confirm my understanding of VFR Flight Planning/Dead Reckoning with relation to heading and course calculation. Is the below correct? Using a plotter, draw a line from departure airport ...