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Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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1answer
120 views

Staying oriented in VFR

This is something I have been questioning more and more often on how pilots do it. So, let's say we are flying on a new location and know very little about it. When flying around and keeping the ...
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88 views

How can I learn and practice Grid-Polar-Navigation in my simulator? [closed]

At the time before GPS navigation in the Antarctic region was done by Grid-Polar Navigation. This method I would like to learn and practice in my flightsimulator. Are there anybody who can explain ...
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2answers
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Why are waypoints not named uniquely?

Waypoint names are not unique. Why ? This is unnecessary (it would be possible to use unique names only). It introduces potential for confusion. So why are duplicate waypoint names permissible and ...
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3answers
153 views

Did AF447 cross dangerous weather?

question Did the Air France 447 pilots endanger the passengers by not diverting around but flying straight through the weather system encountered and pictured below ? Or was this a defendable, ...
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1answer
139 views

When do pilots facing bad weather turn back (U-turn)?

Passenger aircraft are not supposed to cross red areas on the weather radar. But what if the weather system is too large to circumnavigate and red areas inside the system are too large/prevalent to ...
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3answers
105 views

How can I use an ADS-B receiver to make my aircraft visible in Flightradar24?

I recently bought a SENTRY ADS-B receiver for the aircraft in order to track the flight. How could I make Flightradar24 or Flightaware show my aircraft and how to register my aircraft on the website?
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3answers
167 views

How do pilots decide whether to circumnavigate bad weather?

How does an airline pilot decide in the air whether to circumnavigate or fly through bad weather visibly looming ahead and/or displayed on the weather radar ?
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4answers
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How can pilot remember when or where to do tasks such as changing radio frequency and change fuel tank? [duplicate]

As a student pilot, I sometime forget tasks such as changing radio frequency after reaching a location or switching fuel tank in long navigation. These tasks happen in specific time or location ...
3
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4answers
237 views

Can longer paths consume less fuel than the (shorter) great circle path?

Is the most fuel-efficient route between points A and B always along a great circle ? Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this comment on an aviation blog seems to suggest that longer paths (in ...
3
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2answers
112 views

When must airliners follow airways? [duplicate]

Please give a basic explanation of how commercial aviation traffic is routed for readers without any foreknowledge: Can commercial aircraft only follow airways like cars on highways ? Or are ...
3
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0answers
195 views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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1answer
31 views

How to accurately determine Navigation Accuracy from FAA's PBN Criteria (Order 8260.58A)?

I am trying to understand how to determine the Navigation Accuracy for a given flight phase of an Instrument Flight Procedure, from the US Standard for PBN Instrument Procedure Design (Order 8260.58A)....
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1answer
161 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
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1answer
187 views

What are the FAI rules for circumnavigating the world?

If I want to solo circumnavigate the world by plane as the youngest pilot, what are the FAI requirements regarding the routing? Most standard routings include the Hawaii to California leg, which is ...
2
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1answer
107 views

What are RNP and ANP in area navigation?

What are Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Actual Navigation Performance (ANP)?
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1answer
167 views

Is there a serious effort underway to move from a highways-in-the-sky approach to a mesh-network approach?

As far as I'm aware, there are certain "motorways" or corridors which air traffic uses, rather than navigating more directly from origin to destination. I remember listening to a documentary which ...
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2answers
929 views

How to navigate an aircraft without GPS? [duplicate]

In case of loss of GPS: how can an aircraft not only be navigated but navigated so precisely that it can pinpoint its destination airport ? (case in point: Finland and Norway are telling airline ...
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2answers
200 views

Why do RNAV airways exist?

I assume there's some stupidly obvious reason that I'm missing, but why bother creating RNAV airways when I thought the entire point of RNAV was not needing to fly along a suboptimal preset path? I ...
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2answers
131 views

Can you broadcast a very low power nav vor signal in air?

Are there any FCC restrictions on broadcasting a test nav signal on 108.0 in the air? Or perhaps on other nav frequencies that can be received within the navigation band?
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0answers
56 views

Simulation tool/software for localiser and glidepath?

Anyone having a free simulation software for studying localiser,glidepath and DVOR signals? Softwares like ATOLL and LAGON but they are not free.
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1answer
259 views

Is there a global map of aviation waypoints?

Is there such a map or database available to the public?
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1answer
265 views

How do I do these VOR time and distance calculations?

I'm trying to figure out the calculation to these questions: A pilot tracking a VOR turns 90 degrees from current heading. The pilot notes that it takes 3.0 minutes for the plane to intercept the ...
3
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2answers
295 views

What are the restrictions preventing more intelligent autopilot systems?

Current autopilot system is integrated with Flight Management System (FMS) for navigation such as LNAV and VNAV; both of them are based on preset parameters given by the pilot prior to departure (IRS ...
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4answers
24k views

How did the 9/11 hijackers find their way to NYC?

It is quite well known that the airplane hijackers on 9/11 were not professional pilots. So, my question is how some people who didn't have any experience of navigating the airplanes could find their ...
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30 views

Aircraft EFIS Configurability [duplicate]

What should be the general logic to automatically switch between different pages of EFIS during failure of single or multiple displays?
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2answers
299 views

Why did my transatlantic flight meander off the great circle?

I recently flew commercial to Scotland and was tracking our progress on my iPad using Foreflight. I made a direct-to line that followed the great circle route, but noticed that we meandered off of it ...
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2answers
66 views

What does LNAV engagement exactly mean?

I notice the term LNAV engagement being frequently mentioned in aviation related discussions or in several FAA's relevant material. Take, for example, this quote from Order 8260.58A (PBN Instrument ...
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1answer
57 views

How to call a cartesian (END) coordinate system, that is referenced in surrounding air?

I'm looking for the correct/usual terminology for a coordinate system, that is moving with the wind. I do calculations in a Cartesian East-North-Down (END) system. When taking wind into account I'd ...
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3answers
2k views

Are NDBs and VORs dying as a navigational method?

I am new to aviation, so bear with me on this question: I have read in multiple places that the VOR/NDB navigational aids are dying out to GPS. Is this true? Are more modern aircraft being built with ...
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0answers
380 views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
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3answers
3k views

How do hot air balloons navigate?

Hot air balloons are quite obviously carried along with the wind, so how can they be navigated? Choosing the correct launch point relative to the desired landing point would seem to play a major part ...
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1answer
219 views

How do I calculate the aircraft's deviation from track in this exam question?

I’ll have my PPL exam soon. I asked my instructor at the school about this question and even he doesn’t know the answer. I’ll appreciate your help. Question 22 Flight from point A to point ...
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2answers
698 views

Is there a difference between a chart and map?

Does the use or meaning of "chart" or "map" vary worldwide? Is there a difference between a chart and map?
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0answers
37 views

Explain navigation terminology [duplicate]

Can anyone Explain the following terms associated with airborne navigation using suitable diagrams: Bearing, Radial, Course, Homing, Heading , and Track.
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0answers
59 views

What are some of the bigger differences world wide in VFR charts?

While discussing Aviation Charts in this SE question, JanHudec & Jwentin commented that VFR chart symbols are not internationally standardized - including airspace names and procedures. What are ...
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1answer
120 views

How to navigate at night after a complete navigation systems failure? [duplicate]

How do pilots deal with incorrect navigation readings at night? How do they know where to fly? At low altitude do they have to know the shapes of cities and villages? At high altitude and speeds over ...
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3answers
7k views

When flying VFR without GPS, how do pilots know if they are inside controlled airspace or not?

How do VFR pilots know whether or not they are inside controlled airspace if they don't have GPS onboard?
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1answer
1k views

What means of navigation did commercial Soviet airplanes use in the 50s-90s?

Nowadays, practically all Western commercial airplanes use some kind of GNSS/GPS as primary means of navigation, sometimes paired with inertial navigation systems and user-friendly computer interfaces ...
5
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1answer
217 views

What is “picture flying” and does the FAA define it?

What is "picture flying" and does the FAA define it in any of their literature? Here is an example situation. You are instructed to depart using a SID. The SID states that at 1.5NM from ABC VORTAC a ...
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3answers
605 views

How did KAL 007 get so far off course?

Regarding Flight 007 that got shot down in the Soviet Union, this was reported in the New York Times: Study Says Korean Airliner Was on Its Intended Course When Downed in '83 (nytimes.com) Excerpt: ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the numbers in boxes on an A320 ND when terrain is shown?

When the TERR On ND button is pressed on the Airbus A320 Cockpit, the TERR information apears on the ND, and 2 boxes in yellow appear. What do the numbers 146 and 073 mean respectively?
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between RNAV and RNP?

What is the difference between RNAV and RNP? I know that RNAV doesn't need monitoring and alerting, but RNP does.
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3answers
169 views

What does “inertial” refer to in “inertial reference”?

An ADIRU makes use of air data reference and inertial reference. Inertial reference calculates the heading, position, ground speed and attitude. I was wondering why is it called inertial. Is it ...
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1answer
276 views

What is the english term for “vol en ficelle”?

From what I have read online and understood, "vol en ficelle" is basically a low altitude flight preparation method that requires calculating a set of altitudes to be followed in order not to crash. ...
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1answer
204 views

How to find the distance if the points are above Earth's surface? [closed]

There is a lot of information online about how to find the distance between two points if both the points are on the surface of the earth. But no article mentions about how to find the distance if ...
2
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1answer
88 views

Position update rate of GPS [closed]

GPS satellites send data at the rate of 50 bits per second. One GPS subframe is 6 seconds long. How is it possible to update one's position faster than once in 30 seconds when we require the whole ...
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1answer
357 views

Is it true that there are VOR/DME and/or TACAN stations in the oceans?

Are there any VORs placed in the oceans for navigation. Is it true that VORs or TACANs are placed on ships to help oceanic flights, for example flights across the Atlantic?
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2answers
155 views

How should I interpret this raw SID data from the FAA?

I am trying to make sense of the SID structures from the FAA's 28 day NASR subscription files (SSD and/or STARDP, raw data in txt files), and I have two questions. First, I notice that there are ...
9
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1answer
629 views

What clues would have indicated KAL 902 was off course?

Korean Airlines Flight 902 was shot down by a Soviet fighter in April 1978 after the pilot turned through 150 degrees and entered Russian airspace. The New York Times reported it happened around 8.30 ...
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1answer
256 views

How does an API (air position indicator) work?

I was looking for WW2 aircraft indicators and I found one navigation equipment called API (air position indicator). But I couldn't find how it works exactly????