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Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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How can I correct the heading for this navigation problem?

I'm a pilot trainee in Hungary and just encountered a navigation question problem which is from the PPL Training Questions book. Would be glad if someone can briefly explain how to do this typical ...
2
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2answers
67 views

Measurement discrepancy on vfrmap dot com sectional — is the grid wrong?

At Nome Alaska-- KOME-- the E2 airspace (dashed magenta line) is listed as extending 13.2 (nautical) miles east of the airport-- according to this source page E-9 -- https://www.faa.gov/...
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1answer
101 views

How do I answer this navigation problem?

This question is from the PPL questions book, navigation part. Given: QDM: 279° VAR: 5° W DEV: 5° E The QDR equals...
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3answers
117 views

How is the quadrantal rule applied to VFR flights in Hungary?

I'm looking for a clear explanation for this quadrantal rule question (it applies to Hungary): A VFR pilot is cruising, en-route in level flight, above the transition level of FL035. His magnetic ...
2
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1answer
101 views

How would you use the mental clock code to solve this dead reckoning problem?

Can someone explain the question below in details? You plan to fly a cross country flight at 2 000 feet at a true airspeed of 120 knots. Your track is 270° (True) and the wind is from 225° (True) at ...
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1answer
197 views

What navigation systems were used by the Space Shuttle during reentry?

What equipment did the Space Shuttle orbiters carry to support navigation during reentry? Were there any differences between the individual orbiters in this regard?
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1answer
93 views

How do I calculate the heading to steer in this example?

At 1415 an aircraft was overhead a VOR maintaining radial 215°, en route for B, heading 210°(M). At 1430, the pilot decides to return to the VOR. The heading to steer is... The answer is given as ...
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0answers
28 views

How to calculate cross-/headwind components on Jeppesen Student flight computer?

How does one calculate the cross-/headwind components on a Jeppesen Student flight computer (CSG) given the aircraft’s true heading, the wind direction and the wind speed? Say 040 degrees, 070 degrees ...
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1answer
75 views

Can we use ECI coordinates for an airplane?

It is taught for navigation systems (like an airplane) on Earth we us ECEF (earth-centered, earth-fixed) and for space systems (like a satellite) we use ECI (earth-centered inertial). But why is ECEF ...
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2answers
6k views

Is the destination of a commercial flight important for the pilot?

As has been recently advertised (in here, here, here also), a recent British Airways flight from London City Airport destined for Düsseldorf mistakenly flew its passengers to Edinburgh instead. I'm a ...
5
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3answers
317 views

How is device control software checked for quality?

Many, many reports on the now infamous MCAS suggest a software patch is forthcoming in the next several weeks that will address the confounding single point of failure with the two AOA sensors that ...
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0answers
82 views

How was the navigation managed on jetliners before having programmable routes?

This in-flight photo provides a look into the pre-FMS era (also pre-INS), i.e., not having a programmable route. How was the navigation managed back then? (Question limited to 2-crew jetliners, or ...
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What is RNP and ANP in area navigation [duplicate]

RNAV often comes with RNP and ANP . I can't understand what they indicate ? Even in boeing 737 at the bottom of Navigation display RNP ANP are shown and this changes place to place . Please tell me ...
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2answers
123 views

What is the difference between RTK GPS and GBAS?

My understanding is that real-time kinematic (RTK) is also a differential GPS technology to enhance accuracy by using a ground-based station to provide the correction data to the onboard GPS receiver. ...
3
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1answer
149 views

Is navigation around thunderheads done at the pilot's discretion?

It's my understanding that if a pilot is flying over an ocean or otherwise uncontrolled airspace and they encounter a cumulonimbus, they navigate around it at their discretion. How does this happen ...
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1answer
136 views

Can you guide me about the purpose of fine alignment in inertial navigation systems?

I am new in inertial navigation field. I have some confusion about fine alignment process of INS. I want to ask that what is purpose of fine alignment? I know by process of alignment we find the ...
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1answer
192 views

Can an orienteering compass be used in place of a protractor?

First off, please forgive me if this is a stupid question. I was given a protractor during flight training, learnt to use it and obviously works quite well. However, I've started using my old maps ...
5
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1answer
140 views

Staying oriented in VFR

This is something I have been questioning more and more often on how pilots do it. So, let's say we are flying on a new location and know very little about it. When flying around and keeping the ...
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2answers
140 views

Why are waypoints not named uniquely?

Waypoint names are not unique. Why ? This is unnecessary (it would be possible to use unique names only). It introduces potential for confusion. So why are duplicate waypoint names permissible and ...
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3answers
225 views

Did AF447 cross dangerous weather?

question Did the Air France 447 pilots endanger the passengers by not diverting around but flying straight through the weather system encountered and pictured below ? Or was this a defendable, ...
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1answer
198 views

When do pilots facing bad weather turn back (U-turn)?

Passenger aircraft are not supposed to cross red areas on the weather radar. But what if the weather system is too large to circumnavigate and red areas inside the system are too large/prevalent to ...
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3answers
207 views

How can I use an ADS-B receiver to make my aircraft visible in Flightradar24?

I recently bought a SENTRY ADS-B receiver for the aircraft in order to track the flight. How could I make Flightradar24 or Flightaware show my aircraft and how to register my aircraft on the website?
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3answers
255 views

How do pilots decide whether to circumnavigate bad weather?

How does an airline pilot decide in the air whether to circumnavigate or fly through bad weather visibly looming ahead and/or displayed on the weather radar ?
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4answers
108 views

How can pilot remember when or where to do tasks such as changing radio frequency and change fuel tank? [duplicate]

As a student pilot, I sometime forget tasks such as changing radio frequency after reaching a location or switching fuel tank in long navigation. These tasks happen in specific time or location ...
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4answers
256 views

Can longer paths consume less fuel than the (shorter) great circle path?

Is the most fuel-efficient route between points A and B always along a great circle ? Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this comment on an aviation blog seems to suggest that longer paths (in ...
3
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2answers
121 views

When must airliners follow airways? [duplicate]

Please give a basic explanation of how commercial aviation traffic is routed for readers without any foreknowledge: Can commercial aircraft only follow airways like cars on highways ? Or are ...
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1answer
2k views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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1answer
38 views

How to accurately determine Navigation Accuracy from FAA's PBN Criteria (Order 8260.58A)?

I am trying to understand how to determine the Navigation Accuracy for a given flight phase of an Instrument Flight Procedure, from the US Standard for PBN Instrument Procedure Design (Order 8260.58A)....
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1answer
169 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
3
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1answer
290 views

What are the FAI rules for circumnavigating the world?

If I want to solo circumnavigate the world by plane as the youngest pilot, what are the FAI requirements regarding the routing? Most standard routings include the Hawaii to California leg, which is ...
3
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1answer
653 views

What are RNP and ANP in area navigation?

What are Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Actual Navigation Performance (ANP)?
7
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1answer
168 views

Is there a serious effort underway to move from a highways-in-the-sky approach to a mesh-network approach?

As far as I'm aware, there are certain "motorways" or corridors which air traffic uses, rather than navigating more directly from origin to destination. I remember listening to a documentary which ...
6
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2answers
1k views

How to navigate an aircraft without GPS? [duplicate]

In case of loss of GPS: how can an aircraft not only be navigated but navigated so precisely that it can pinpoint its destination airport ? (case in point: Finland and Norway are telling airline ...
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2answers
286 views

Why do RNAV airways exist?

I assume there's some stupidly obvious reason that I'm missing, but why bother creating RNAV airways when I thought the entire point of RNAV was not needing to fly along a suboptimal preset path? I ...
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2answers
140 views

Can you broadcast a very low power nav vor signal in air?

Are there any FCC restrictions on broadcasting a test nav signal on 108.0 in the air? Or perhaps on other nav frequencies that can be received within the navigation band?
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1answer
2k views

Is there a global map of aviation waypoints?

Is there such a map or database available to the public?
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1answer
954 views

How do I do these VOR time and distance calculations?

I'm trying to figure out the calculation to these questions: A pilot tracking a VOR turns 90 degrees from current heading. The pilot notes that it takes 3.0 minutes for the plane to intercept the ...
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2answers
334 views

What are the restrictions preventing more intelligent autopilot systems?

Current autopilot system is integrated with Flight Management System (FMS) for navigation such as LNAV and VNAV; both of them are based on preset parameters given by the pilot prior to departure (IRS ...
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4answers
24k views

How did the 9/11 hijackers find their way to New York City?

It is quite well known that the airplane hijackers on 9/11 were not professional pilots. So, my question is how some people who didn't have any experience of navigating the airplanes could find their ...
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30 views

Aircraft EFIS Configurability [duplicate]

What should be the general logic to automatically switch between different pages of EFIS during failure of single or multiple displays?
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2answers
328 views

Why did my transatlantic flight meander off the great circle?

I recently flew commercial to Scotland and was tracking our progress on my iPad using Foreflight. I made a direct-to line that followed the great circle route, but noticed that we meandered off of it ...
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2answers
110 views

What does LNAV engagement exactly mean?

I notice the term LNAV engagement being frequently mentioned in aviation related discussions or in several FAA's relevant material. Take, for example, this quote from Order 8260.58A (PBN Instrument ...
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1answer
60 views

How to call a cartesian (END) coordinate system, that is referenced in surrounding air?

I'm looking for the correct/usual terminology for a coordinate system, that is moving with the wind. I do calculations in a Cartesian East-North-Down (END) system. When taking wind into account I'd ...
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3answers
2k views

Are NDBs and VORs dying as a navigational method?

I am new to aviation, so bear with me on this question: I have read in multiple places that the VOR/NDB navigational aids are dying out to GPS. Is this true? Are more modern aircraft being built with ...
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2answers
1k views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
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3answers
3k views

How do hot air balloons navigate?

Hot air balloons are quite obviously carried along with the wind, so how can they be navigated? Choosing the correct launch point relative to the desired landing point would seem to play a major part ...
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1answer
343 views

How do I calculate the aircraft's deviation from track in this exam question?

I’ll have my PPL exam soon. I asked my instructor at the school about this question and even he doesn’t know the answer. I’ll appreciate your help. Question 22 Flight from point A to point ...
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3answers
1k views

Is there a difference between a chart and map?

Does the use or meaning of "chart" or "map" vary worldwide? Is there a difference between a chart and map?
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0answers
41 views

Explain navigation terminology [duplicate]

Can anyone Explain the following terms associated with airborne navigation using suitable diagrams: Bearing, Radial, Course, Homing, Heading , and Track.
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64 views

What are some of the bigger differences world wide in VFR charts?

While discussing Aviation Charts in this SE question, JanHudec & Jwentin commented that VFR chart symbols are not internationally standardized - including airspace names and procedures. What are ...