Questions tagged [navigation]

Navigation is the process of planning and controlling travel from one location to another. There are many methods of navigation using different techniques and instruments.

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53 views

How can I use a magnetic declination chart to calculate true track, magnetic track and magnetic variation?

If I am given values such as 30 degrees south and 75 degrees east with a true track value such as 70 degrees, how would I calculate the magnetic track? I understand that True track = Magnetic + ...
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What's the busiest airport that's not WGS-84 compliant?

Most latitude and longitude coordinates are defined relative to the WGS-84 standard, including GPS coordinates from your receiver. However, some coordinates are specified using local datums, and ...
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Are there conventions on which side to travel on Victor airways - USA?

I'm a low-time VFR pilot (100hrs) in the United States. I have not yet started IFR training (other than XC time building). I understand the purposes and reasons why the Victor airways exist. I also ...
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80 views

How are VFR / GAAP approach points selected?

This is kind of an Australia based question. How are VFR approach points selected and why they are where they are? Also what challenges will pilots face from the GAAP (General Aviation Airport ...
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What's the minimum number of sensors for a hobby GPS waypoint-following UAV?

I would like to develop my own guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) flight software on a Raspberry Pi, for a small hobby fixed-wing UAV. From a physical standpoint, what is the minimum set of ...
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How to obtain very detailed information about certain flights(speed, elevation, heading, pitch, etc)?

For a computer science project I need very specific sensor measurements about speed, elevation, heading, pitch, and geographic position of aircraft during approach. Is there any way to access such ...
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Why was Pan Am Flight 103 flying over Lockerbie?

Pan Am Flight 103 was a flight from Frankfurt to Detroit with stops in London and New York. Why after taking off in London did it fly all the way to Lockerbie instead of going directly to New York? ...
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1answer
158 views

Question about CDI/OBS and HI [duplicate]

Could somebody please explain me the differences between using the OBS and the Heading Indicator? As much as I could understand, once you tune into the VOR, the OBS starts to show how much deflection/ ...
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TACtical Air Navigation - Bearing Information

In the TACAN system , how does a change in bearing , would translate to a change in the time (or frequency) domain. I'll try to elaborate: I'm aware , of the TACAN operation in general. let's say ...
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where can i get a aviation map of korea with the moes, and highways and vectors

ive been searching for a aviation map of South Korea and cant find anyone that sells it. does anyone know where I can find one for flight planning
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Where can I find a navigation database for Brisbane?

Does anyone know of a database that details the GPS locations of beacons within Brisbane; or a data-set that tells me air routes and associated en-route beacons, way points etc.? I'd like to be able ...
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1answer
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How can I overlay a VFR sectional on another map to identify features and landmarks?

How do I know which highways and landmarks on a VFR sectional align with which real-world features? Is there a way to overlay the VFR sectional map from the FAA on top of Google Maps or Bing? Edit: I'...
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How can I find a final approach fix (FAF)?

I have a problem understanding FAF - how can I find FAf on a precision approach without the lightning bolt/zigzag symbol. I know the Maltese cross means FAF for a non-precision approach. According to ...
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Compute great-circle track from longitude

The Aviation Formulary defines Clairut's formula to compute the intermediate track (bearing) for a GC based upon latitude, but any given GC (ignoring one passing through the poles), crosses a given ...
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How did aircraft in WW2 navigate to the carrier?

How did aircraft in WW2 navigate to the carrier after their mission? I was thinking of something like a beacon installed in the carrier but wouldn't it reveal the location of the carrier itself?
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How to find TAS for given CAS, FL and OAT?

Here is another question for my PPL Exam. If anyone can illuminate me with explaining every step to achieve TAS with given parameters, it would be great. Given: Calibrated airspeed (CAS): 155 kt. ...
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1answer
141 views

How do navigation displays depict turn anticipation?

I'm working on a navigation display for a simulation and I want to know if someone can explain me how the navigation display displays the "curved lines" for fly-by waypoints.I know how to calculate ...
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What are some of the longest flights without modern navigation systems?

Context: As a private pilot, I enjoy preparing my flights with a mix of paper charts and iPad apps. In flight, my navigation is now often very assisted by the G1000 or iPad, relegating the paper maps ...
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How can I correct the heading for this navigation problem?

I'm a pilot trainee in Hungary and just encountered a navigation question problem which is from the PPL Training Questions book. Would be glad if someone can briefly explain how to do this typical ...
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Measurement discrepancy on vfrmap dot com sectional — is the grid wrong?

At Nome Alaska-- KOME-- the E2 airspace (dashed magenta line) is listed as extending 13.2 (nautical) miles east of the airport-- according to this source page E-9 -- https://www.faa.gov/...
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How do I answer this navigation problem?

This question is from the PPL questions book, navigation part. Given: QDM: 279° VAR: 5° W DEV: 5° E The QDR equals...
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3answers
264 views

How is the quadrantal rule applied to VFR flights in Hungary?

I'm looking for a clear explanation for this quadrantal rule question (it applies to Hungary): A VFR pilot is cruising, en-route in level flight, above the transition level of FL035. His magnetic ...
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1answer
246 views

How would you use the mental clock code to solve this dead reckoning problem?

Can someone explain the question below in details? You plan to fly a cross country flight at 2 000 feet at a true airspeed of 120 knots. Your track is 270° (True) and the wind is from 225° (True) at ...
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1answer
238 views

What navigation systems were used by the Space Shuttle during reentry?

What equipment did the Space Shuttle orbiters carry to support navigation during reentry? Were there any differences between the individual orbiters in this regard?
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How do I calculate the heading to steer in this example?

At 1415 an aircraft was overhead a VOR maintaining radial 215°, en route for B, heading 210°(M). At 1430, the pilot decides to return to the VOR. The heading to steer is... The answer is given as ...
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How to calculate cross-/headwind components on Jeppesen Student flight computer?

How does one calculate the cross-/headwind components on a Jeppesen Student flight computer (CSG) given the aircraft’s true heading, the wind direction and the wind speed? Say 040 degrees, 070 degrees ...
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Can we use ECI coordinates for an airplane?

It is taught for navigation systems (like an airplane) on Earth we us ECEF (earth-centered, earth-fixed) and for space systems (like a satellite) we use ECI (earth-centered inertial). But why is ECEF ...
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Is the destination of a commercial flight important for the pilot?

As has been recently advertised (in here, here, here also), a recent British Airways flight from London City Airport destined for Düsseldorf mistakenly flew its passengers to Edinburgh instead. I'm a ...
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How is device control software checked for quality?

Many, many reports on the now infamous MCAS suggest a software patch is forthcoming in the next several weeks that will address the confounding single point of failure with the two AOA sensors that ...
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How was the navigation managed on jetliners before having programmable routes?

This in-flight photo provides a look into the pre-FMS era (also pre-INS), i.e., not having a programmable route. How was the navigation managed back then? (Question limited to 2-crew jetliners, or ...
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What is RNP and ANP in area navigation [duplicate]

RNAV often comes with RNP and ANP . I can't understand what they indicate ? Even in boeing 737 at the bottom of Navigation display RNP ANP are shown and this changes place to place . Please tell me ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between RTK GPS and GBAS?

My understanding is that real-time kinematic (RTK) is also a differential GPS technology to enhance accuracy by using a ground-based station to provide the correction data to the onboard GPS receiver. ...
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1answer
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Is navigation around thunderheads done at the pilot's discretion?

It's my understanding that if a pilot is flying over an ocean or otherwise uncontrolled airspace and they encounter a cumulonimbus, they navigate around it at their discretion. How does this happen ...
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255 views

Can you guide me about the purpose of fine alignment in inertial navigation systems?

I am new in inertial navigation field. I have some confusion about fine alignment process of INS. I want to ask that what is purpose of fine alignment? I know by process of alignment we find the ...
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219 views

Can an orienteering compass be used in place of a protractor?

First off, please forgive me if this is a stupid question. I was given a protractor during flight training, learnt to use it and obviously works quite well. However, I've started using my old maps ...
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1answer
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Staying oriented in VFR

This is something I have been questioning more and more often on how pilots do it. So, let's say we are flying on a new location and know very little about it. When flying around and keeping the ...
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169 views

Why are waypoints not named uniquely?

Waypoint names are not unique. Why ? This is unnecessary (it would be possible to use unique names only). It introduces potential for confusion. So why are duplicate waypoint names permissible and ...
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365 views

Did AF447 cross dangerous weather?

question Did the Air France 447 pilots endanger the passengers by not diverting around but flying straight through the weather system encountered and pictured below ? Or was this a defendable, ...
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331 views

When do pilots facing bad weather turn back (U-turn)?

Passenger aircraft are not supposed to cross red areas on the weather radar. But what if the weather system is too large to circumnavigate and red areas inside the system are too large/prevalent to ...
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How can I use an ADS-B receiver to make my aircraft visible in Flightradar24?

I recently bought a SENTRY ADS-B receiver for the aircraft in order to track the flight. How could I make Flightradar24 or Flightaware show my aircraft and how to register my aircraft on the website?
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How do pilots decide whether to circumnavigate bad weather?

How does an airline pilot decide in the air whether to circumnavigate or fly through bad weather visibly looming ahead and/or displayed on the weather radar ?
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4answers
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How can pilot remember when or where to do tasks such as changing radio frequency and change fuel tank? [duplicate]

As a student pilot, I sometime forget tasks such as changing radio frequency after reaching a location or switching fuel tank in long navigation. These tasks happen in specific time or location ...
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Can longer paths consume less fuel than the (shorter) great circle path?

Is the most fuel-efficient route between points A and B always along a great circle ? Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this comment on an aviation blog seems to suggest that longer paths (in ...
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2answers
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When must airliners follow airways? [duplicate]

Please give a basic explanation of how commercial aviation traffic is routed for readers without any foreknowledge: Can commercial aircraft only follow airways like cars on highways ? Or are ...
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Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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1answer
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How to accurately determine Navigation Accuracy from FAA's PBN Criteria (Order 8260.58A)?

I am trying to understand how to determine the Navigation Accuracy for a given flight phase of an Instrument Flight Procedure, from the US Standard for PBN Instrument Procedure Design (Order 8260.58A)....
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1answer
176 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
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What are the FAI rules for circumnavigating the world?

If I want to solo circumnavigate the world by plane as the youngest pilot, what are the FAI requirements regarding the routing? Most standard routings include the Hawaii to California leg, which is ...
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What are RNP and ANP in area navigation?

What are Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Actual Navigation Performance (ANP)?
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Is there a serious effort underway to move from a highways-in-the-sky approach to a mesh-network approach?

As far as I'm aware, there are certain "motorways" or corridors which air traffic uses, rather than navigating more directly from origin to destination. I remember listening to a documentary which ...