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Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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37 votes
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What do pilots landing on aircraft carriers do when the ship is not visible due to weather?

Say an aircraft takes off of a carrier to do a mission somewhere, and upon returning to the carrier the pilot comes to find that a thick layer of fog has formed just above the surface of the water in ...
I_am_WAAS_enabled's user avatar
27 votes
3 answers
3k views

If there is a misprint on an instrument plate, is a pilot required to comply with it?

This is a snippet from the KESC RNAV 36 approach. It's a real procedure, I didn't photoshop it except to add highlighting. Let's say I was in the position that the blue aircraft is in (roughly 10 ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
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23 votes
6 answers
30k views

When are procedure turns not required?

Today, at my part 141 flight school I failed a stage check (flight test), because I did not perform a hold. I'm in com-multi training and was shooting a single engine approach in a Beechcraft Baron. I ...
Blake.W's user avatar
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22 votes
2 answers
2k views

Do you need clearance from ATC to switch to a different approach at non-towered airport?

When coming in on an instrument approach at a nontowered airport, the approach/center controller will clear you for the approach and approve your frequency change to the CTAF. Once you're cleared ...
newmanth's user avatar
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21 votes
1 answer
9k views

What are the reasons for autopilot restrictions on instrument approaches?

On some instrument approaches, the autopilot-coupled approach is not authorized (or not authorized below a certain minimum). For example, Autopilot-coupled NA (MRY: ILS OR LOC RWY 10R) Autopilot-...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
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19 votes
1 answer
2k views

During instrument approach, is an abbreviated racetrack course reversal allowed?

I was flying the RNAV (GPS) RWY 33 approach into KFNL during instrument meteorological conditions. The plate identifies a non-standard 6 NM racetrack reversal at IMOMY: Denver approach cleared me ...
newmanth's user avatar
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17 votes
4 answers
2k views

Can I circle to a different runway if cleared for an instrument approach without circling minimums?

Tom is flying a C172S/G on ILS RWY 31 approach to KSNS. He just established on the localizer at 6000, from the SNS-22 DME Arc. He obtained weather from ATIS, wind 240@20G23, ceiling OVC006, visibility ...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
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17 votes
2 answers
2k views

How does Jeppesen create its US charts?

The Jeppesen and FAA IFR plates represent the same information in different ways. The FAA publishes its charts for free, but the underlying data that goes into the charts (e.g., exact coordinates of ...
marcprux's user avatar
  • 271
15 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is this small number on the top right of an IAP?

I've looked in the instrument procedures handbook, and I cannot locate a reference for what this 5-digit number on the top right above the approach name is. What is this number, and what does it mean?...
Ryan Mortensen's user avatar
15 votes
3 answers
9k views

When flying a circling approach, is it permitted to begin the visual circling segment prior to the final approach fix?

If it were a beautiful sunny VFR day and you were cleared for a circling approach, can you begin the circle prior to the final approach fix/circling DH in order to maneuver visually to land? Here are ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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15 votes
3 answers
1k views

Do instrument approach procedures sometimes have a minimum temperature?

Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter ...
falstro's user avatar
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15 votes
1 answer
6k views

Why is this VDP not authorized?

I have to admit that I’ve always kind of struggled with the Visual Descent Point (VDP) concept. Looking at the Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) definition: “The VDP is a defined point on the ...
Greg Valvo's user avatar
14 votes
5 answers
5k views

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC?

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC? Let's say you want to practice a series of reversing 360-degree turns and not have to communicate every change in ...
quiet flyer's user avatar
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14 votes
4 answers
3k views

Are there any/many US airports (with instrument approaches) still without RNAV approaches?

GPS approaches being so trivially easy to establish and maintain, are there any/many US airports with instrument approaches which do not have at least one RNAV approach?
Kenn Sebesta's user avatar
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14 votes
3 answers
21k views

How to correct for crosswind in VOR holding pattern without wind information?

I've heard many articles about crosswind correction in VOR holding pattern. They mainly tell the outbound leg=correction times three things for slow speed aircraft. I notice all of them require wind ...
Azizi Akbar's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
14k views

Why were "pattern a" and "pattern b" removed from the Instrument Flying Handbook?

If you search around on the Internet, have an older copy of the Instrument Flying Handbook, or talk to a seasoned CFII, you may run across the concept of "pattern a" and "pattern b." These were ...
ryan1618's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why is a procedure turn required if you are more or less on the final approach course?

From this question. I am not instrument rated. The answers to the question explain, from the point of view of the plate instructions, if a PT is required or not. The OP was failed for not ...
Simon's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why do double-ended ILS runway share the same frequency from both sides?

Let's find a runway where there are localizer-related procedures at both ends, e.g. KMRY: 110.7 for both ILS RWY 10R and LOC/DME RWY 28L KLAX: 108.5 for both ILS OR LOC RWY 06L and ILS OR LOC RWY ...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
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13 votes
3 answers
12k views

Is it legal to fly the localizer approach when cleared for the ILS?

Most ILS approaches include localizer minimums that can be used if the glideslope transmitter or receiver fails. For example: In this case, to fly the ILS you would intercept the glideslope just ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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12 votes
5 answers
3k views

Why would the USAF have no support for autolanding?

One thing I noticed when reading through the KC-10 flight manual (see page 184 for the specific reference) is that the KC-10 lacks support for Category III operations, unlike its civil DC-10 brethren. ...
UnrecognizedFallingObject's user avatar
12 votes
5 answers
37k views

Where does the final approach segment begin on an ILS approach?

Where does the final approach segment begin on an ILS approach? It may not be as simple as it sounds to answer. The reason I ask is because I've found some support for at least two answers. One is ...
ryan1618's user avatar
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12 votes
5 answers
2k views

What specific hazard is the practice of identifying an ILS LOC by Morse code trying to prevent?

This question got me wondering about the practice of tuning a navigation frequency, selecting it on the audio panel, and then identifying it by listening to the three letter Morse code signal. I know ...
Michael Hall's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
2k views

How is a conflict between aircraft with TCAS I and II resolved?

Let's say there are two aircraft in a risk of collision, one of them is equipped with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) I so it will get only a Traffic Advisory (TA), however the second one is ...
walid naceri's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
882 views

How do you properly enter the NDB34 published approach at Friday Harbor (KFHR)?

I'm having trouble figuring out the correct procedure to enter an approach such as: Let's say you are cleared from ISLND for the NDB approach. How do you maneuver safely and legally to the the ...
John's user avatar
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11 votes
5 answers
39k views

On a procedure turn, do you make the turn on the inside or outside of the procedure turn?

When flying a procedure turn like the one shown below, the first step is to fly outbound 039 degrees. When you turn inbound to 219 degrees, do you make that turn to the left or to the right? The left ...
jskypilot's user avatar
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11 votes
5 answers
4k views

When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...
StephenS's user avatar
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11 votes
4 answers
4k views

When are pilots required to have approval to conduct practice approaches?

I would like a clarification about requesting practice approaches. I have seen pilots at uncontrolled airports shoot practice approaches such as VOR, SDF, etc. without needing approval; obviously. ...
Ryan Mortensen's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
82k views

What are "Alternate Minimums"?

As I asked question about weather minimums yesterday, I've read some material including TERPs. And In the FAA 8260.3b, 'Taking and Landing Minimims' 3.1 there is one sentence "alternate minimims, when ...
user12972's user avatar
  • 371
11 votes
2 answers
663 views

Why would the runway separation for parallel triple simultaneous precision approaches be dependent on airport elevation?

Based on FAA advisory circular AC 150/5300-13A, Airport Design, when operating triple simultaneous precision instrument approaches the parallel runway separation could be reduced from 5000 feet to ...
Him's user avatar
  • 5,298
11 votes
1 answer
4k views

How do I tell a Garmin 430 not to exit a hold?

Let's say that we're directly west of CATLI and have been cleared direct CATLI for the RNAV approach. We load the approach into ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
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11 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why is there a helicopter visibility reduction restriction for this approach?

For the RNAV (GPS) RWY 17 approach at KSMN, why does it say "Helicopter visibility reduction below 3/4 SM NA."? Looking at the LNAV, there is a 5 mile visibility requirement and if we cut that in ...
helipilot77's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the final approach fix altitude for this localizer approach?

As I'm looking at this approach chart, I see that the glideslope intercept altitude is at 1400 feet MSL. However, for the localizer approach, I believe we stay at 1400 feet MSL until RIZER, which we ...
nyorkr23's user avatar
  • 1,198
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

Categories of aircraft (A,B,C,D): Is it possible for an airplane to move into a different category?

Categories are defined for the Vat (Speed at threshold) which is Vso multiplied by 1.3, or Vsldg multiplied by 1.23 . Since these speeds are related to the weight of the aircraft is it possible for an ...
Andrea Ghilardi's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
9k views

Are we expected to fly distanced leg (instead of timed leg) in holding pattern in GPS approaches?

The standard inbound/outbound holding leg are 1 min leg each (no wind condition). I noticed that a distance (4 nm in the following example) is noted in many GPS approaches. Do we need to fly the leg ...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
  • 3,381
10 votes
2 answers
5k views

What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
StephenS's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
3k views

ILS Approach, when can you descend on the glide path?

The following quote is from G. Bristol’s book, Ace the Technical Piloting Interview: You can descend on the glide path when You have been cleared for the ILS procedure. You have captured the ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
7k views

What is a Visual Climb Over Airport (VCOA) and how is it properly executed?

The takeoff minimums and (obstacle) departure procedures for the Asheville Regional Airport (KAVL) have special instructions due to the rising terrain in the vicinity of the airport. Instrument ...
ryan1618's user avatar
  • 14.9k
10 votes
3 answers
3k views

How to start an approach in IMC loss of communication under IFR?

Suppose I lost my radio communication while en-route, I am following the cleared route to the last fix. I am flying the higher of my last assigned altitude and MEA. Then, I am holding at my last en-...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
  • 3,381
10 votes
1 answer
3k views

In what portion a non-GPS approach, can a pilot legally fly with GPS as primary navigational resource?

In IFR-GPS-equipped (/G) aircraft, a pilot flies most of the segments with GPS as primary navigational resource* even the route is along victor airways or VOR radials. However, when we start the ...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
  • 3,381
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does altimeter setting affect the vertical guidance in a LPV approach?

I had assumed during a WAAS approach when the GPS is in LPV mode, both lateral guidance and vertical guidance are generated from GPS/WAAS signals and the pitot-static system should have no effect on ...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
  • 3,381
10 votes
4 answers
3k views

What is the best way to give ATC a position report using only a VOR (no DME or GPS)?

While cumbersome, is it permissible when asking for a pop-up IFR clearance to state, at the intersection of WWW radial XXX and YYY radial ZZZ? Obviously, during ...
Instrument Newbie's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do pilots fly an MLS approach?

There is not much information on the cockpit aspect of the Microwave Landing System. Apart from Wikipedia, there's this excellent 15-minute FAA video from 1974 on TRSB (time reference scanning beam) ...
user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
6k views

What should a pilot flying IFR in IMC and on final, do if the vacuum system fails?

Talking about small aircraft here, assuming the pilot is stable and ready to land, they’re flying IFR and the visibility is nonexistent, but that’s alright because he’s currently IFR! But then the ...
George Clooney In a Mooney's user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
1k views

Why are holding patterns in an oval shape?

Why are holding patterns in an oval shape? Why not circular or more square-like?
TayE's user avatar
  • 6,595
9 votes
2 answers
896 views

What are the constraints and procedures regarding IMC formation flight?

"Instrument Meteorological Conditions" are those in which flight under Visual Flight Rules is not permitted. This changes based on airspace but for the most part IMC means that flight ...
randomhead's user avatar
  • 15.6k
9 votes
2 answers
790 views

Is there any automated go-around procedure?

In Wikipedia's description of one of air crashes (probably Thai Airlines, if I recall correctly), I found a remark saying something like that: "Crew decided to go around, but apparently decided to ...
trejder's user avatar
  • 4,162
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why does this GPS approach say "RADAR REQUIRED"?

As I was looking at the approach charts for KCXY while answering this question, I realized that the GPS "overlay-style" approach to RW8 also requires RADAR. Since the HAR VOR isn't even shown on ...
rbp's user avatar
  • 16.8k
9 votes
3 answers
865 views

Why is the VFR traffic pattern area at some airports different from its IFR circling approach area?

Take Half Moon Bay Airport (KHAF) as an example. Under VFR, the traffic pattern is right pattern for RWY 30 and left pattern for RWY 12. This implies the downwind leg is to the EAST of the RWY 12-30,...
CrepuscularV's user avatar
  • 3,381
9 votes
2 answers
8k views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
assylias's user avatar
  • 1,445
9 votes
4 answers
4k views

What is the official FAA definition of the term enroute?

I recently saw a ferry permit which included the following limitation: Flight in IMC authorized for ENROUTE operations ONLY Great, IMC is allowed enroute! But wait, where does the "enroute" ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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