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Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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ILS Designated Operational Coverage (DOC)

During a standard Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach, I typically arm the VOR/LOC (Boeing 737) to capture the localiser1 once on an intercept course. Upon clearance for the approach, I then arm ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
74 views

Questions regarding Non-precision Localiser approach (KSEE LOC-D Approach)

Scenario Say we are doing some practice approaches into KSEE on the LOC-D approach. We are just southwest of the field and ATC/CFII says to climb to 5500 direct to BARET, cross BARET 5500 cleared for ...
Trevor Miller's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Are Runway Profile Descent charts available to non-121 carriers? If so, where can I find them?

AIM 5-4-2(c) says: When crossing altitudes and speed restrictions are issued verbally or are depicted on a chart, ATC will expect the pilot to descend first to the crossing altitude and then reduce ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
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Is there a way to tell if a navaid in the plan view of an approach plate is collocated with DME equipment?

If there are DME distances depicted in the plan or profile view of an approach plate, it is usually pretty obvious which navaid they are referenced to. I'm wondering if there is a way to tell ...
Terry's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Are Holding Speeds Regulatory?

Throughout instrument I was taught the three different holding speeds (e.g. 0-6,000' MSL is 200 KIAS) and now that I'm starting CFII I am curious about what regulation someone would be breaking if ...
Michael Dauphinee's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

MAP in profile view of approach plate

I understand that the start of the dotted arrow on the profile view of an approach plate shows the MAP for the precision approach on a plate if the plate combines more than 1 (for example, a plate ...
Terry's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
627 views

In what situations can LNAV/VNAV minima be higher than LNAV minima, such as RNP Approach to Runway 16 in Corfu?

I recently flew the RNP approach for runway 16 into Corfu. While reviewing the approach charts, I noticed something unusual. The LNAV/VNAV minima is set higher than the LNAV minima for this particular ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why are there altitude differences on the Jeppesen ESB Ankara VOR chart?

What is the reason for the 10 feet difference between ESB dme altitude and profile view? Thanks.
Yigit's user avatar
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1 answer
246 views

In part91 operations, If I want to use odp, do I need to follow takeoff minimum?

I know there are no take off requirements for part 91. But if we decide to use an ODP, legally should our airplane be able to make minimum climb rate of takeoff minimums described in the ODP chart?
Jimmy's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How do you capture the localizer in an A320?

I understand that pushing 'Approach' should do it (when in range), but it doesn't. There must be another step that I'm missing (the computer has been set up so it's not that). What is the step-by-step ...
Cloud's user avatar
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2 votes
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Altitude/Minimum altitude in ARINC 424

Airport SID/STAR/Approach Primary Records in ARINC 424 contains two fields with altitudes: columns 85-89 and columns 90-94. How to interpret if both fields are empty ? What are the altitude ...
Roman's user avatar
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4 answers
1k views

When should the missed approach procedure be executed?

When flying a straight-in precision or non-precision instrument approach, when should the missed approach procedure be executed? Note that this is being asked in the context of FAA regulations, but ...
ryan1618's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
707 views

Are IAPs designed around an average barometric pressure for an airport?

When implementing IAPs, is atmospheric conditions taken into consideration? For example, for any given airport there will be varying atmospheric pressure. This will slightly affect the DH and DA. How ...
Boeing787's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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What are Baro-Aiding and Baro-VNAV systems?

I've tried searching online as to what the architecture of these systems look like, and I can't seem to find any hardware information. And if it's not a hardware but instead a software, which software ...
RattMuscle's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
182 views

Canadian Approach Plates: Why does the minima show that DME is required but the procedure name does not?

I see so many plates that contain lines of minima requiring the use of DME, but the title does not indicate DME is required. For example, the "LOC RWY 27" approach into CYYJ. The title ...
foxtrottrotfox's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

RAIM Checks when using GNSS in lieu of DME for distance information

I understand that a RAIM has to be checked on the ground as part of preflight, as well as before the commencement of an RNAV/RNP approach. What I am unable to find information on online, is whether a ...
Zhi Hao Tan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Best way to mentally calculate wind correction angle (WCA) when in a holding pattern?

I have been out of flying for a while and need to brush up on my holding patterns. I need a quick method or rule of thumb to calculate the wind correction angle (WCA) for example when flying outbound ...
Talktomegoose's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why are most of KBOS's instrument departures and arrivals jet-only?

I was looking through the big book o' KBOS instrument procedures when I noticed that almost all of the airport's SIDs and STARs are marked "NOTE: For turbojets only" or some variation ...
Vikki's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
186 views

Why does ATC assign a SID and then give different instructions after takeoff?

I have had many occasions at different airports flying a small single engine piston aircraft out of a Charlie or Delta and they will assign the SID, but give different instructions upon getting ...
RattMuscle's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
446 views

If we are cleared for an ILS approach, can we descend according to the approach chart?

For example VCBI,ILS Z 04. We have ATC clearance: Descend and maintain 2300 feet, Cleared ILS RWY 04 approach. Can we descend as profile 1700 and then 1500, and intercept glide path? Or maintain ...
afanti's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
117 views

Since which moment do the Low Visibility Procedures apply?

For CAT II and CAT III approaches require that protected area around the ILS antennas is kept clear from obstacles so it does not disrupt the ILS signal. So when there is an airplane on the final ...
Jan Hudec's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
906 views

What are the constraints and procedures regarding IMC formation flight?

"Instrument Meteorological Conditions" are those in which flight under Visual Flight Rules is not permitted. This changes based on airspace but for the most part IMC means that flight ...
randomhead's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
178 views

Glidepath difference

I recently flew an RNAV/LPV instrument approach in IMC. Although out of the clouds by then, I was watching my vertical guidance on my NAV (which was at center) and noticed I was below glideslope for ...
CyberdyneStaff's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
397 views

Can I log Simulated Instrument time with a safety pilot if I need an Instrument Proficiency Check?

Can I log Simulated Instrument flight time and instrument approaches with a safety pilot if I need an Instrument Proficiency Check? I am instrument rated but haven't done my 6 Instrument approaches ...
Pilot Joe's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
372 views

Why is the distance between BRY VOR and missed approach point 0.2 DME in the plan view, while it is specified as 0.1 DME below?

Why is the distance between BRY VOR and missed approach point 0.2 DME in the plan view, while it is specified as 0.1 DME below? If we consider that the localizer is 0.2 DME ahead of the runway ...
pilot162's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
176 views

Why is the box I marked with a red arrow empty and no class information given?

Why is the box I marked with a red arrow empty and no class information given? On the NDB chart, both places are left blank. Am I supposed to consider the gap "FULL" by reference from the ...
pilot162's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
248 views

Are departure briefing and take-off briefing the same thing? If the same, when is it appropriate to brief?

Are departure briefing and take-off briefing the same thing? If the same, when is it appropriate to brief? (before starting the engine, while taxiing, just before takeoff) I am asking the question as ...
pilot162's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
91 views

KHAF runway 30 ODP in the works, appears to be missing a segment

Asked the FAA about this & they replied that the procedure has been redesigned since the one at the link was posted, that the old charts will be removed from the website, and that the newly ...
Foster Boondoggle's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does the letter "H" on the upper side of ADANA word and mean?

As you can see on the STAR chart of Adana, there is a letter "H" with a black background for the VOR sign's line. I can't find the meaning.
pilot162's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
148 views

Is it possible to handle naming duplictates for teminal points in ARINC-424?

In ARINC-424 17 specification, under 7.2.6 Terminal Waypoints subsection A the "Airport/Heliport or Runway/Helipad related Terminal Waypoints" naming ...
Stelios Adamantidis's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
271 views

TruTrak Vision PMA Autopilot Limitations for coupled instrument procedures- C172M - STC SA04231CH

I am currently flying a Cessna 172M with a TruTrak Vision Autopilot installed under STC SA04231CH. Section 2.4 of the approved AFMS states: This autopilot has not been evaluated by the FAA to meet ...
Picklenator's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
469 views

EASA Part-NCO; Approach light system

EASA Part-NCO, specifically OP.110, refers to 4 different lighting systems (NALS, BALS, IALS, FALS) to be considered when determining the landing minima. However, there are quite a few different ...
ExternalUse's user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
1k views

Why is flap retraction done in stages?

After takeoff and upon achieving positive climb, why is flap retraction done in stages? For example, in the Airbus there are characteristic speeds after which flaps can be retracted (S and F speeds) ...
user avatar
14 votes
4 answers
3k views

Are there any/many US airports (with instrument approaches) still without RNAV approaches?

GPS approaches being so trivially easy to establish and maintain, are there any/many US airports with instrument approaches which do not have at least one RNAV approach?
Kenn Sebesta's user avatar
  • 5,172
11 votes
5 answers
4k views

When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...
StephenS's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What does "Procedure NA" mean, when applied to a VOR sector?

In the RNAV-A IAP for KGAI there's a note "Procedure NA for arrival on EMI VORTAC airway radials 151 CW 269". It appears that arriving from any airway radial to EMI would have the NoPT (of ...
GJ.'s user avatar
  • 512
5 votes
2 answers
290 views

Why does the surface-level Class E airspace at SIT/PASI (Sitka Alaska) extend so far to the northwest?

The August 1992 Final Rule "Terminal Airspace Reconfiguration" (page 38963, Federal Register Volume 57 No 167, August 27 1992) (link to pdf of entire issue opening to this page) stated that ...
quiet flyer's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What instrument approaches can be flown with just a single VOR receiver?

I've been getting ready to do a series of streaming sessions on Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 that demonstrate the extreme limits of IFR capability. With stuff like the G1000, the Cessna 172 will ...
William Walker III's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach?

As written before, is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach? I read somewhere that SBAS is also a possible source, but in that case wouldn’t it be a LPV ...
Konrad's user avatar
  • 2,035
0 votes
2 answers
145 views

Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures?

Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures? Which would typically require a larger extent of airspace protected ...
quiet flyer's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
4k views

ILS Approach, when can you descend on the glide path?

The following quote is from G. Bristol’s book, Ace the Technical Piloting Interview: You can descend on the glide path when You have been cleared for the ILS procedure. You have captured the ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
1k views

Glideslope reliable height and PAPI usage

First of all, which height can we rely on glideslope indication? From what I know, we can trust and use glideslope to Decision Height, not even below Decision Height. If we use glideslope even passing ...
moon's user avatar
  • 401
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Holding entry is counted as a one turn holding?

If I ask ATC 'request direct to ABCDE waypoint and one turn holding', do they expect me to do the teardrop entry or parallel entry if I need to and fly the whole holding pattern after that? Or ...
Kim's user avatar
  • 71
3 votes
1 answer
748 views

Can a Localizer Backcourse signal be reversed (at the site antenna)?

Can the two Localizer Backcourse signals (90Hz and 150 Hz) be reversed (at the site antenna) eliminating reverse needle sensing when flying a Localizer Backcourse approach? If so, are there any ...
user avatar
12 votes
5 answers
2k views

What specific hazard is the practice of identifying an ILS LOC by Morse code trying to prevent?

This question got me wondering about the practice of tuning a navigation frequency, selecting it on the audio panel, and then identifying it by listening to the three letter Morse code signal. I know ...
Michael Hall's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

If RVR equipment is inoperative what visibility should be used for an approach where the RVR minimum is 1800 ft?

At KSLC (Salt Lake City International Airport) the ILS minimum RVR for runway 34L is 1800 ft. If the RVR equipment is inoperative and RVR is not reported how do you determine the minimum visibility ...
user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
Ted Staggs's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
4k views

Are there any U.S. airports that offer GCA (PAR/ASR) approaches?

Are there any U.S. Civilian or Joint-Use (military/civilian) airports that currently offer either/both a PAR (Precision Approach Radar) or an ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) Ground Controlled ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
5k views

As a private, non-instrument rated pilot, can I log an instrument approach with a CFI (not a CFII) on board?

I’m a US based private pilot building time toward the instrument rating. A CFI flies with me as safety pilot for simulated instrument conditions. They are not a CFII yet. If I fly a XC under the hood ...
Picklenator's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
349 views

For KPDX LOC 21 approach, how is the procedure turn performed when entering from the east?

On the Portland, Oregon Loc 21 approach.... Let's say I was east at CARBY (not shown) and traveling on a northwest heading to CREAK (about 280 or so). CREAK is on the approach plate and an IAF/IF. I ...
Jeffrey Edward Messikian's user avatar

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