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Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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4 votes
2 answers
73 views

ILS Designated Operational Coverage (DOC)

During a standard Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach, I typically arm the VOR/LOC (Boeing 737) to capture the localiser1 once on an intercept course. Upon clearance for the approach, I then arm ...
0 votes
1 answer
54 views

Questions regarding Non-precision Localiser approach (KSEE LOC-D Approach)

Scenario Say we are doing some practice approaches into KSEE on the LOC-D approach. We are just southwest of the field and ATC/CFII says to climb to 5500 direct to BARET, cross BARET 5500 cleared for ...
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Is there a way to tell if a navaid in the plan view of an approach plate is collocated with DME equipment?

If there are DME distances depicted in the plan or profile view of an approach plate, it is usually pretty obvious which navaid they are referenced to. I'm wondering if there is a way to tell ...
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Are Runway Profile Descent charts available to non-121 carriers? If so, where can I find them?

AIM 5-4-2(c) says: When crossing altitudes and speed restrictions are issued verbally or are depicted on a chart, ATC will expect the pilot to descend first to the crossing altitude and then reduce ...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Are Holding Speeds Regulatory?

Throughout instrument I was taught the three different holding speeds (e.g. 0-6,000' MSL is 200 KIAS) and now that I'm starting CFII I am curious about what regulation someone would be breaking if ...
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

MAP in profile view of approach plate

I understand that the start of the dotted arrow on the profile view of an approach plate shows the MAP for the precision approach on a plate if the plate combines more than 1 (for example, a plate ...
2 votes
1 answer
558 views

In what situations can LNAV/VNAV minima be higher than LNAV minima, such as RNP Approach to Runway 16 in Corfu?

I recently flew the RNP approach for runway 16 into Corfu. While reviewing the approach charts, I noticed something unusual. The LNAV/VNAV minima is set higher than the LNAV minima for this particular ...
0 votes
1 answer
121 views

Why are there altitude differences on the Jeppesen ESB Ankara VOR chart?

What is the reason for the 10 feet difference between ESB dme altitude and profile view? Thanks.
3 votes
3 answers
4k views

Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
0 votes
1 answer
231 views

In part91 operations, If I want to use odp, do I need to follow takeoff minimum?

I know there are no take off requirements for part 91. But if we decide to use an ODP, legally should our airplane be able to make minimum climb rate of takeoff minimums described in the ODP chart?
1 vote
1 answer
969 views

How do you capture the localizer in an A320?

I understand that pushing 'Approach' should do it (when in range), but it doesn't. There must be another step that I'm missing (the computer has been set up so it's not that). What is the step-by-step ...
2 votes
0 answers
144 views

Altitude/Minimum altitude in ARINC 424

Airport SID/STAR/Approach Primary Records in ARINC 424 contains two fields with altitudes: columns 85-89 and columns 90-94. How to interpret if both fields are empty ? What are the altitude ...
3 votes
1 answer
5k views

How does one differentiate a "fly by" from a "fly over" waypoint?

I am referring more to Terminal Area Procedures (SID, STAR, Approach), rather than en route waypoints, airways etc. How do I know if such a waypoint is a "fly over" or not? Especially for ...
1 vote
4 answers
1k views

When should the missed approach procedure be executed?

When flying a straight-in precision or non-precision instrument approach, when should the missed approach procedure be executed? Note that this is being asked in the context of FAA regulations, but ...
4 votes
6 answers
3k views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
4 votes
1 answer
707 views

Are IAPs designed around an average barometric pressure for an airport?

When implementing IAPs, is atmospheric conditions taken into consideration? For example, for any given airport there will be varying atmospheric pressure. This will slightly affect the DH and DA. How ...
4 votes
3 answers
3k views

What are Baro-Aiding and Baro-VNAV systems?

I've tried searching online as to what the architecture of these systems look like, and I can't seem to find any hardware information. And if it's not a hardware but instead a software, which software ...
2 votes
1 answer
174 views

Canadian Approach Plates: Why does the minima show that DME is required but the procedure name does not?

I see so many plates that contain lines of minima requiring the use of DME, but the title does not indicate DME is required. For example, the "LOC RWY 27" approach into CYYJ. The title ...
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

RAIM Checks when using GNSS in lieu of DME for distance information

I understand that a RAIM has to be checked on the ground as part of preflight, as well as before the commencement of an RNAV/RNP approach. What I am unable to find information on online, is whether a ...
3 votes
3 answers
686 views

PA/APV Glidepath Descent and Obstacle Clearance Slope's lowest point determination

I am studying the US Terminal Instrument Procedures manual (TERPS) and as I was skimming through the guidelines about Sloping Obstacle Clearance Surface, I came across the image below from section 2-1-...
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Best way to mentally calculate wind correction angle (WCA) when in a holding pattern?

I have been out of flying for a while and need to brush up on my holding patterns. I need a quick method or rule of thumb to calculate the wind correction angle (WCA) for example when flying outbound ...
13 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why do double-ended ILS runway share the same frequency from both sides?

Let's find a runway where there are localizer-related procedures at both ends, e.g. KMRY: 110.7 for both ILS RWY 10R and LOC/DME RWY 28L KLAX: 108.5 for both ILS OR LOC RWY 06L and ILS OR LOC RWY ...
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why are most of KBOS's instrument departures and arrivals jet-only?

I was looking through the big book o' KBOS instrument procedures when I noticed that almost all of the airport's SIDs and STARs are marked "NOTE: For turbojets only" or some variation ...
3 votes
1 answer
181 views

Why does ATC assign a SID and then give different instructions after takeoff?

I have had many occasions at different airports flying a small single engine piston aircraft out of a Charlie or Delta and they will assign the SID, but give different instructions upon getting ...
12 votes
5 answers
3k views

Why would the USAF have no support for autolanding?

One thing I noticed when reading through the KC-10 flight manual (see page 184 for the specific reference) is that the KC-10 lacks support for Category III operations, unlike its civil DC-10 brethren. ...
1 vote
1 answer
414 views

If we are cleared for an ILS approach, can we descend according to the approach chart?

For example VCBI,ILS Z 04. We have ATC clearance: Descend and maintain 2300 feet, Cleared ILS RWY 04 approach. Can we descend as profile 1700 and then 1500, and intercept glide path? Or maintain ...
7 votes
1 answer
535 views

Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
1 vote
1 answer
115 views

Since which moment do the Low Visibility Procedures apply?

For CAT II and CAT III approaches require that protected area around the ILS antennas is kept clear from obstacles so it does not disrupt the ILS signal. So when there is an airplane on the final ...
5 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
15 votes
3 answers
1k views

Do instrument approach procedures sometimes have a minimum temperature?

Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter ...
9 votes
2 answers
888 views

What are the constraints and procedures regarding IMC formation flight?

"Instrument Meteorological Conditions" are those in which flight under Visual Flight Rules is not permitted. This changes based on airspace but for the most part IMC means that flight ...
3 votes
1 answer
957 views

Why do aircraft take this strange route into JFK?

Looking at FlightRadar24, I see there is a long line of aircraft heading into JFK, but that they seem to all be starting to head straight at it from over Pennsylvania (as can be seen in the image ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

How do I use the "Inoperative Components or Visual Aids Table" when more than one component is inop?

I can't fully seem to understand this sentence: If more than one component is inoperative, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative Can ...
1 vote
1 answer
176 views

Glidepath difference

I recently flew an RNAV/LPV instrument approach in IMC. Although out of the clouds by then, I was watching my vertical guidance on my NAV (which was at center) and noticed I was below glideslope for ...
4 votes
1 answer
372 views

Can I log Simulated Instrument time with a safety pilot if I need an Instrument Proficiency Check?

Can I log Simulated Instrument flight time and instrument approaches with a safety pilot if I need an Instrument Proficiency Check? I am instrument rated but haven't done my 6 Instrument approaches ...
10 votes
3 answers
9k views

Are we expected to fly distanced leg (instead of timed leg) in holding pattern in GPS approaches?

The standard inbound/outbound holding leg are 1 min leg each (no wind condition). I noticed that a distance (4 nm in the following example) is noted in many GPS approaches. Do we need to fly the leg ...
23 votes
6 answers
30k views

When are procedure turns not required?

Today, at my part 141 flight school I failed a stage check (flight test), because I did not perform a hold. I'm in com-multi training and was shooting a single engine approach in a Beechcraft Baron. I ...
4 votes
1 answer
370 views

Why is the distance between BRY VOR and missed approach point 0.2 DME in the plan view, while it is specified as 0.1 DME below?

Why is the distance between BRY VOR and missed approach point 0.2 DME in the plan view, while it is specified as 0.1 DME below? If we consider that the localizer is 0.2 DME ahead of the runway ...
0 votes
1 answer
169 views

Why is the box I marked with a red arrow empty and no class information given?

Why is the box I marked with a red arrow empty and no class information given? On the NDB chart, both places are left blank. Am I supposed to consider the gap "FULL" by reference from the ...
5 votes
1 answer
91 views

KHAF runway 30 ODP in the works, appears to be missing a segment

Asked the FAA about this & they replied that the procedure has been redesigned since the one at the link was posted, that the old charts will be removed from the website, and that the newly ...
3 votes
2 answers
236 views

Are departure briefing and take-off briefing the same thing? If the same, when is it appropriate to brief?

Are departure briefing and take-off briefing the same thing? If the same, when is it appropriate to brief? (before starting the engine, while taxiing, just before takeoff) I am asking the question as ...
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does the letter "H" on the upper side of ADANA word and mean?

As you can see on the STAR chart of Adana, there is a letter "H" with a black background for the VOR sign's line. I can't find the meaning.
1 vote
1 answer
147 views

Is it possible to handle naming duplictates for teminal points in ARINC-424?

In ARINC-424 17 specification, under 7.2.6 Terminal Waypoints subsection A the "Airport/Heliport or Runway/Helipad related Terminal Waypoints" naming ...
6 votes
4 answers
1k views

Why is flap retraction done in stages?

After takeoff and upon achieving positive climb, why is flap retraction done in stages? For example, in the Airbus there are characteristic speeds after which flaps can be retracted (S and F speeds) ...
0 votes
0 answers
259 views

TruTrak Vision PMA Autopilot Limitations for coupled instrument procedures- C172M - STC SA04231CH

I am currently flying a Cessna 172M with a TruTrak Vision Autopilot installed under STC SA04231CH. Section 2.4 of the approved AFMS states: This autopilot has not been evaluated by the FAA to meet ...
2 votes
0 answers
441 views

EASA Part-NCO; Approach light system

EASA Part-NCO, specifically OP.110, refers to 4 different lighting systems (NALS, BALS, IALS, FALS) to be considered when determining the landing minima. However, there are quite a few different ...
15 votes
3 answers
9k views

When flying a circling approach, is it permitted to begin the visual circling segment prior to the final approach fix?

If it were a beautiful sunny VFR day and you were cleared for a circling approach, can you begin the circle prior to the final approach fix/circling DH in order to maneuver visually to land? Here are ...
14 votes
4 answers
3k views

Are there any/many US airports (with instrument approaches) still without RNAV approaches?

GPS approaches being so trivially easy to establish and maintain, are there any/many US airports with instrument approaches which do not have at least one RNAV approach?
10 votes
2 answers
3k views

ILS Approach, when can you descend on the glide path?

The following quote is from G. Bristol’s book, Ace the Technical Piloting Interview: You can descend on the glide path when You have been cleared for the ILS procedure. You have captured the ...
11 votes
5 answers
4k views

When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...

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