Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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-2 votes
0 answers
82 views

Plane's amber lights meaning? [closed]

The pilots convey the information that his amber light are on and whether she cleared to further intersection holding point or not? Before this question I cleared him to a rear intersection holding ...
12 votes
4 answers
2k views

Are there any/many US airports (with instrument approaches) still without RNAV approaches?

GPS approaches being so trivially easy to establish and maintain, are there any/many US airports with instrument approaches which do not have at least one RNAV approach?
9 votes
2 answers
630 views

ILS Approach, when can you descend on the glide path?

The following quote is from G. Bristol’s book, Ace the Technical Piloting Interview: You can descend on the glide path when You have been cleared for the ILS procedure. You have captured the ...
11 votes
5 answers
2k views

When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...
2 votes
2 answers
182 views

Is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach?

As written before, is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach? I read somewhere that SBAS is also a possible source, but in that case wouldn’t it be a LPV ...
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

How may I verify WAAS channel number on G1000?

Take RNAV (GPS) Y RWY 36L and RNAV (GPS) Z RWY 36L at APC for examples, All fixes and routes in the two approaches are similar. The noticeable differences that I observe are minimums and WAAS CH ...
5 votes
2 answers
169 views

Why does the surface-level Class E airspace at SIT/PASI (Sitka Alaska) extend so far to the northwest?

The August 1992 Final Rule "Terminal Airspace Reconfiguration" (page 38963, Federal Register Volume 57 No 167, August 27 1992) (link to pdf of entire issue opening to this page) stated that ...
5 votes
2 answers
167 views

What does "Procedure NA" mean, when applied to a VOR sector?

In the RNAV-A IAP for KGAI there's a note "Procedure NA for arrival on EMI VORTAC airway radials 151 CW 269". It appears that arriving from any airway radial to EMI would have the NoPT (of ...
4 votes
2 answers
218 views

What instrument approaches can be flown with just a single VOR receiver?

I've been getting ready to do a series of streaming sessions on Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 that demonstrate the extreme limits of IFR capability. With stuff like the G1000, the Cessna 172 will ...
1 vote
3 answers
246 views

Glideslope reliable height and PAPI usage

First of all, which height can we rely on glideslope indication? From what I know, we can trust and use glideslope to Decision Height, not even below Decision Height. If we use glideslope even passing ...
0 votes
2 answers
114 views

Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures?

Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures? Which would typically require a larger extent of airspace protected ...
6 votes
3 answers
468 views

Holding entry is counted as a one turn holding?

If I ask ATC 'request direct to ABCDE waypoint and one turn holding', do they expect me to do the teardrop entry or parallel entry if I need to and fly the whole holding pattern after that? Or ...
3 votes
1 answer
203 views

Can a Localizer Backcourse signal be reversed (at the site antenna)?

Can the two Localizer Backcourse signals (90Hz and 150 Hz) be reversed (at the site antenna) eliminating reverse needle sensing when flying a Localizer Backcourse approach? If so, are there any ...
12 votes
5 answers
2k views

What specific hazard is the practice of identifying an ILS LOC by Morse code trying to prevent?

This question got me wondering about the practice of tuning a navigation frequency, selecting it on the audio panel, and then identifying it by listening to the three letter Morse code signal. I know ...
5 votes
2 answers
506 views

If RVR equipment is inoperative what visibility should be used for an approach where the RVR minimum is 1800 ft?

At KSLC (Salt Lake City International Airport) the ILS minimum RVR for runway 34L is 1800 ft. If the RVR equipment is inoperative and RVR is not reported how do you determine the minimum visibility ...
7 votes
2 answers
940 views

What benefit is provided by an MCA that is not already provided by an MEA?

I continue to read definitions of MEA as the minimum altitude across the entire segment to ensure obstacle clearance and navigation/comm signal reception. It also states that this is the lowest ...
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why does this GPS approach say "RADAR REQUIRED"?

As I was looking at the approach charts for KCXY while answering this question, I realized that the GPS "overlay-style" approach to RW8 also requires RADAR. Since the HAR VOR isn't even shown on ...
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is meant by "Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later" in FAR/AIM 5-3-8?

In FAR/AIM, 5-3-8. Holding part, There is a sentence that says (b) Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. I got to know that the word 'over' is for parallel or ...
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are there any U.S. airports that offer GCA (PAR/ASR) approaches?

Are there any U.S. Civilian or Joint-Use (military/civilian) airports that currently offer either/both a PAR (Precision Approach Radar) or an ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) Ground Controlled ...
3 votes
2 answers
648 views

As a private, non-instrument rated pilot, can I log an instrument approach with a CFI (not a CFII) on board?

I’m a US based private pilot building time toward the instrument rating. A CFI flies with me as safety pilot for simulated instrument conditions. They are not a CFII yet. If I fly a XC under the hood ...
2 votes
2 answers
201 views

For KPDX LOC 21 approach, how is the procedure turn performed when entering from the east?

On the Portland, Oregon Loc 21 approach.... Let's say I was east at CARBY (not shown) and traveling on a northwest heading to CREAK (about 280 or so). CREAK is on the approach plate and an IAF/IF. I ...
4 votes
2 answers
728 views

What is the reason for KSFO PRM approaches being decommissioned?

In the latest terminal procedures packet dated April 22nd all San Francisco PRM approaches have been deleted. I haven't seen any notice from the FAA on the decommissioning and am curious what the ...
3 votes
0 answers
115 views

Why would an airport have a "Z" approach unless there's also a "Y" of the same type?

Napa Airport (KAPC) has an ILS Z 1 approach, but no ILS Y 1. See here. Why isn't this just the ILS 1? The naming rule described in the IPH, referenced here, doesn't explain why this would happen.
4 votes
1 answer
173 views

How do I find the historical arrival procedure GOLDN6 for SJC that is no longer valid?

I don’t know exactly when this procedure disappeared. It was used in 2013, but not sure how much longer. It was used primarily by SEA to SJC flights.
13 votes
3 answers
10k views

Is it legal to fly the localizer approach when cleared for the ILS?

Most ILS approaches include localizer minimums that can be used if the glideslope transmitter or receiver fails. For example: In this case, to fly the ILS you would intercept the glideslope just ...
5 votes
1 answer
745 views

What does "height loss" mean on an RNAV (RNP) approach plate?

While viewing the following approach chart, which is an RNAV(RNP) CAT C Approach, there are several landing minima, stating a HEIGHT LOSS OF 50' AND 150', what does that specifically mean?
7 votes
2 answers
729 views

How do you encode a radial to radial turn in ARINC-424?

I am building my own ATC simulator and for that purpose I need to include several instrument procedures. I have a problem with that particular one: My problem is on KEA transition, the leg between "...
9 votes
2 answers
1k views

What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
7 votes
3 answers
563 views

Should I inform ATC about minor deviations to maintain VFR while on practice instrument approaches?

When talking to approach control for the purpose of performing practice instrument approaches in VMC with a safety pilot, the pilot (and safety pilot) is required to "maintain VFR." However, the pilot ...
1 vote
0 answers
101 views

All approaches at airport NA for Alternate planning. Does that mean the same as Airport NA for Alternate if VFR landing is planned?

Jeppesen will use the term "NA" in the "For Filing as Alternate" table if all the available approaches at the given airport are not available. For FAA charts, a pilot will know ...
3 votes
3 answers
279 views

Is flying direct to a navaid considered a leg with track guidance?

When I design SID or Missed approach procedure with a typical sequence of initial legs like "Climb to 5000 feet on R-123 ABC VOR/DME, turn left/right direct to ABC VOR/DME", the regulation ...
5 votes
4 answers
622 views

Can I fly a practice LNAV approach with an iPad?

I'm doing training for an instrument rating, and I'm thinking I'd like to do some solo VFR cross country flying and do some practice instrument approaches. The C152 I'll be flying doesn't have a GPS ...
0 votes
2 answers
247 views

Is it possible to file for a flight level ABOVE an Airway altitude limitation (for high en route airways)?

I'm just curious if it's ever possible to file for, and/or fly, an altitude that is above an airway restriction. Say if the airway has an altitude restriction of FL410 or less. Is it ever possible to ...
5 votes
2 answers
110 views

Where a Contact Approach is conducted there must be a published Instrument Approach to that airport. Why is this?

The following is required in order for a pilot to conduct a "Contact Approach:" Pilot must request it from ATC; Reported ground visibility must be at least one mile; The pilot must remain ...
5 votes
2 answers
462 views

How do I fly direct to the VOR on a VOR missed approach?

Below is the Truth or Consequences VOR-A Approach in New Mexico, USA. The Missed Approach procedure for this approach requires that you do a left climbing turn to 8300 feet direct to the VOR. My ...
4 votes
1 answer
682 views

Why are some airports not allowed as IFR alternates, even if conditions there are VFR?

Why are some airports disqualified for use as an alternate (as listed in a approach procedure for that airport (A N/A)), when there is a provision in part 91 that an airport without an instrument ...
6 votes
1 answer
219 views

Why is there a "-D" circling-only approach at an airport that does not have corresponding -A, -B, and -C approaches?

There are three instrument approaches at SEE (as of 17 June 2021): RNAV (GPS) RWY 09L RNAV (GPS) RWY 17 LOC-D The two RNAV approaches are straight-in to runways 09L and 17, respectively. The LOC-D ...
7 votes
2 answers
427 views

What should the Attitude Indicator be reading when in straight and level flight?

I recently replaced the vacuum instruments in my plane, a Piper PA-28-180, to a GI-275 Primary Flight Display (PFD). This plane is being used for training at my local flight club. Since the new ...
21 votes
2 answers
1k views

Do you need clearance from ATC to switch to a different approach at non-towered airport?

When coming in on an instrument approach at a nontowered airport, the approach/center controller will clear you for the approach and approve your frequency change to the CTAF. Once you're cleared ...
3 votes
2 answers
177 views

Why does this holding pattern have both minimum and maximum altitudes published?

Reference the VOR-A Approach to Stellar Airpark (P19), in Chandler, Arizona (shown below): When JAROD INT is used for missed approach holding the published procedure calls for the aircraft to climb to ...
0 votes
1 answer
87 views

How should this ODP be flown at KELP?

The KELP (El Paso) Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) says: Rwy 4, 8R: climbing right turn heading 120° and ELP R-150 to 9000, then proceed on course. Rwy 22, 26L: climbing left turn heading 120° and ...
3 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the "parts" of a SID procedure?

In the ARINC 424 (downloadable from this link), the following information about SIDs procedures is given in the section 5.7 Route Type (RT TYPE): As you can see, it appears to me that a procedure is ...
0 votes
3 answers
899 views

Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
11 votes
4 answers
3k views

When are pilots required to have approval to conduct practice approaches?

I would like a clarification about requesting practice approaches. I have seen pilots at uncontrolled airports shoot practice approaches such as VOR, SDF, etc. without needing approval; obviously. ...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is "established" on an RNAV approach?

I was looking at the RNAV (GPS) RWY 6 at 12J. Thinking about my descent profile, I wondered when I could start my descent from my transition altitude if I was told to maintain an altitude until ...
3 votes
2 answers
229 views

Why is this Instrument Approach NA for certain radials, yet it depicts a feeder route for those radials?

The RNAV (GPS) 28 at Tampa Intl (KTPA) says Procedure NA for arrivals on PIE VORTAC radials 356 CW 157 That seems to mean the approach is not available for anyone generally northeast of the PIE ...
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Instrument Approaches which do not have a FAF

Most instrument approaches denote the Final Approach Fix (FAF) as the start of the final approach segment terminating in either the Missed Approach Point (MAP) for non-precision approaches or a ...
1 vote
2 answers
89 views

How do designers determine the altitude profiles of neighboring procedures for deconfliction purposes?

I am interested in studying ICAO's Continuous Climb Operations design strategy, however I have some trouble understanding how the procedure designers take into consideration the traffic flow from ...
9 votes
3 answers
7k views

Are we expected to fly distanced leg (instead of timed leg) in holding pattern in GPS approaches?

The standard inbound/outbound holding leg are 1 min leg each (no wind condition). I noticed that a distance (4 nm in the following example) is noted in many GPS approaches. Do we need to fly the leg ...

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