Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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9
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2answers
195 views

Can European (or more generally, non-US) airspace users airfile IFR flight plans?

In the US, there are two ways to airfile an IFR flight plan: Call Flight Service on the radio via the nearest FSS RCO and ask them to file the plan Ask the ATC entity you're talking to for a "pop up" ...
6
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2answers
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What are “approved weather reporting services” and do they apply to part 91?

When I look up Torrance Zamperini (KTOA) alternate minimums, it states, "NA when control tower closed, except for operators with approved weather reporting services." My main questions are: Can ...
7
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3answers
695 views

Are nearest VOR stations always tuned to?

I am flying under IFR. My current leg route is Z401. I am between TIPRU and VOR VLM (VLASIM). I am on inbound radial 304° VLM: This is an RNAV route. But let us imagine it is non-RNAV and I am ...
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1answer
853 views

How is the phraseology of IFR clearances different between the US and Europe?

In this question, a comment says that the phraseology of IFR clearances is very different between Europe and the US: especially the VFR phraseology (but not only) is really different in europe ...
18
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2answers
2k views

Is the pilot required to keep visual lookout during IFR operations in VMC?

During VFR operations, the pilot must always self-assure separation from other aircraft, and thus must maintain a visual lookout all the time. For IFR operations but in VMC, are there any rules as to ...
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3answers
2k views

Can you land IFR at sea?

I've heard that some seaplane bases have IFR approaches, but what about landing at sea? If you flew out into international airspace, could you land at sea and then taxi back into US waters without ...
8
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1answer
856 views

Who closes an airline's IFR flight plan and when?

ATA (Air Transport Association of America) defines the various flight phases (ATA Spec 2300, flight phases). The last phase is called Flight Close and is described as "The Flight Close phase begins ...
14
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1answer
684 views

How were the graveyard spiral and other sensory illusions discovered?

The graveyard spiral has an infamous reputation for killing even experienced pilots which only have visual flight experience. What the wikipedia article does not mention is how and when the spiral and ...
8
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1answer
444 views

Does the FAA or FSS check or authorise IFR flight plans?

There is an existing question about VFR flight plans the answers to which suggest that FSS dont check these and the main purpose of filing GA VFR flight plans is to aid subsequent S&R efforts. ...
9
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1answer
2k views

Is it allowed to log actual instrument under IFR in VMC when VFR would be prohibited?

Flying with an IFR clearance near IMC but with visual references where VFR would be prohibited I have the following questions: Are you technically even in VMC if you are that close to a cloud? ...
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2answers
465 views

Under what conditions can a flight continue beyond the point of in-flight re-planning?

I'm studying ICAO Annex 6, but I am confused a little bit about the paragraph below: 6-2.2.3.4.2(b) A flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules shall not take off or ...
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1answer
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What portion of an Instrument Proficiency Check must be in the airplane?

I was asked this question by the Chief Instructor at my Part 141 school. I've looked all over and I can't seem to find an answer to this question. We often use the AATD which is a Redbird full motion ...
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2answers
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Is there a minimum level of lighting required for a runway to have an instrument approach?

Is there a minimum amount or type of lighting, in the form of runway or approach lights, that must be present for a runway to have an instrument approach? I'm curious to know in the context of both ...
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1answer
202 views

Can I use actual IMC time for the requirements in 61.109(a)(3)?

I needed extra instrument time for my VFR checkride but it was cloudy for my lesson. My CFII and I turned it into an introduction to IFR lesson and we flew 0.3 actual and 0.3 simulated (with the hood) ...
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1answer
5k views

How do I calculate fuel reserves for IFR and VFR flight plan?

I am trying to figure out how to calculate for IFR and VFR for a flight plan example. So from my basic understanding, VFR means you have to add extra 30 minutes to your fuel reserve, and 45 minutes ...
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2answers
1k views

Who is responsible for airspace separation when an IFR flight is cleared for a visual approach?

In areas tightly packed with airports (FXE, PHF, and countless others) it is possible to enter the airspace other than that of your destination airport. Some are less than 5 miles apart. In ...
12
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1answer
4k views

What counts as “runway in sight” when flying an IFR approach to minimums?

I've watched a few videos on youtube where the pilot flies an Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach to the minimum allowed altitude before establishing visibility of the runway (MDA or minimums). ...
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7answers
5k views

Why does flying IFR require a rating?

It may seem like a silly question, but my analogy is, some countries issue automatic-transmission-only driving licenses. Automatic transmission in this case would be the powerful avionics now ...
13
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2answers
582 views

What do solo pilots do between reporting points on longer flights?

On some IFR flights, it can be a long time between waypoints. Obviously you must continue monitoring ATC for instructions, but during the rest of the "idle" time, what tasks do pilots have that keep ...
5
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3answers
1k views

Can BOTH instrument rated pilot under the hood and safety pilot log PIC time in IFR flight?

This question is somehow related to question: Can a non-instrument rated safety pilot log PIC during an IFR flight? , but the scenario is different. Scenario Pilot A and Pilot B are BOTH ...
4
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1answer
800 views

What is the ILS glide slope deviation on a 4 degree VOR check error?

On a US IFR flight, it is required to do a VOR check every 30 days and the error tolerance is 4 degree except for airborne check. Suppose I have 4 degree error on my VOR check. When I fly an ILS and ...
9
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2answers
16k views

Why is there a disparity in the conversion from runway visual range (RVR) to statute miles?

TBL 5-4-1 in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) provides conversion from RVR to visibility in statute miles. I've reversed the first two columns from the AIM table to allow for comparison of ...
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3answers
617 views

Radio communications lost on climb out in IMC: when can I turn on course?

Let's assume: I have been cleared direct from Knoxville Downtown (KDKX) to London-Corbin (KLOZ) at 6000ft. The direct heading is 357°. I lose comms after take off from runway 26, I squawk 7600 and I'...
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2answers
735 views

May a pilot legally fly an ILS approach to ILS minimums with an inoperative Attitude Indicator without declaring an emergency?

A seasoned pilot told me the other day that if the vacuum system fails while on final approach leaving the Attitude Indicator (AI) inop, the pilot must use localizer minimums even with both glideslope ...
19
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4answers
6k views

Why must IFR be cancelled?

Watching flying videos and listening to LiveATC, you will sometimes hear a pilot cancel IFR approach. Why does the ATC care if you are on IFR or VFR? So long as you get on the ground safely, it seems ...
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3answers
630 views

Why is the VFR traffic pattern area at some airports different from its IFR circling approach area?

Take Half Moon Bay Airport (KHAF) as an example. Under VFR, the traffic pattern is right pattern for RWY 30 and left pattern for RWY 12. This implies the downwind leg is to the EAST of the RWY 12-30,...
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2answers
2k views

Can I do a VFR climb-out on IFR flight plan?

Let’s suppose I wish to fly an IFR flight from KTUS (Tucson International Airport) to KFST (Fort Stockton-Pecos) for example. Given the surrounding terrain there is of course an ODP that reads as ...
5
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1answer
455 views

Are pilots required to notify the tower when they are flying “under the hood” for IFR training?

I was reading a question about flying under the hood for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) training when this question popped to mind. Are pilots flying under the hood required to notify the tower? Does ...
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2answers
2k views

How is a conflict between aircraft with TCAS I and II resolved?

Let's say there are two aircraft in a risk of collision, one of them is equipped with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) I so it will get only a Traffic Advisory (TA), however the second one is ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What is the gray zigzag line over V154 between Dublin VORTAC and LOTTS intersection?

Above Victor airway 154 on the IFR enroute low altitude chart, there is a grey zigzag line between Dublin VORTAC and LOTTS intersection. What does the gray zigzag over the segment indicate? Credit: ...
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4answers
419 views

Does ATC have to maintain separation on diverging aircraft?

Say you have an eastbound flight at FL210 that wants to climb and a westbound flight on a converging track at FL220 that wants to descend. There's the minimum required 1000 ft vertical separation. ...
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0answers
153 views

What bank angles are used for IFR operations? [duplicate]

ICAO requires or recommends 25 degrees bank angle. On Boeing auto pilot it's possible to set 30 degrees to be used. What bank angles usually are used for Holding, ILS intercept en-route when flying ...
4
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3answers
4k views

How does a small aircraft like a Cessna fly at night?

What happens when a small aircraft like Cessna is flying in daytime then night hits and its now pitch black with zero visibility? How does he not run into mountains and the like?
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1answer
307 views

Who do I call to pick up my IFR Clearance at KBKL?

I've had my IFR rating for ~2 years now, but haven't done much other than practice approaches to stay current. Flying to KBKL tomorrow, and when I depart to come back, I can't tell who I call to pick ...
7
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2answers
932 views

When has a pilot legally accepted an ATC clearance or instruction?

At what point is a pilot considered to have accepted an clearance or instruction? Upon simple acknowledgement (e.g., Roger or ...
8
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1answer
2k views

What runway alignment should I expect from a straight-in approach?

More precisely, in the case when a straight-in approach is present, what is the maximum angle between the final approach course and the runway heading for a straight-in minimum apply? I had thought ...
5
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2answers
812 views

Why were DHL611 and Bashkirian 2937 on a collision course?

This is about the crash over Lake Constanz/Überlingen on July 1, 2002. The planes were on a collision course, the automated TCAS told one to climb and the other to descend, but air traffic control ...
7
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1answer
2k views

Why do double-ended ILS runway share the same frequency from both sides?

Let's find a runway where there are localizer-related procedures at both ends, e.g. KMRY: 110.7 for both ILS RWY 10R and LOC/DME RWY 28L KLAX: 108.5 for both ILS OR LOC RWY 06L and ILS OR LOC RWY ...
11
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1answer
2k views

Are there any regulations about the distance between destination and alternate airports?

I didn’t notice any distance regulations or recommendations regarding how far away an alternate airport may be. However, it is reasonable that, Too close: The weather between the two is likely to be ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What IFR clearances may a pilot obtain from ATC directly without a pre-filed flight plan with FSS?

I have known two types IFR clearance that a pilot may request with flight plan filing. Pop-up clearance: A pilot on VFR requests an IFR clearance to destination airport. ATC grants a clearance on a ...
6
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2answers
2k views

May a VFR-only pilot without high-performance or complex endorsements be the safety pilot for an IFR currency flight?

For an IFR currency flight in a high-performance and/or complex airplane where the pilot flying has all the appropriate ratings and endorsements to be PIC, does another pilot with strictly a private ...
5
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0answers
143 views

Why is an LPV WAAS GPS approach considered non-precision? [duplicate]

My understanding of precision was both lateral and vertical guidance. If a GPS approach with WAAS provides both, why is it still considered non-precision?
6
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1answer
1k views

When do I need to worry about a course deviation indicator reverse sensing?

I understand that if I am tracking a radial inbound I will set that radial as the reciprocal so I don't have to worry about reverse sensing. On an approach however, do I need to set the CDI to the ...
10
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1answer
1k views

In what portion a non-GPS approach, can a pilot legally fly with GPS as primary navigational resource?

In IFR-GPS-equipped (/G) aircraft, a pilot flies most of the segments with GPS as primary navigational resource* even the route is along victor airways or VOR radials. However, when we start the ...
9
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2answers
1k views

What are the US flight planning regulations for an alternate airport?

As I read 14 CFR 91.169 literally, I understand an alternate airport listing waiver can be granted if the destination airport Has at least one instrument approach procedure from an authorized source. ...
7
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3answers
7k views

What are the guidelines to execute a missed approach during circling?

Alice is approaching KTCY on RNAV (GPS) RWY 12 at KTCY circle NE to RWY 30. When she is turning right base to RWY 30 final, she loses visual contact with runway environment and decides to go missed. ...
4
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1answer
809 views

When an alternate minimum applies, does it change MDA or DA?

In US, the weather minimums for an alternate airport are typically 600-2 for precision approaches and 800-2 for non-precision approaches at ETA, unless otherwise specified at US Terminal Procedure ...
15
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4answers
1k views

Can I circle to a different runway if cleared for an instrument approach without circling minimums?

Tom is flying a C172S/G on ILS RWY 31 approach to KSNS. He just established on the localizer at 6000, from the SNS-22 DME Arc. He obtained weather from ATIS, wind 240@20G23, ceiling OVC006, visibility ...
9
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2answers
210 views

Does an amended shortcut clearance change the clearance limit?

A typical IFR cleared route is like, KABC VOR1 V12 VOR2 V23 VOR3 V34 VOR4 KXYZ Suppose the verbal ATC clearance is "N7890, you are cleared to KXYZ airport, KABC.ZYBUD departure, radar vector VOR1, ...
24
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3answers
4k views

Why fly VFR at all?

Really novice question here: if both the pilot and the aircraft are instrument-rated, why would anyone fly VFR? IFR lets one fly in a wider range of weather conditions and at night while there are no ...

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