Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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2answers
3k views

What are SIDS and STARs?

I’ve been exploring the FMC(flight management computer) on the PMDG 777 and noticed that under the route section you can insert VIA and TO points. From what I’ve learnt this is where you would insert ...
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3answers
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Why do airlines not use direct routes?

Why do airlines use SIDs and STARs when flying IFR. Wouldn’t it be easier and make more sense for them to use direct routes (for example KDFW.KLAX instead of KDFW.L4D.ZIBIT.J5N.BUBIN.P3K.KLAX (not a ...
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What is the final approach fix altitude for this localizer approach?

As I'm looking at this approach chart, I see that the glideslope intercept altitude is at 1400 feet MSL. However, for the localizer approach, I believe we stay at 1400 feet MSL until RIZER, which we ...
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1answer
539 views

How do holding patterns work?

How does a pilot follow a holding pattern? Do pilots have to manually change heading and altitude (through the autopilot) each time they are making a turn? Or is it something the Flight Management ...
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1answer
275 views

What does this NOTAM about a STAR mean?

When planning an IFR Flight into KTPA using the BRDGE 8 STAR, I saw this NOTAM: !FDC 7/5458 (KTPA A1015/17) TPA STAR TAMPA INTL, TAMPA, FL BRDGE EIGHT ARRIVAL... BRDGE STAR UNUSEABLE BELOW 5000FT ...
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Do helicopters fly holding patterns under IFR?

If a helicopter is flying an IFR flight plan, and the airspace around the destination is busy, will controllers tell them to fly holding patterns just like planes do? Or will they hover at the holding ...
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Can you recommend IFR material for Europe?

Is there a European equivalent to the FAA's "Instrument Flying Handbook" and "Instrument Procedures Handbook" that will illustrate how to fly different procedures in accordance with ICAO PANS-OPS Doc ...
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2answers
586 views

During an IPC, is there any alternative to doing a precision approach?

My friend's plane is IFR certified, but does not have either an ILS receiver or a GPS receiver, either one of which is required to fly a precision approach. As he can't fly a precision approach in ...
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1answer
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Is it always required to calculate the fuel for an IFR alternate?

I was asked to plan a cross country flight from KTMB (Miami Executive Airport) to KTPA (Tampa International Airport). After doing all the planning, I realized I needed to calculate the fuel for an ...
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1answer
1k views

How do I plan TOC/TOD in an IFR flight plan that includes SIDs and STARs?

For a checkride, I'm being asked to plan an IFR cross-country from Miami Executive (KTMB) to Tampa International (KTPA), using SIDs, STARs and approaches. I'm going to use MIA5.MIA (Miami Five ...
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1answer
791 views

To do the holding pattern or not?

Full size: http://155.178.201.160/d-tpp/1710/06656ILD5.PDF So for the plate, if we were approaching from the southwest on the ILS or the LOC/DME, would we have to conduct that holding pattern if we ...
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1answer
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Can you fly direct to your destination if you can cruise above FL450 regardless of airways?

To my knowledge, the high altitude enroute charts only apply to the altitudes between FL180 and FL450. Does that mean you can plan direct to your destination if your cruising altitudes stay above ...
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1answer
782 views

When should I start turning in this circling approach?

I've been practicing circling approaches in Homestead General Aviation Airport in Homestead, Florida (X51). I performed the RNAV (GPS) RWY 10 approach with circling minimums. My questions are: a) ...
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2answers
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What exactly is considered “instrument time” for an instrument rating?

I have read in several sources that you are supposed to log instrument time when you cannot orientate the airplane by outside, visual cues alone. This seems clear enough. But I've also read that ...
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1answer
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Was it possible to land a Boeing 707 with 300 feet cloud ceiling in the 70s?

In the movie Airplane! (1980), the main characters had to land a Boeing 707 in Chicago airport in low visibility. The dialog says the pilot "should be able to see the runway at 300 feet". Given the ...
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2answers
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What is the correlation between RNP level and the CDI indication?

I got a question regarding the connection between RNP (required navigational performance) accuracy and cdi sensitivity of the HSI. According to the instrument flying handbook the standard for RNP on ...
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1answer
583 views

Is the phraseology in the early portion of the movie The Net realistic?

Bear with me for a moment; I know that this is based on a movie scene, but there's a real question at the end. Early in the 1995 movie The Net, there's a scene where a programmer is flying their ...
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1answer
654 views

Why are the stabilised approach criteria different for an instrument approach and a visual approach?

My question mainly pertains to the simple altitude difference. Why is the stabilised call given at 1000ft for an instrument approach and 500ft for a visual approach?
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1answer
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How does the FAA BasicMed affect the safety pilot for somebody flying under the hood?

When one pilot is practicing instrument flying with a view limiting device (a "hood"), a licensed pilot needs to be along to watch for traffic (the safety pilot). There are several scenarios where ...
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2answers
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What navigational aid(s) would WWII bomber pilots have used while flying in instrument conditions?

In my furthering attempt to understand the accident mentioned in this post, I've become interested in how WWII Bombers would have flown on instruments. In the accident report, the pilots states: ...
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1answer
467 views

Does a type rating give a person the privileges of an instrument rating in any category or class of aircraft which he/she is certificated in?

Suppose someone obtains a PPL-ASEL, then obtains a type rating in an aircraft requiring that rating e.g. jet, etc. This type rating functions as an instrument rating, allowing the pilot to fly the ...
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1answer
458 views

How do I execute this instrument approach at Larnaca (LCLK)?

I am on course 200 degrees and got a clearance for the VOR-ILS X RWY 22 approach at Larnaca International Airport (LCLK): Where is the/an IAF in this case? Do I have to join a holding pattern over ...
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4answers
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When departing IFR, when do I switch from Tower to Departure?

When departing IFR from a Class D airport, must you wait until the Tower instructs you to change to Departure?
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717 views

What are the Takeoff Minimums for aircraft operating under Part 91?

What are the IFR Takeoff Minimums for aircraft operating under Part 91?
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824 views

How soon can I start my turn after reaching the missed approach point, when missed approach procedure calls for a climbing turn?

If the missed approach procedure only calls for a climbing right hand turn, at what altitude after reaching the missed approach point (MAP) can I initiate the turn on a precision approach that takes ...
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4answers
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Is it appropriate (legal) to request practice instrument approaches in IMC?

I have always requested practice instrument approaches while maintaining VFR (with a safety pilot or instructor). But I was wondering if there are any issues (legal or otherwise) with requesting ...
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4answers
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Is it a literal hood that's used to simulate IMC?

I know this is a basic question, but a lot of Q&As on here talk about being "under the hood" to simulate IMC. My question is, is this a literal hood? Can someone please explain what this actually ...
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How to fill out IFR flight plan for manned helium balloon flight into class A airspace with no predetermined route or destination and less crew?

Per FAA regulations, an IFR flight plan must be filed before going above 18,000 feet MSL as this is class A airspace. How do we fill out the IFR flight plan if the destination landing site and the ...
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0answers
272 views

Are there FAA approved infrared night vision devices we could use in case of engine failure at night in IFR conditions?

Terrible situation. Your single engine on your general aviation aircraft fails. You are flying at night, no airports nearby enough to land at and patchy fog causing Instrument Meteorological ...
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2answers
829 views

Is it permissible to log an instrument approach for purposes of IFR currency in a non-IFR certified aircraft?

Assume you maintain VFR at all times and you have a qualified safety pilot on board. Can an IFR rated pilot fly practice approaches under the hood (view-limiting device) using an aircraft that is not ...
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3answers
823 views

Is it okay to divert to another airport in IFR lost comms situations?

In the event of lost communications, FAR 91.185 allows pilots to divert to a nearby airport if they encounter VMC conditions en route to their destination. But what if IMC conditions persist? Are they ...
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2answers
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What are the rules for logging PIC time on an IFR flight plan in mostly VFR conditions with a safety pilot?

I act as safety pilot for a student who is building hours towards his instrument rating. I have my IR but am not a CFI. We typically fly VFR with him under the hood as the "sole manipulator of ...
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1answer
531 views

Is a “GPS required” ILS (or other navaid-based) approach considered a “GPS approach” for alternate planning's sake when TSO-C129/196 gear is in use?

If you have TSO-C129/TSO-C196 GPS gear (vs TSO-C145/146 WAAS/SBAS gear), you either have to have a non-GPS approach at your destination, or a non-GPS approach at your alternate. If your choices are ...
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2answers
7k views

Is it required to have an alternate airport if you don't have a WAAS GPS?

I forgotten if an alternate is required if you don't have a WAAS GPS regardless of the 1-2-3 rule which states that 1 hour before and after ETA at your destination airport, the ceilings must be at ...
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1answer
918 views

Can a GPS system be used to identify fixes on conventional instrument approaches?

Is the use of a certified IFR GPS receiver approved for identifying fixes defined by VOR radials, on a conventional (non RNAV) instrument approach? For example, in KCDW LOC RWY 22, the intersections ...
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1answer
517 views

How would I read a departure chart? [closed]

How do I read charts like these? I don't know how to read it, or where to get started on IFR departures and approaches. I can talk to ATC and fly VFR, but I am still unable to fly IFR and would ...
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3answers
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Do you need an instrument rating to fly in IMC in Class G airspace?

I’ve been watching IFR checkride prep videos and several of them mention that among the things you can do with your IFR ticket is to: Fly in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) in controlled ...
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3answers
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Why is there a helicopter visibility reduction restriction for this approach?

For the RNAV (GPS) RWY 17 approach at KSMN, why does it say "Helicopter visibility reduction below 3/4 SM NA."? Looking at the LNAV, there is a 5 mile visibility requirement and if we cut that in ...
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2answers
968 views

What is the necessity of Obstacle Departure Procedure(ODP)?

What is the necessity of Obstacle Departure Procedure(ODP)? Standard Instrument Departure(SID) is enough, isn't it?
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1answer
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What is the difference between RAIL and SFL lights?

What is the difference between Runway Alignment Indicator Lights (RAIL) and Sequenced Flashing Lights (SFL)? Both of them are same in terms of flashing light.
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1answer
680 views

Can we apply landing minimum with ALS when ALS is available with low intensity only?

Can we apply landing minimums with ALS when the ALS is available with "low intensity" only? For example, the following NOTAM is issued at KABQ: !ABQ 05/270 ABQ RWY 03 ALS OUT OF SERVICE EXC LOW ...
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3answers
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Why is a sweeping second hand required for IFR?

The reasons why a clock is necessary for IFR have been explained elsewhere, but I haven't seen the reason that the clock has to have a sweeping second hand. It seems like when timing things it would ...
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3answers
2k views

Can you file an open-ended IFR flight plan?

Say you are doing an instrument training flight with a CFII and you are practicing IFR navigation. You will be taking off and returning to the same airport, but you are not certain exactly where your ...
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2answers
6k views

Are there examples of diverse departure assessment departures in the US or Canada?

If there is no published departure procedure at an airport with an approach then you can use what is referred to as a diverse departure assessment departure. I would think that you might find these ...
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1answer
607 views

What are IFR departure categories?

I'm looking at the takeoff mins and DPs for Reno/Stead (RTS.) It lists takeoff mins for Cat A and B, Cat C and D NA: TAKEOFF MINIMUMS: CAT A,B only, CAT C,D NA. Rwys 8,14, 1300-2 or std. with a ...
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1answer
433 views

Why is KOAK's alternate minimum higher than standard?

Why is KOAK's alternate minimum higher than standard? According to TERPS (FAA Order 8260.3C) section 3-4, alternate minimum for PA is the higher of PA minimum or standard alternate minimum(600'-2). ...
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4answers
877 views

Why are holding patterns in an oval shape?

Why are holding patterns in an oval shape? Why not circular or more square-like?
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1answer
814 views

If I need to do a course reversal before initiating an approach, do I need to notify ATC that I'm doing it?

If I need to do a course reversal before initiating an approach, do I need to notify ATC that I'm going to do the course reversal, or is it implied that I'm going to do it? For example: If I'm ...
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1answer
810 views

Am I required to report entering the hold in lieu, persuant to the IFR mandatory reporting points?

You are cleared for the RNAV (GPS)-A approach at 0S9. You are cleared direct JIGEB then at or above 3200 to YAYUB then cleared RNAV GPS A. You are not asked to report anything. Upon arriving at ...
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1answer
2k views

In an unpressurized cabin, why is the cockpit ambient pressure lower than the outside pressure?

As I study for my IRA written, this (VFR) question resurfaced and continues to irk me. The annotations cite the Venturi effect as the sole reason, but I don't follow. From Wikipedia: "The Venturi ...

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