Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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1answer
80 views

How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
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51 views

What altitude to use for IFR off-airways route

Say I want to fly off-airways (both Victor airways and T routes) for my IFR flight, direct to my destination in the US. How do I know what my off-route altitude should be so I can file for that? I ...
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1answer
80 views

Is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace?

In the US, is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace? Or to put the question another way, in the US, may an ...
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Why do helicopter operations avoid IFR?

In almost any airplane commercial operation, unless you’re doing something very short haul daytime ops, an Instrument Rating is all but required with airplanes(it’s even in the FARs). Generally the ...
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2answers
85 views

How accurately do I need to maintain my altitude while VFR-on-top?

Is holding altitude as stringent a requirement when flying VFR-on-top? If the deviation exceeds say 200 feet off a given VFR altitude (i.e. 5500’ heading eastbound) is this as big of an issue for ATC?
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Could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time?

In the US, could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time? If not, where in the FARs is this spelled out? Consider the ...
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1answer
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Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E airspace in the US?

Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E (controlled) airspace in the US? Or could he or she contact ATC and receive a clearance to enter cloud without ...
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What organisation owns intersection names?

I understand that five letter intersection codes (such as WARPI, PAPPI, KUBBS, ROSLY, ZALPO, ...) are unique in the world. However, their names don't comprise a national prefix (as aircraft tail ...
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What does “airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exception” mean?

I was reading Cessna IFR Training program and came across this line that airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exceptions. What does it really mean? Class A doesn't start until 18,000 ft, ...
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How should one fly the entry procedure to an approach when the hold is not aligned with the outbound course?

Consider the following NDB DME approach into runway 08 at Jersey (EGJJ): Let's assume we are coming in from the North and are currently cleared direct to the JW NDB flying inbound on a 180° track. ...
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When does ATC contact the pilot for a frequency change?

Usually, when the aircraft enters a new flight information region for example, ATC will ask the pilot to enter a new frequency. I'm curious about when they do. Is there a rule about it (in an IFR ...
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IAP / “Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts” What does “Procedure NA” Mean?

The image below is of an FAA "Instrument Approach Procedure" The entire thing is the "Procedure" It contains a "Procedure Turn", which when not required typically states: "NoPT" Now, in some places ...
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Why and how would I land straight-in from a circle-to-land approach?

I'm currently studying for an IR (US). One of the exam practice questions concerns an IAP having only circling minimums, and references 5-4-20(c) of the AIM, which reads: Straight-in Minimums are ...
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FAA's handbook, “in the middle of instrument”means where in this page?And is there anything wrong in ths page that I can correct?

Excuse me, does anyone know how to correct this page. My English and knowledge of aircraft is not well. this is one of FAA's handbook, "Instrument Flying Handbook" and its "Instrument Flying Handbook ...
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1answer
92 views

What is an approved weather source for flying an instrument approach into an airport with no working ATIS?

What can you use as viable weather information landing at an airport with ATIS inoperative due to the tower being closed after hours? Let's assume the approach secondary weather source is also ...
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At what altitude should I join overhead a fix when my legal MSA is lower than the holding altitude?

For example, if my MSA is 4600ft and the holding altitude is 6500ft, am I legally allowed to join overhead the fix at 4600ft, or do I need to join overhead the station at 6500ft?
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Can a pilot initiate an enroute descent to an IAF without ATC 's approval?

An IFR flight is cleared DIRECT to a published IAF for an approach at the destination airport. The cruising altitude is 10,000’, the IAF crossing altitude is 2,000’ and the T/D begins about 24nm prior ...
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1answer
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Having trouble reading some charts (SBMG-SBLO)

I'm a flight sim user practicing instrument navigation with a short and apparently simple flight, SBMG to SBLO (South America). The distance between the two airports is 49.5 nautical miles (the ...
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What is considered to be a approved deviation in an ILS beam during a CAT3 approach?

For category 3 approaches, the airport has to transition to LVP mode. In this mode- the holding points are taken back a little bit and the runway surroundings are clear. My question is- Is there a ...
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2answers
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When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
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What is the difference between high altitude vs low altitude approach?

Is there any factor that influences the decision of whether to take a high or low instrument approach (e.g. Hi Tacan or Low Tacan)? What are the differences between these two approaches?
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How should this ODP be flown if heading east?

The KFDK departure procedure for RWY 23 states: DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 23, climb heading 229° to 1200 before turning right. Does this only apply if making any sort of right turn after ...
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2answers
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Why are there no emergency flight rules in place to prevent IFR-certified helicopters, operating under special VFR, crashing in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

In modern times, engineering allows humans to do everything: Drive in fast cars or trains, diving into the deep sea, and even going to space. Which is a great thing indeed. But when it comes to ...
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1answer
256 views

Why do helicopters crash in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

There are no known direct eyewitnesses of the crash of helicopter flight Sikorsky S-76B N72EX with 9 people on board, including Kobe Bryant. However, there are many earwitnesses who heard the ...
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112 views

What's the difference between a Sole Means Navigation System and a Primary Means Navigation System? [closed]

For bonus points, how you define a supplemental means navigation system?
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136 views

When does an instrument approach “begin” per §135.225(a)

§135.225(a) states that, "...no pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless— (1) That airport has a weather reporting facility operated by the U.S. National Weather Service, ...
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Is there a penalty for changing the approach procedure after accepting one?

For example: If you request a visual approach and get approved, but you meant to request an ILS approach, are you not allowed to change it? Is there some type of penalty for changing approaches after ...
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5answers
364 views

Why are primary and supportive instruments in instrument flying different depending on the phase of flight?

For example, in straight-and-level flight, the power's primary instrument is the Air Speed Indicator (ASI), and the supportive are the engine instruments. In another example, straight constant-...
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1answer
80 views

A Question about Departure Procedures at KLRU

The Las Cruces International Airport has the following text in the Takeoff Minimums and ODP document: LAS CRUCES, NM LAS CRUCES INTL (LRU) TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND (OBSTACLE) DEPARTURE ...
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125 views

What is the proper phraseology for a clearance with a named obstacle departure procedure?

The Phoenix Mesa-Gateway Airport (KIWA) has a named obstacle departure procedure - the Phoenix Departure. What's the correct phraseology for when clearance assigns it to you? Is it "N123AB, cleared ...
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172 views

What is CBIR & Basic IR?

I know that the IR - Instrument rating - is the full-blown option to be allowed to fly IFR. I also know that EIR - En-route Instrument rating - is an option to have a license that's restricted to fly ...
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144 views

What is required by and for flights that cross borders in terms of border control?

This can apply to countries that have water in between, like the UK-France or US-Canada. If an aircraft crosses into neighbouring country, does it need to go to a border-controlled airport (with ...
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3answers
255 views

How long is a climb leg in a step-climb cruise flight segment allowed to take, according to regulations (FAA/EASA)?

I am working on a trajectory optimisation program for commercial, large aircraft, in which I want to incorporate realistic air traffic control regulations. One of the constraints I want to incorporate ...
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2answers
174 views

If the airport reported BKN002, would that prevent performing a DH 259' approach?

According to this Instrument Approach: The published Minimums are a Visibility of 1300 m, and a DH of 259 feet. In accordance with ICAO, would the Visibility and Ceiling be above the Published ...
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4answers
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If you were to fly an ILS in a knife edge would you receve GS and LOC be flipped?

because LOC and GS work the same way, if you were to fly one at 90 degrees bank would your information be displayed on the wrong indicators?
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2answers
637 views

How can I identify the FAF on this Jeppesen chart?

According to this Jeppesen ILS Approach Chart: How can the FAF be identified? Would it be the point at which the G/S is intercepted? What is the difference between FAF and FAP?
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141 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
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244 views

Can I file IFR DIRECT with a non-WAAS GPS?

The AIM 1-1-17 2 (a) states: Aircraft using un-augmented GPS (TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and operational means of navigation ...
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What requirements are needed to fly an approach that requires you to fly over the US/Mexico border?

I was flying North of El Paso Texas listening to El Paso Approach when I heard Approach ask a Falcon Jet if they could fly into Mexico to fly a Runway 4 GPS approach. At El Paso, the runway 4 ...
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How to do the base turn course reversal? [closed]

Can anyone tell me how to do the base turn course reversal? Please. I'm afraid it might be asked of me in my Checkride and my instructors haven't taught me that. Please.
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2answers
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During an instrument approach, what are the obstruction clearance given?

I was wondering wether each segments of the approach has different minimum obstruction clearance? (E.g. initial, intermediate and final) From both terrain and man made obstacles. If possible i would ...
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1answer
66 views

Partial panel power on stall under the hood

What do you use for control and performance instruments while demonstrating power on stall under the hood with attitude and heading indicator covered (No vacuum instruments in 6 packs ) ?
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1answer
251 views

If you make up your own IFR waypoints, how does ATC know where they are?

If you make your own IFR waypoints, how does ATC know where they are? Just finished my IFR course in Canada. Was surprised to learn that you can make up your own IFR waypoints. If all IFR flights ...
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1answer
167 views

How does ceiling relate to IFR and VFR?

I'm working on a Python script that takes in metar data and decides if an airport is VFR/IFR/MVFR etc. This is the website that I'm getting the info from: https://www.aviationweather.gov/metar/data?...
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How do pilots align the HUD with their eyeballs?

In fighter jets, how do pilots align the HUD with their eyeballs?
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781 views

How Does the FAA Define the Dimensions of the Touchdown Zone?

Does the FAA give a regulatory definition of the term "Touchdown Zone" for use within the context of landing operations? In 14 CFR 91.175 the FAA requires—in certain cases—that pilots must ...
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Is the Common Route, either of a SID or a STAR, related to the Runway Transition (climb phase) or the Enroute Transition (enroute phase)?

Based on this question ("What are the 'parts' of a SID procedure?"), I would like to ask for clarification concerning the role of the Common Route in a SID. As far as I have understood, the most ...
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1answer
330 views

What is the lowest RNP approach requirement without being RNP AR?

I was recently told by a friend that as soon as RNP for an approach is below the 1.0/0.3nm standard that it is required to be RNP AR. At least here in Australia, a curved segment anywhere on the ...
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1answer
130 views

Descending while turning inbound on a non-precision approach

I'm writing my instrument rating examination soon and one of the questions that I came across was: While executing a VOR A RWY 01 approach for Alexander bay, 2700ft is reached at 8DME on the ...
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1answer
160 views

How are VFR / GAAP approach points selected?

This is kind of an Australia based question. How are VFR approach points selected and why they are where they are? Also what challenges will pilots face from the GAAP (General Aviation Airport ...

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