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Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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18
votes
4answers
2k views

Airplane longitudinal control: pitch or power?

I recently came across some slides from a flight school teaching, for the initial climb after take-off and for the approach, the strategy of controlling/adjusting RoC/RoD with power Speed with ...
33
votes
9answers
11k views

What happens when a pilot has no Instrument Rating and visibility drops?

Note: I'm not a pilot, so I don't have much basic knowledge of how the pilot licence ratings work If a pilot doesn't have an Instrument Rating, and the weather conditions drop below VMC; what do they ...
55
votes
6answers
13k views

Instrument landing: why do all electronic devices need to be shut off?

A few days ago, I took a flight home. Towards the end of the journey, the captain asked us to shut down any electronic device that we had on board, including iPods, CD players, phones and so on, ...
19
votes
5answers
14k views

When are procedure turns not required?

Today, at my part 141 flight school I failed a stage check (flight test), because I did not perform a hold. I'm in com-multi training and was shooting a single engine approach in a Beechcraft Baron. I ...
16
votes
2answers
18k views

How do you request a “pop up” IFR clearance?

If you are flying VFR into deterioration weather conditions and would like to continue the flight under IFR, or you would like to climb to a better altitude but are restricted by a cloud layer, what ...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

What counts as “runway in sight” when flying an IFR approach to minimums?

I've watched a few videos on youtube where the pilot flies an Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach to the minimum allowed altitude before establishing visibility of the runway (MDA or minimums). ...
17
votes
3answers
9k views

What is the purpose of VFR-on-top?

VFR-on-top is an IFR clearance in the US that a pilot can request to allow an IFR flight to use VFR altitudes provided that it can remain in VMC. Requesting and receiving a VFR-on-top clearance doesn'...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

Can a non-instrument rated safety pilot log PIC during an IFR flight?

The Scenario: An instrument-rated private pilot files and flies IFR while accompanied by a non-instrument-rated private pilot who is otherwise fully certified and endorsed to act as PIC in that ...
20
votes
4answers
4k views

Why is a clock necessary for IFR?

According to FAR 91.205 (d)(6), one instrument required for IFR is: A clock displaying hours, minutes, and seconds with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation. Why is it necessary to ...
23
votes
3answers
3k views

What are the weather requirements to log an instrument approach?

So let's assume that I'm the sole manipulator of the flight controls in an aircraft in which I'm rated and that I fly an instrument approach. What weather does the FAA require (assuming that I'm not ...
14
votes
1answer
899 views

Do instrument approach procedures sometimes have a minimum temperature?

Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter ...
9
votes
2answers
14k views

Why is there a disparity in the conversion from runway visual range (RVR) to statute miles?

TBL 5-4-1 in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) provides conversion from RVR to visibility in statute miles. I've reversed the first two columns from the AIM table to allow for comparison of ...
12
votes
5answers
21k views

Where does the final approach segment begin on an ILS approach?

Where does the final approach segment begin on an ILS approach? It may not be as simple as it sounds to answer. The reason I ask is because I've found some support for at least two answers. One is ...
6
votes
1answer
772 views

Is there an instrument departure procedure or minimum performance gradient in the absence of a published standard instrument departure?

Is there an instrument departure procedure or minimum performance gradient in the absence of a published standard instrument departure (SID)? Departing under instrument flight rules (IFR) in the ...
2
votes
1answer
571 views

Aerobatics in “firm” IMC — how would one do it?

Assuming you are aerobatically trained, IFR rated, have an aircraft that is rated for the aerobatic maneuvers you are planning to perform (let us assume that it is acrobatic category, even), and the ...
14
votes
1answer
59k views

What are the FAA requirements for an aircraft to be IFR certified?

As I understand it, the FAA certifies certain aircraft types for IFR flight in general. All aircraft of that type are then certified, not something you have to do with each individual aircraft. What ...
3
votes
1answer
953 views

How does the FAA BasicMed affect the safety pilot for somebody flying under the hood?

When one pilot is practicing instrument flying with a view limiting device (a "hood"), a licensed pilot needs to be along to watch for traffic (the safety pilot). There are several scenarios where ...
31
votes
5answers
10k views

Why are visual approaches (in the US) preferred by US pilots, but not European pilots?

I listen to ATC a lot and often hear airliners cleared for visual approaches in the USA. Interestingly, if it's European airliner pilots they deny the visual approach and request ILS even if they are ...
22
votes
6answers
4k views

Why does flying IFR require a rating?

It may seem like a silly question, but my analogy is, some countries issue automatic-transmission-only driving licenses. Automatic transmission in this case would be the powerful avionics now ...
22
votes
4answers
9k views

Can you bust a TFR while operating under IFR?

Is it possible for the pilot to be held responsible for violating a Temporary Flight Restriction if the controller makes a mistake while you are operating under an Instrument flight plan (ie: does not ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Is skydiving in IMC (through clouds) legal and safe?

(1) What are the legal considerations for skydiving into clouds? I see many skydivers did fall into and out clouds in online videos. However, the clouds are mostly scattered or thin-layered. How about ...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

When conducting a circling approach, how close do you have to stay to the airport (especially with the new FAA requirements)?

I heard that the FAA recently changed how they calculate the protected area for circling approaches, and it looked quite complicated because it changes based on altitude and speed, etc. Can you ...
11
votes
4answers
14k views

Are there any LSA aircraft that can be flown IFR in IMC?

Are there any LSA aircraft that are IFR certified? A LSA would be the perfect private commuter plane for an instrument rated private pilot. If not, what are the most cost effective airplanes that are ...
7
votes
1answer
7k views

What is a “Descend Via” clearance?

When flying to Teterboro, NJ (KTEB) and cleared via the JAIKE THREE ARRIVAL from Flat Rock (FAK): What does ATC expect when they give a clearance like: N1234, Descend VIA the JAIKE THREE ARRIVAL ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Can BOTH instrument rated pilot under the hood and safety pilot log PIC time in IFR flight?

This question is somehow related to question: Can a non-instrument rated safety pilot log PIC during an IFR flight? , but the scenario is different. Scenario Pilot A and Pilot B are BOTH ...
15
votes
2answers
6k views

Can GPS be used in lieu of DME for instrument approaches?

Instrument approach charts list the equipment required to fly them in their name. For this example let's say we have an ILS or LOC/DME 36R approach. This approach requires an ILS receiver for the ILS ...
13
votes
2answers
568 views

What do solo pilots do between reporting points on longer flights?

On some IFR flights, it can be a long time between waypoints. Obviously you must continue monitoring ATC for instructions, but during the rest of the "idle" time, what tasks do pilots have that keep ...
12
votes
3answers
3k views

What is the procedure when being vectored for an approach and ATC allows you to pass through the final approach course?

If you are on a heading, being vectored to intercept final on an instrument approach, and it appears that you will fly through the final approach without being cleared to intercept it, what should you ...
11
votes
2answers
5k views

What are the pilot responsibilities for “maintain visual separation” clearances?

ATC will sometimes give pilots the instruction to maintain visual separation from nearby traffic. I have a couple questions about this: There is a related ...
19
votes
3answers
2k views

Lost radio communication after take-off in IMC - what are my options?

This might be "yet another lost comms questions", but I've tried to read a lot and there are different answers everywhere. Here's the scenario: (The flight plan as filed is - KSSI SSI V441 MONIA GNV ...
17
votes
3answers
9k views

Is it possible to log IFR currency in a flight simulator without an instructor?

A flight simulator system company has a system that they say lets you "Log IFR Currency without an Instructor." Can someone explain to me how exactly that works? Does that mean that an Instrument ...
16
votes
4answers
16k views

Is LPV considered a precision approach?

WAAS LPV approaches can have decision altitudes as low as 200 AGL, the same as many Cat I ILS approaches. Previous opinions on the Internet have quoted the FAA as saying LPV is considered a non-...
15
votes
1answer
7k views

How do you open and get a IFR clearance while in the air?

I once had a traffic controller give me a hard time about how I requested IFR clearance once in the air. I had previously filed an IFR flight plan, and took off from my untowered home airport. On ...
7
votes
4answers
9k views

Can an IFR clearance be issued and flown through IMC in class G airspace?

Let's say an IFR flight was planned to depart from a non-towered airport with class G airspace extending from the surface to 700 feet AGL. The flight visibility and ceiling both go down to 0. Can the ...
16
votes
5answers
10k views

Is an alternate airport always required when flying internationally?

When flying a domestic US flight, an alternate airport is not required unless the weather is below specific minimums at the destination. What are the rules when on an international flight plan and ...
15
votes
5answers
6k views

Are you required to report leaving an altitude if you have been given a crossing restriction?

If ATC gives me a clearance to cross a fix at a specific altitude or a descent at pilot's discretion and I read back the clearance, is my readback considered the report specified in the AIM, or do I ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Do non-towered airports commonly have ILS?

Is it common, uncommon or rare for a non-towered airport to have ILS (Instrument Landing System) runways? Can a non-towered airport have ILS?
13
votes
2answers
436 views

What altitude should you cross DBIGE at on the PALLEY FIVE Departure (SID)?

While at Henderson Executive airport you receive an IFR clearance containing the phraseology "Climb Via the PALLEY FIVE Departure, Coaldale Transition" and you receive no additional altitude ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

When/How may I replace the Turn Coordinator with an Artificial Horizon?

I've seen a few panel shots where the traditional turn coordinator has been replaced with a second artificial horizon, as shown below. The benefits seem obvious - if my artificial horizon failed I'd ...
11
votes
1answer
970 views

Vertical and horizontal separation between cruising and climbing aircraft

I was recently a passenger on a commercial aircraft at cruise altitude when I noticed another aircraft just reaching its cruising altitude while crossing our flightpath from below, at what looked like ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

How does a pilot switch from IFR to VFR mid-flight?

I had a pilot tell me that a rude ATC controller was making him fly way off route and through clouds and turbulence. So he switched to VFR and climbed out of the mess and towards the direction he ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Is it allowed to log actual instrument under IFR in VMC when VFR would be prohibited?

Flying with an IFR clearance near IMC but with visual references where VFR would be prohibited I have the following questions: Are you technically even in VMC if you are that close to a cloud? ...
7
votes
2answers
868 views

When has a pilot legally accepted an ATC clearance or instruction?

At what point is a pilot considered to have accepted an clearance or instruction? Upon simple acknowledgement (e.g., Roger or ...
6
votes
1answer
189 views

Can I use actual IMC time for the requirements in 61.109(a)(3)?

I needed extra instrument time for my VFR checkride but it was cloudy for my lesson. My CFII and I turned it into an introduction to IFR lesson and we flew 0.3 actual and 0.3 simulated (with the hood) ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the rules for logging PIC time on an IFR flight plan in mostly VFR conditions with a safety pilot?

I act as safety pilot for a student who is building hours towards his instrument rating. I have my IR but am not a CFI. We typically fly VFR with him under the hood as the "sole manipulator of ...
5
votes
3answers
676 views

Where can I find the exact definition of VFR and IFR?

Although I have worked as ATC more than 5 years(not US), I don't know the exact definition of VFR and IFR. Of coure, I know that under VFR, pilot mainly use their eyes to navigate, but I want to know ...
2
votes
2answers
6k views

Is it required to have an alternate airport if you don't have a WAAS GPS?

I forgotten if an alternate is required if you don't have a WAAS GPS regardless of the 1-2-3 rule which states that 1 hour before and after ETA at your destination airport, the ceilings must be at ...
18
votes
4answers
5k views

Why must IFR be cancelled?

Watching flying videos and listening to LiveATC, you will sometimes hear a pilot cancel IFR approach. Why does the ATC care if you are on IFR or VFR? So long as you get on the ground safely, it seems ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

What is a monitored approach?

I've heard this term used to describe approaches into low weather (e.g. category 2 ILS), what is it? How is this different than an ILS approach?
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How to handle vacuum and turn coordinator failure in IMC?

I just earned my FAA instrument rating and a considerable amount of time was spent training partial panel. This meant flying with no vacuum gyro instruments - attitude indicator and directional gyro. ...