Questions about navigating under Instrument Flight Rules

97 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
62 views

### For what reason are the published segment altitudes (circled in red) relevevant and ever used by flight crews flying this STAR?

On the HLYWD ONE Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) into KLAX (Los Angeles International Airport) there are altitudes (circled in red on the images below) published on its "Transition" routes ...
• 18.1k
87 views

### Flying an RNAV SID with instructions to intercept a course to a waypoint

Looking at the OZZIE FOUR departure off APC (first page shown) the instructions are, e.g., TAKEOFF RUNWAY 19L: Climb on heading 186° to intercept course 269° to KLARK, then on track 342° to FIRTO at ...
270 views

### What is RNAV transition and what is the difference between RNAV transition and RNAV STAR

Can someone explain what is RNAV transition and what is the difference between RNAV transition and RNAV STAR. Because sometimes both types of procedures are published for an airport and I don't know ...
• 1,691
221 views

### Can ATC provide vectors and separation service to and between IFR aircraft in areas where radar coverage does not exist using ADS-B only?

In the U.S., can ATC provide vectors and separation service to and between IFR aircraft in areas where radar coverage does not exist using ADS-B only? If so, are the separation standards the same as ...
• 18.1k
1 vote
66 views

### What can be obtained from minimum vector altitude (MVA)?

From the minimum vector altitude (MVA) can be obtained: Only the obstacle clearance, only the navigation reception, or both?
127 views

### How long is the TDZ of a runway? [closed]

How long is the TDZ of a runway? 3000 ft, 3500 ft or 2000 ft?
241 views

### How do you realign a directional gyro in an area of magnetic unreliability?

The primary means of determining heading in most small aircraft is the directional gyro, as this instrument is unaffected by the magnetic dip errors that cause a magnetic compass to give the wrong ...
• 26.2k
1 vote
263 views

### What are all the different ways pilots can navigate?

What are all the different ways pilots can navigate? What are they in simple terms and their unique advantages/disadvantages? EX: Dead-reckoning? VOR? GPS? ATC Directives? Others?
• 6,467
267 views

### Does the radial needle of a HSI automatically deflect to the correct position when tuning the NAV radio to a localizer / ILS?

At least on small aircraft, the HSI is slaved to the NAV1 radio. The NAV1 radial is selected with a small knob of the HSI. Now, when I want to fly an ILS approach I don't need to set a radial myself ...
• 876
223 views

### Symbol found on an IFR low chart

I see this symbol on an IFR low chart, can someone tell me what it is?
487 views

### Where is the V3 airway mentioned on the ILS 34 approach plate for KPSM?

While drafting a simple flight plan for KBOS to KPSM, I noticed that the ILS 34 Approach plate for KPSM mentioned that the procedure turn is "NA for arrivals at PSM VOR/DME on V3 northbound":...
• 173
160 views

### If I'm cleared for the approach while established in a hold, can I turn inbound immediately?

If you are established in holding and on an outbound leg (say you are 30 sec outbound on a 1 min or 3.5nm on a 7nm leg) and you are subsequently “cleared approach,” are you allowed to immediately turn ...
2k views

### Does an IFR flight-plan include the approach?

I tried to create an IFR flight plan (at simbrief.com) and there is something I don't get: Are we supposed to know the runway/approach at the destination airport before taking-off, and add it to the ...
• 191
209 views

### Why would there be two RNAV waypoints co-located with a VOR?

Similar to this question but more so! The Enroute H-5 chart shows two RNAV waypoints over Spinner VORTAC (SPI): SOHOW and USIRE. Neither waypoint appears on the Low IFR charts, nor on the VFR charts. ...
• 9,909
1k views

### What does an "X flagged" VOR mean on an en-route IFR chart?

Source: skyvector.com Maybe I'm looking at the wrong sections / using wrong keywords in the chart user's guide.
223 views

### If I have a VOR receiver and a GPS, which should I use to navigate VOR airways?

FAR 91.181a states that aircraft on ATS routes shall be flown along the route centerline. I would like a clarification regarding VOR airways. I have a GPS and a VOR receiver, and usually when I fly ...
• 598
199 views

### Are VOR airways being replaced by RNAV routes as VORs are decommissioned?

I understand that VORs in the US and elsewhere are being removed from service gradually. The FAA plans to maintain a Minimum Operational Network, but still I imagine many VOR airways will also have to ...
• 598
1k views

### Is it legal to use GPS to navigate VOR Airways?

A previous question concludes that it is legal to fly an aircraft in the US with only an IFR-approved GPS/WAAS system and no other navigation equipment on an IFR flight plan. My question is about how ...
• 598
187 views

### What are these shaded areas?

What are these shaded areas? I looked in the Jeppesen legend, but couldn't find the answer. Thanks
580 views

I’m a beginner in intrument flying so sorry for my ignorance. Few months ago I was doing BIR training and with my CFI we were intercepting radials, we were doing that on HSI (Garmin G500). He told me ...
• 1,691
174 views

### What do EU pilots use for IFR enroute charting (besides Jeppesen)?

Is there something equivalent to FAA IFR enroute charts for the EU, where you can see published routes, holds, minimum altitudes, etc? I can find terminal area procedures in the AIPs, but the ...
• 301
1 vote
378 views

### Do I need to call Clearance Delivery for IFR Practices when taking off from a D airport?

I have the following question: If I am going to practice IFR approaches under VFR, do I need to contact clearance delivery for that or it's enough to contact ground and state my intentions? I would ...
• 125
305 views

### Can I fly the LNAV MDA when the GPS is set up for LPV?

I am going to do my CFII checkride in a few weeks and my DPE wants to do RNAV approaches to satisfy the Non-Precision and Precision approaches tasks on the PTS/ACS. According with the Instrument ACS ...
• 125
510 views

### Why might DTK on GPS not match depicted course on approach plate?

I hope this isn't a dumb question, but I haven't flown a whole lot of GPS approaches and today I observed something that I cannot explain: There was a 2 degree split between the Desired Track (DTK) ...
• 16.3k
1 vote
153 views

### How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
• 125
180 views

### What do the Airway Letters and the following numbers mean? [duplicate]

For example, from RCTP - ZGGG the route is AJENT MKG A1 ANPOG R200 GLN W22 IDUMA via the AJENT SID to the IDUMA STAR. What does "A1 or R200 or W22" mean? Are they just randomly allocated letters with ...
• 43
340 views

### What is meant by Manual Tuning of ADF/NDB using BFO? [duplicate]

As NDB transmission is either N0NA1A(requires BFO to be turned on for Manual Tuning, Identification and Monitoring) or N0NA2A(BFO turned on only for Manual Tuning). My question is what exactly is ...
• 515
244 views

### When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
5k views

### What should a pilot flying IFR in IMC and on final, do if the vacuum system fails?

Talking about small aircraft here, assuming the pilot is stable and ready to land, they’re flying IFR and the visibility is nonexistent, but that’s alright because he’s currently IFR! But then the ...
1 vote
2k views

### What stops a pilot from flying VFR and going IFR?

Even if the pilot is instrument rated, what stops them from doing it anyway? I’d imagine in certain situations where danger is approaching, it may be best to switch to IFR, it can’t be that hard to ...
1 vote
298 views

### What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
• 3,171
1k views

### Can I file IFR DIRECT with a non-WAAS GPS?

The AIM 1-1-17 2 (a) states: Aircraft using un-augmented GPS (TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and operational means of navigation ...
• 357
351 views

### Does EASA allow using a portable GPS for RNAV capability?

Assume an older IFR-certified aircraft with the classical equipment, that is two VOR/ILS receivers with plain CDIs, ADF and DME, but no GPS. It can be flown IFR, but many routes can't be used, because ...
• 54.1k
456 views

### Does the term track guidance apply only to conventional procedures?

In ICAO's 8160 "Aircraft Operations" manual there is a term called "track guidance", for which I can not find any clear definition. A few examples: Departure Procedures 3.1 3.1.1 There are ...
• 1,813
863 views

### Does a GPS OBS selector use magnetic or true courses?

Under GPS navigation, when we are using the OBS to tune courses. Are these courses magnetic or true?
645 views

### Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
• 589
1 vote
682 views

### Question about CDI/OBS and HI [duplicate]

Could somebody please explain me the differences between using the OBS and the Heading Indicator? As much as I could understand, once you tune into the VOR, the OBS starts to show how much deflection/ ...
• 21
1 vote
312 views

### Distance to the runway/ touchdown point

Trying to learn about aviation, and looking through all the displays in the cockpit, and also the Garmin G1000, I am not sure where I see the distance to the runway touchdown point, or the start of ...
• 21
166 views

### Why is it necessary to fly in visual conditions to certain unmanned airstrips?

I have come across certain unmanned airstrips where only VFR flight is allowed not IFR? I wonder what can be the possible reasons for that?
122 views

### Is the "auto-routing" created by online flight planning resources preferred by ATC over Direct routing when NO preferred route exists?

I noticed that when I use online flight planning resources, they provide an "auto-routing" option for my flight. I also noticed that they are the same between both services so it seems like both are ...
• 8,140
507 views

### Is it ever allowed to list your destination airport as the IFR alternate too?

Is it legal (in certain conditions) to have your primary airport of intended landing, also listed as the alternate?
2k views

### Why do TACANs not have a symbol for compulsory reporting on IFR Enroute Low Altitude charts?

I am studying the IFR Enroute Low Altitude legend, and I noticed that all NAV Aids other than TACAN have a compulsory reporting point icon. They do appear on the STAR/DP legend. Why do TACANs not ...
• 8,602
370 views

### Is it possible to fly VFR above the IMC floor or VFR-On-Top without a specifically filed route, both using an IFR flight plan to go through IMC?

*Note, I'm not trying to recommend this, but I am curious if it can be done. In this question, Steve V.'s answer made me wonder about this: One time during my commercial training, my instructor and ...
• 8,602
33 views

### Does a Navigation Specification characterize all legs of a terminal procedure?

I am studying the different parts of Instrument Flight Procedures, as they are described by FAA's manuals, such as the Aeronautical Information Manual, TERPS and Performance Based Navigation. For ...
• 1,813
10k views

### What is difference between TAA and MSA?

I know the 'TAA' usually used in RNAV chart, but sometimes it can be used in ILS chart as well. (When defining an IF, GPS is solely methods) but While I'm studying, I can't find exact difference ...
1 vote
92 views

### Are there any non-bureaucratic hurdles preventing more widespread adoption of synthetic vision?

Occasionally, a flight will encounter bad enough weather that the crew will become disoriented. While tools like a terrain radar, ILS, and GPWS/TAWS do help the pilots regain orientation, they're not ...
• 528
1k views

### How to interpret/use "Fix Minimums" (at KALB)

This one stumped both myself and my CFI. Im specifically asking about the minimums at KALB IL/LOC 19 but a general answer is also appreciated. The plate lists two distinct sets of minimums and we ...
• 96k
575 views

### Why do planes above FL290 need more vertical spacing?

At altitudes no higher than 29,000 feet, planes need only 1,000 feet of vertical separation. However, planes over FL290 need twice that, i.e. they need 2,000 feet of vertical spacing between them and ...
• 340
552 views

### Which airspace requires what RNP?

How do I know which airspace requires what RNP value? More specifically, can I go from NY to London with just BRNAV providing I stay above the NAT HLA?
• 61
1 vote