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Questions tagged [icing]

Questions about ice formation on aircraft, which degrades performance.

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Did Concordes have de-icing boots?

Concordes were a supersonic passenger aircraft of which only 20 were built from 1965 to 1979 and were retired in 2003 for expense reasons and non-fuel efficiency. The plane was placed into regular ...
Mathieu Joly's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
239 views

What are the Cessna 172 carburetor icing chart data points?

I am looking for the polynomial equations (functions) for each of the curved lines. I have been looking online and I am unable to find the formulas and the data points for this chart (Cessna 172). I ...
Jean-Nicolas Boulay Desjardins's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
184 views

Why does the INERT SEP take so long to deploy?

I have experience in Microsoft Flight Simulator with the Daher TBM 930. It has an inertial separator, which I use for de-icing in the simulator. I watched a video on it, and I understand how it works, ...
DaCuteRaccoon's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
336 views

Is there a certain minimum temperature we need to turn on pitot heat on light trainer aircraft (eg DA40NG)?

Is there a certain minimum temperature we need to turn on pitot heat on light trainers (eg DA40NG)? In the AFM and checklist documents for the DA40NG, information is given that it should only be ...
pilot162's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
363 views

When carburettor heat knob is partially open, is the primary air filter closed fully or partially?

I know that when the carburetor heat knob is fully opened, the primary air filter is closed. But what happens to the primary filter when carburettor heat is partially open? Is the primary filter ...
ANGELLO's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

How can ice form in an OAT of +20°?

According to a question that I came across while studying for my EASA exam on Aircraft General Knowledge, "icing" is most likely to happen in an OAT between "Between -5°C and +20°C"...
Tudor Ravoiu's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Why is icing more critical on smaller airplanes?

My professor mentioned that the contour of smaller airplanes changes more drastically than that of larger airplanes. In this context, he mentions the surface-to-volume ratio. But how does that relate ...
Yaso's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

does ice accumulation of wing affect its flutter speed

I am trying to find a possible link between wing icing and flutter. I want to know if ice accretion mass will change aeroelastic properties of the wing. Does wing icing affect the flutter speed of ...
user66458's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
165 views

Will ice on an airfoil work as a vortex generator?

Vortex generators are little fans that generate vortex to attach flow to an airfoil and delay stall. If frost or ice are formed on an airfoil, technically they also generate turbulence and vortex,I am ...
Sufrav's user avatar
  • 31
0 votes
1 answer
320 views

Ice Protection System for supersonic aircraft

How does a supersonic transport aircraft IPS system work? Does it work only for the engine nacelle or both engine and wing. I was thinking only for nacelle since the wings are usually highly swept. ...
itsChibi's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is considered to be a flight into known Icing?

I am aware that flight into known icing is prohibited if your aircraft is not suitable to fly in icing conditions (unless e.g.: FIKI,...). Given the following example I am wondering if it would be ...
Ted Staggs's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
184 views

Do icing limits exist for parked aircraft?

Are there any aircraft that have a limit on the amount of ice or snow that can be on the aircraft when stationary and on the ground?
Anonymous Physicist's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are pitot systems protected from ice?

Aircraft use pitot tubes or pitot-static tubes. Do these have some kind of anti-ice system? If so, how? And if not, why not? I'll just point out that it doesn't seem trivial to de-ice such a thing. A ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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41 votes
6 answers
10k views

Do missiles need anti-icing?

Are anti-icing systems needed for any missile carried by a small combat jet? And if so, how is this achieved? I realize of course that missiles typically fly at Mach 2.5+, so the compressive effects ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
102 views

Deicing Rod for Propellers

Similar to a card hitting the spokes of a bicycle, the card is soft enough to knock the dust off the spokes with no damage. What material would be best to impede the propellers to chip off the ice. ...
Justintimeforfun's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
786 views

Why is the Tu-204 virtually immune to wing and tail icing?

Atmospheric icing is extremely hazardous to heavier-than-air aircraft, as it badly disrupts their ability to generate aerodynamic lift (the inherent roughness of accreted ice encourages the airflow to ...
Vikki's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
3k views

Do helicopter rotors have anti-ice systems like propellers and wings?

Icing disrupts the aerodynamic qualities of wings and props, is there a similar danger with helicopter rotors? Are there de-icing systems to prevent this?
Robert DiGiovanni's user avatar
20 votes
3 answers
4k views

Why are propellers de-iced before the engines are started, and does ice on the fuselage affect the flight characteristics of the plane?

I recently flew on a flight out of Montreal on a DHC8 turboprop. The plane had been parked at the airport overnight during a winter storm, and as I walked out to the plane, there were visible icicles ...
Michael Seifert's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
723 views

What is the reasoning behind this question about the correct altitude to avoid clear icing?

This question has been killing me for a while and it's an original PPL question: You are approaching to an airmass with a temperature of 6 C at 10000ft. Which altitude should you be in order to avoid ...
Shegolina's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
472 views

Why is a small amount of smooth ice over the top of the wing more dangerous than an accumulation on the leading edge?

According to a Gleim study guide, "Generally speaking, smooth ice on top of the wing is more dangerous than heavy accumulated icing on the leading edge." Is this true? If this is true, why?
Ryan Mortensen's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
129 views

To what extent is LLF forecast of icing conditions a concern in VMC?

First off, I know that flying into actual icing conditions in an aircraft not equipped to handle icing is a Very Bad Idea ™ for any number of reasons. That's not what I am asking about here....
user's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
2k views

Why is carburetor heat unnecessary at full throttle?

Questions like How does aircraft design affect carburetor ice? show how carburetor mount point affects the relative passive heating of the carburetor by the engine, but I've never learned why full ...
atlex2's user avatar
  • 145
5 votes
4 answers
5k views

What are some Anti-icing solutions for small planes without an on-board system?

When flying during the winter, is there anything I can do to increase my margin of safety, such as anti-icing fluid? I've heard of people spraying their aircraft with propylene glycol, but am curious ...
Zaz's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
738 views

What was wrong with my answers to how to deal with low volt annunciator, and icing, both in IMC/IFR?

I have questions for emergency situation in IMC. I was asked about low volt or icing condition IMC from my school's checker. The checker said "if you see low volt annunciator on PFD how can you deal ...
Mun Park's user avatar
  • 497
3 votes
0 answers
235 views

Are there any airplane designs that are (relatively) insensitive to the effects of airframe icing?

Snow and ice buildup on airplanes (especially the wings) is a well-known and feared hazard of cold-weather operations; it roughens the surface of the wings and changes their profile, which combine to ...
Vikki's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
1k views

Who else is using electro-thermal wing anti-/de-icing apart from the 787?

I am researching into deicing technologies for the future, but apart from Boeing with Ultra/GKN, no one seems to be picking this technology up and being competitive. Any one know why this is? Is it an ...
K Bingham's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
9k views

Icing conditions temperature range: SAT or TAT?

Considering the general rule of thumb defining potential icing conditions: temperature between +10 and -40 degrees C and presence of visible moisture, is the temperature range regarding TAT (total ...
Musmus Klapa's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
158 views

What are heat detection sensors and how can they cause a speed error?

From this news article on Saratov Airlines Flight 703: A report handed down by Russian investigators has blamed human error for the crash of Saratov flight 703, saying the pilots didn’t switch on ...
user2617804's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
188 views

How does ice affect the combustion systems of jet and piston aircraft engines? [closed]

What are the effects of ice on a jet and piston aircraft engine? I've tried Google but I'm not satisfied with the results.
Millicent Kwabuah's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

What to do when moisture forms on the helicopter's canopy in a weather front?

Moisture has condensed on the canopy of your helicopter as you fly through a weather front – what should you do?
Toni's user avatar
  • 17
15 votes
2 answers
3k views

When to climb and when to descend when faced with icing?

(YouTube) The flight faced icing at FL 90 inbound to Germany from the UK on a world tour. Earlier they were flying above an overcast layer. After they saw the icing they requested FL 70, and asked ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

What is the maximum temperature of engine bleed air for de-icing the wings?

What is the maximum temperature of the air bled from the engines of a Boeing 747-800 and an Airbus A380 to the wings for de-icing? If the air is too hot, how is it cooled?
securitydude5's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
723 views

Are there any airliners and or aircraft that use bleed air and excess heat from the engine to prevent icing [duplicate]

are there any airliners and or aircraft that use bleed air and excess heat from the engine to prevent icing. Rather than use battery power or alternators, this would make sense from an energy ...
securitydude5's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
296 views

Does contra-rotating vs regular propellers, have any effect on icing?

I am trying to understand whether can there be any correlation between the contra-rotating propellers and the ice accretion over the wing ? For instance, is there any evidence that ice accretion is ...
Shrav1's user avatar
  • 31
10 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the considerations for landing on ice runways?

In Greenland there are a number of ice runways and I have heard that it is no difficulty landing on them. One would think they would be slippery and the aircraft might slide off the runway or ground ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 13.3k
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why does pitot tube freeze at an altitude whose temperature is way below the freezing point?

It's supposed that Air France 447 crashed into the Atlantic because the pilots stalled the airplane when the frozen pitot tubes forced them to handfly it while cruising through the thunderstorm. But ...
lemonincider's user avatar
  • 7,565
13 votes
2 answers
5k views

What does the word "boot" mean?

I found this word "boot" in one book. The chapter was connected with ICING operations, and I found this word with little explanation: A tube bonded to a surface, e.g. wing edge. When pressurized ...
wiaim's user avatar
  • 2,791
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does the AC-130 have de-ice or anti-ice protection for wings and surfaces?

Does the AC-130 have de-ice or anti-ice protection for wings and surfaces? Can it fly in icing conditions? Looking at many pictures I see no sign of a shiny "hot wing" leading edge nor any boots. Does ...
Pugz's user avatar
  • 3,688
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the risk of icing with water / moisture on wings prior to takeoff?

If a plane without any deicing equipment has water moisture on the wings (say, from sitting overnight) and that plane is then flown to an altitude which will have temperatures below freezing, what is ...
Ryan Griffith's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
693 views

Is anti-icing a small area of the windscreen (hot-plates) adequate for the full flight or only an interim solution?

I asked this question about what "the thing on the windscreen of some Piper aircraft is". It came out that it is used as small anti-icing. The user Jules asked following in a comment of an answer: ...
Noah Krasser's user avatar
  • 9,002
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is it safe to takeoff with some ice and snow on the wings? [duplicate]

I took a look at the post 'What things can a passenger look out for, to indicate an emergency?', and remembered this video I've seen. Obviously, video uploader claims that this take off was unsafe ...
user19652's user avatar
19 votes
1 answer
3k views

What's required for a plane certified to fly to Antarctica?

What special features besides the obvious long range does a plane have to have to fly to and land in Antarctica? I know not just any plane can make the trip, but I couldn't find many relevant ...
RealAnswersNotAI's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
840 views

How can I avoid downdrafts and icing when crossing the Alps in a small airplane?

let's say I need to fly from LSZL to LSZP crossing the Alps with a small airplane (C150, Piper Tomahawk,...). How many times a year I could expect to find the suitable weather conditions to do that (...
MarcoM's user avatar
  • 61
10 votes
1 answer
601 views

How was the "frozen wing flap grease" problem solved? (Antarctica, 2001 emergency evac)

In the June 16, 2016 Washington Post news article A rare, risky mission is underway to rescue sick scientists from the South Pole difficulties of flying in and out of the south pole in winter are ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 6,028
14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why doesn't ice form on the fuselage?

Ice forms on the wings and instrument probes and vanes, but why not on the fuselage? If the temperature of the air is the same, why does the ice form on the wing but not on the fuselage?
user13197's user avatar
  • 11.4k
8 votes
1 answer
388 views

Can IPA be used as a FSII with MoGas, particularly with a Peterson STC?

This question established a basis for the use of 100% Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) as a Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) in aviation gasoline systems. However, this Cessna Service Letter documents that ...
J W's user avatar
  • 16.6k
11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is the "glory" optical phenomenon frequently seen by aircraft pilots?

A glory being this optical phenomenon: (Source) It reveals the presence of supercooled water, a hazard for an aircraft (see answers). Due to the way it can materialize, the center of the rings ...
mins's user avatar
  • 75.3k
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

What methods exist to detect airframe icing, and how do they work?

What are the primary methods used to detect ice on an airframe, and how do they work on at least a high level?
Steve's user avatar
  • 2,218
6 votes
1 answer
913 views

Are all US airline aircraft certified into known ice?

Are all US airline aircraft certified for flying into known icing (FIKI) conditions? I assume all the large (100+ PAX) aircraft come FIKI certified from the design stage? What's the largest ...
curious_cat's user avatar
  • 8,476
11 votes
2 answers
6k views

What constitute "known icing conditions" and when can you fly VFR while they exist?

For flight operations conducted under 14 CFR part 91(other than subpart F) in VMC, what conditions constitute "known icing conditions"? Under what circumstances (e.g., altitude difference or no ...
J W's user avatar
  • 16.6k