Questions tagged [icao-sarps]

ICAO SARPs (Standards and Recommended Practices) are technical specifications that have been recommended by ICAO for member states to adopt as civil aviation policy. This tag should be used on questions about the specifications in the ICAO SARPs rather than about the actual civil aviation regulations in a given place.

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56 votes
4 answers
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What programming languages are used for equipment onboard aircraft?

Generally speaking, What programming language is used in aviation for (ATC Radio, Radar, ILS, Auto-pilot and on-board avionics)? Is there a standard enforced by ICAO? Does every plane manufacturer ...
Taher Elhouderi's user avatar
28 votes
2 answers
113k views

What are the ICAO fuel reserve requirements?

How much reserve fuel are private and commercial aircraft required to carry by ICAO rules? I heard that it changed recently (about a year ago) and is a little complicated. How is it calculated for ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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26 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why is it runway "1" instead of "01" in America?

In the case of a runway with a magnetic heading of 10° in America the runway number ("1") isn't hugely distinguishable from the runway centreline IMHO, (for example see Washington Airport and San ...
Notts90's user avatar
  • 3,559
22 votes
1 answer
3k views

Declaring an emergency: How should you report fuel remaining?

When a flight has to declare an emergency, they are asked for souls on board and fuel remaining. Sometimes the ATC will want fuel in minutes (or hours) and sometimes in pounds. Could we get a ...
CGCampbell's user avatar
  • 11.1k
22 votes
5 answers
14k views

What is the standard rate of turn for heavy aircraft?

I have heard and read many times that for "heavy aircraft", they use a standard rate of turn which is 1.5° per second (4 minute turn), but I have never found an official source which addresses this. ...
Bret Copeland's user avatar
19 votes
2 answers
5k views

When replying to ATC, callsign first or last? [duplicate]

When I was in flight school, some instructor told me that it is the unknown ICAO standard that you should reply to an ATC call with your callsign first, like this: ...
Ulu83's user avatar
  • 709
16 votes
3 answers
7k views

What is the correct phraseology for declaring a fuel emergency?

If I am pilot, approaching my destination airport and realise that, after landing I will have less than 30 minutes of fuel remaining, how exactly should I express this when communicating with ATC? ...
RedGrittyBrick's user avatar
16 votes
6 answers
21k views

Are "Tally-ho" and "no joy" acceptable ATC terms for civil operations?

I keep meaning to ask this question. I heard "Tally-ho" used for the first time by a pilot on Liveatc.net. I know these are pretty standard phrases in military aviation but I wondered if civil pilots ...
TomMcW's user avatar
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16 votes
2 answers
31k views

Which countries allow pilots to fly over the age of 65 for International Part 135 Operations?

The FAA does not have an age limit for pilots flying under Part 135 regulations, however ICAO specifies an age limit of 65 (with other restrictions after the age of 60). The NBAA has a nice Age 60 ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
14 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why are most helipads in São Paulo blue coated and identified by a "P"?

ICAO Annex 14, Vol II and FAA (AC 5390-2C) standards establishes 'H' and there is no mention to coating TLOF or FATO. Brazilian National Regulation (RBAC 155 - ANAC) does not provide any guideline for ...
Evandrojs's user avatar
  • 161
12 votes
1 answer
15k views

Does an FAA pilot certificate qualify as an ICAO pilot licence?

What is an ICAO pilot license? I've seen it as a job requirement before, does my FAA ATP count?
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
12 votes
1 answer
351 views

Do companies based in non-English-speaking countries require intra-cockpit procedural communication to be performed in English?

I was watching a video of an MD-11 landing in Quito, Ecuador The crew is German (Lufthansa). When they speak with ATC it's in English (obviously). When they speak with each other it's in German (...
Peter's user avatar
  • 221
10 votes
2 answers
6k views

What is the maximum interception angle for ILS when on radar vectoring?

Some time ago when I was designing the approach radar module for the ATC simulator for HCAA, the spec was very clear that the limit had to be placed at 45 degrees. So I took it for granted and I didn'...
Stelios Adamantidis's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
5k views

How does ICAO differentiate between Commercial and Private flights?

How is the difference between Commercial and Private/General Aviation flights defined by ICAO? Here in the US, we use 91 flights -vs- 135 flights, but from what I've heard they use a different ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
10 votes
1 answer
356 views

What documented practices are there for NOTAM creators and handlers to combat NOTAM spam?

Sadly, NOTAM spam is a persistent thorn in the world aviation community's side. Bureaucratic rump-covering exercises lead to NOTAMs being issued and distributed that are mere noise to the average ...
UnrecognizedFallingObject's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
308 views

Can European (or more generally, non-US) airspace users airfile IFR flight plans?

In the US, there are two ways to airfile an IFR flight plan: Call Flight Service on the radio via the nearest FSS RCO and ask them to file the plan Ask the ATC entity you're talking to for a "pop up" ...
UnrecognizedFallingObject's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
4k views

How did ICAO SARPS come to include the 250 knots speed limit for aircraft below 10,000 feet?

In certain airspace classes, a speed limit of 250 knots IAS is imposed for aircraft flying below FL100/10.000FT, according to the airspace classes defined by ICAO. How did this limit find its way into ...
60levelchange's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
419 views

Where can the ICAO recommendations be found?

ICAO issues recommendations/rules/statutes/something? that standardizes the regulations for international air travel world-wide. What are these "rules" officially called and where can they be found?...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Are ICAO and FAA airport signs and markings the same?

Are ICAO and FAA airport signs and markings the same or are there differences? If so what are the differences?
J.Dore's user avatar
  • 89
8 votes
0 answers
711 views

How can I convert a frozen ATPL from South Africa to an Iranian one?

I have got a frozen ATPL license from South Africa and I'm from Iran. I came back home last year and I have converted my CPL/IR license to the Iranian piloting license by doing Air Law and Human ...
Amin NajibZadeh's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
654 views

Is it possible to split a NOTAM in two messages in case it is too long to fit in a single message?

Would it be in accordance with ICAO norms to issue two different NOTAMs with the same year, series and number regarding the same subject and informing //PART 1 OF 2 PARTS// and //PART 2 OF 2 PARTS// ...
cvasques's user avatar
  • 177
7 votes
1 answer
12k views

What is the minimum radio and navigation equipment for required for VFR and IFR certified aircraft?

As per ICAO or FAA, what are the minimum radio and navigation equipment must be fitted in VFR and IFR certified aircraft and helicopters?
Lokman Farrukh's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
9k views

What is a "Descend Via" clearance?

When flying to Teterboro, NJ (KTEB) and cleared via the JAIKE THREE ARRIVAL from Flat Rock (FAK): What does ATC expect when they give a clearance like: N1234, Descend VIA the JAIKE THREE ARRIVAL ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the ICAO equivalent of /G in a flight plan?

How should I fill out an ICAO flight plan if I have a Garmin GNS-430W WAAS certified unit? I file as /G in the US domestic format.
Robert Federhofer's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Which types of aircraft are required to carry ELTs?

According to regulations and recommendations from the FAA, ICAO or other aviation organisations, what types of aircraft are required to carry Automatic Fixed Emergency Location Transmitters (ELT(AF)) ...
RedGrittyBrick's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
5k views

What is the validity duration of FAA Medical for international flights?

FAA Rule: The duration of FAA medical certificates is specified in 14 CFR 61.23. An example would be for: A first-class medical certificate Applicant is under age 40 Applicant is an airline ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
7 votes
1 answer
175 views

Why should lower limit of a Control Area (above 3000 ft) coincide with a VFR cruising level?

In ICAO Annex 11 it is recommended: When the lower limit of a Control Area is above 900 m (3000 ft) MSL it should coincide with a VFR cruising level Why should it coincide with a VFR cruising level?
Sisir Simha's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

For how long is an engine start clearance valid?

If a pilot receives a clearance to start the engines, is the clearance void if he doesn't start them within a certain amount of time? How much time is allowed for starting the engines and where is it ...
K.Ruedeesarnt's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
269 views

Are there regulations about objects/buildings above (across) taxiways?

ICAO doc9157 part2 recommend many standard of taxiway system, including width, separation, slope,etc. How about height of the object above taxiway, like passenger bridge or rail track? Is there any ...
Him's user avatar
  • 5,288
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Are there any ICAO restrictions on naming a taxiway?

According to ICAO are there any certain restrictions to naming a taxiway? For example: a certain letter cannot be used it cannot have letters that match a parking stand etc.
George Costanza's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the correct use of the verb "to leave," for exiting the runway?

What's the correct way to say, according to the phraseology; I will leave the runway; I will vacate the runway; or I will exit the runway?
eduardoguilherme's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
3k views

Can an aerodrome in class G airspace be controlled?

Can an aerodrome be controlled, even if the only associated airspace is classified G? E.g. can such an aerodrome have a control tower with the authority to give takeoff and landing clearances and ...
60levelchange's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
685 views

What are those flight level values on an airway?

I have downloaded from this link the chart of available airways over the Canary Islands. There, in some of the airways, it says FL660 FL145 As far as I know, ...
slow_learner's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
733 views

Can two opposite localizers to a single runway be on simultaneously?

In case of a single runway with two separate ILS systems (one in each end, facing localizers) operating on two different frequencies, can both localizers be on and transmitting at the same time, or ...
user36963's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the name for a flight crew that includes extra members for a longer flight?

For short haul flights, airlines fly with BASIC CREW. For long haul flights, the crew must be composed for another crew or "extra" crew members, less than a crew. What's the designation of the crew, ...
eduardoguilherme's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
611 views

What does "zero offset between two waypoints" mean in ICAO Doc 4444?

My question is with reference to the GNSS based separation specified in ICAO Doc 4444. Could someone explain the significance/meaning of the condition "zero offset between two waypoints" criteria? if ...
user37214's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

What separation and information does ATC provide in different airspace classes?

I am busy studying radio for my PPL in South Africa, but I'm struggling to understand the ICAO definitions of the different airspace classes, and how ATC separates traffic in them. I understand that ...
Dane's user avatar
  • 63
6 votes
1 answer
752 views

Do ICAO specifications have the force of regulation?

ICAO, the International Civil Aviation Organization, has specifications for the conduct of civil aviation throughout the world. Such things as the language to be used between controllers and pilots, ...
Terry's user avatar
  • 39.2k
6 votes
1 answer
690 views

Are the cockpit and crew rest area considered part of the cabin?

A few days ago, a travel blogger wrote about smoking on a China Eastern flight, and the smell of cigarettes came from either the cockpit or the crew rest area: So I’m not sure who is smoking, ...
Him's user avatar
  • 5,288
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the difference between "amended" and "revised" clearances?

Reading the ICAO Phraseology Reference Guide I saw the term amendment applied to clearances, and I got a bit confused about how to differentiate it from a revised clearance. What does each one mean? ...
eduardoguilherme's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the regulation related to weather radar use?

I think most commercial aircraft have a weather radar located in the nose cone, like this: (Source: PhotoBucket, by intelmani5) It's well known that radar emissions can be harmful, e.g. one could ...
mins's user avatar
  • 70.9k
5 votes
1 answer
831 views

What differences are introduced between ICAO Annex 10 volume IV amendment 85 and amendment 89?

What changes have been made to ICAO Annex 10 volume IV (Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance Systems) between amendment 85 and amendment 89? I only have access to amendment 89, but I have some ...
DeltaLima's user avatar
  • 82.8k
5 votes
1 answer
643 views

How can I know if North Atlantic Tracks have been amended?

Information about the North Atlantic Tracks is issued through Track Messages. The NAT Doc 007 document states that every track message is identified by the TMI (Track Message Identifier) number: The ...
Federico Gentile's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

How do I include a STAR in an ICAO flight plan?

Would it be in accordance with ICAO norms to include a STAR identification right after the airway name in the field 15 of the flight plan? Or should the connecting point between the airway and the ...
cvasques's user avatar
  • 177
4 votes
4 answers
13k views

What are the lowest authorized minimums for each ILS category?

I have been recently told that ILS minimums were changed some time ago. Could anyone tell me what the lowest authorized ILS minimums are for CAT I, CAT II, CAT IIIa, CAT IIIb and CAT IIIc? I'm ...
user17444's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
1k views

Which specific version of English are international pilots and ATC required/recommended to learn?

Are international ATC and pilots technically required to learn British English, American English, or something else? I've heard it said that they are "supposed to speak ICAO standard phraseology, ...
Matt's user avatar
  • 263
4 votes
1 answer
372 views

What is the rationale of a weight/passenger value for the ICAO TCAS requirement?

What is the rationale for the figures 5,700 Kg and 19 passengers? Excerpt from TCAS's Wikipedia entry page: It is a type of ...
menjaraz's user avatar
  • 2,435
4 votes
1 answer
883 views

Where can the FAA versus ICAO official filed differences be found?

ICAO has a process where individual countries may file differences from the ICAO standard when the rules of the country do not coincide with the published standards. Where can the list of differences ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 58.6k
4 votes
1 answer
246 views

In a flight plan, does it make any difference to write an increase of the flight level instead of writing a cruise climb?

According to ICAO 4444, a change of speed or level should be written in item 15 of the flight plan according to these rules: Change of speed or level (maximum 21 characters) The point at which a ...
cvasques's user avatar
  • 177
4 votes
1 answer
291 views

Does the ICAO definition of an "aircraft" include a minimum altitude capability?

The German air law includes in their legal definition of a "Luftfahrzeug", which is the equivalent of an aircraft, other devices intended to operate in the airspace if they are capable of being ...
Ingenieur's user avatar
  • 281