Questions tagged [iaps]

Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs) are procedures used by pilots to maneuver an aircraft by reference to their instruments during an approach, published by the FAA and other third parties (most notably Jeppesen).

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27
votes
3answers
2k views

If there is a misprint on an instrument plate, is a pilot required to comply with it?

This is a snippet from the KESC RNAV 36 approach. It's a real procedure, I didn't photoshop it except to add highlighting. Let's say I was in the position that the blue aircraft is in (roughly 10 ...
19
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7answers
71k views

What is the difference between LNAV/VNAV and LPV minimums on an RNAV approach?

This approach shows two sets of minimums that both have vertical guidance with a Decision Altitude (DA). What is the difference between LNAV/VNAV and LPV, and why does LPV have lower minimums?
19
votes
1answer
844 views

Why would an approach be Cat A NA?

I was looking at the RNAV (RNP) 6 approach into Gunnison (KGUC) and noticed something quite strange: If the image isn't clear enough -- the approach is Not Authorized for approach category A aircraft ...
16
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2answers
2k views

What is a monitored approach?

I've heard this term used to describe approaches into low weather (e.g. category 2 ILS), what is it? How is this different than an ILS approach?
16
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3answers
7k views

Why isn't an LPV SBAS approach considered a precision approach according to ICAO?

According to ICAO's classification, LPV SBAS approach is in the APV group, because it doesn't meet some specifications for precision approaches. But what exactly does it not meet? Glossary: LPV: ...
15
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2answers
3k views

Why is the missed-approach course for the “RNAV (GNSS) - A” approach to runway 28 at ENSB shaped all funny?

Svalbard-Longyear (ENSB) has one particular approach (the RNAV (GNSS) - A approach to runway 28) whose missed-approach course is... oddly-shaped, to say the least: (PDF by Avinor; screenshot and ...
15
votes
1answer
6k views

What is a Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA)?

I have heard about Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA), special procedures for runways that are spaced particularly close together. How exactly do they work? What are the requirements for ...
15
votes
1answer
6k views

What is a SAAAR / RNP AR instrument approach?

I understand that a SAAAR / RNP AR is a "special" approach and that special approval is required to even get the approach plate, but what exactly is it? Aspen is an example of an airport that has one....
15
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1answer
15k views

Why do some approaches have suffix letters such as Y and Z?

There are cases with instrument approaches where there will be multiple approaches to the same runway, in many cases uses some of the same nav aids and positions, but differentiated using alpha ...
14
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4answers
1k views

Can I circle to a different runway if cleared for an instrument approach without circling minimums?

Tom is flying a C172S/G on ILS RWY 31 approach to KSNS. He just established on the localizer at 6000, from the SNS-22 DME Arc. He obtained weather from ATIS, wind 240@20G23, ceiling OVC006, visibility ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Is there an online source for European Instrument Approach Procedures?

The FAA offers instrument approach procedures on their website free of charge (FAA Charts). Is there a similar site provided by EASA or the EU?
13
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3answers
7k views

When flying a circling approach, is it permitted to begin the visual circling segment prior to the final approach fix?

If it were a beautiful sunny VFR day and you were cleared for a circling approach, can you begin the circle prior to the final approach fix/circling DH in order to maneuver visually to land? Here are ...
12
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5answers
5k views

Are crossing restrictions on an ILS/LOC approach mandatory when flying on the glideslope?

Some "ILS or LOC" approaches have crossing restrictions that are shown before and/or after the final approach fix/glideslope intercept. Are these restrictions for the LOC only approach, or do they ...
12
votes
2answers
765 views

What is the correct holding altitude for the missed approach at Unalaska (PADU)?

On this approach plate, the holding pattern shown is depicted for a missed approach: However, in the notes, it says to Descend to 6000 in holding pattern. even though you should only climb to ...
12
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2answers
948 views

Why are sidestep ILS minima not used in EASA-land? (specific example: EGKK)

If you are not aware, London Gatwick (aka EGKK) has a setup with a primary air carrier runway and a backup runway immediately next to it, such that only one runway can be used at a time. The main ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Can pilots fly circling approaches at non-towered airports?

So the answer in my mind is "of course pilots can fly circling approaches at non-towered airports" (seriously, I could swear that I've done it before, but then again I can't think of any specific ...
11
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3answers
653 views

How do you properly enter the NDB34 published approach at Friday Harbor (KFHR)?

I'm having trouble figuring out the correct procedure to enter an approach such as: Let's say you are cleared from ISLND for the NDB approach. How do you maneuver safely and legally to the the ...
11
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1answer
6k views

When cleared for an approach and not on vectors, is a depicted course reversal always required?

At least where I fly, most instrument approaches now use a Hold In Lieu of Procedure Turn (HILO). The "full procedure" now consists of a turn in the hold before proceeding inbound. In the example ...
11
votes
3answers
7k views

Is it legal to fly the localizer approach when cleared for the ILS?

Most ILS approaches include localizer minimums that can be used if the glideslope transmitter or receiver fails. For example: In this case, to fly the ILS you would intercept the glideslope just ...
11
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1answer
3k views

When conducting a circling approach, how close do you have to stay to the airport (especially with the new FAA requirements)?

I heard that the FAA recently changed how they calculate the protected area for circling approaches, and it looked quite complicated because it changes based on altitude and speed, etc. Can you ...
10
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2answers
23k views

How to calculate the vertical profile for a LOC only approach?

I am kind of stuck for calculating a descent path on the ILS RWY 7 approach into KORL. Assuming the glide slope is not available and you have to use the localizer only, what is the best way to ...
10
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1answer
2k views

What is the FMS Bridge Visual 28R approach at SFO?

I've read that SFO has a specialized FMS Bridge Visual approach to 28R that is not published but instead is custom tailored for specific operators. What exactly is this approach and how does it work? ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Why do some back course operations use normal sensing?

So the LOC/DME-E approach to KASE lists for the missed approach course to use the I-PKN localizer, but then there's a note 'course outbound is normal sensing'. Does that mean that in effect, this ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

What is “(CFMCC)” on an ILS approach chart?

I'm studying the ILS or LOC RWY 3 approach chart for KMKC. I'm trying to figure out what "(CMFCC)" at the runway means. Is it a computer navigation aid?
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Why do the RNAV (GPS) approaches to KAPC not use the same missed approach procedure as the ILS/LOC approach?

While looking at the various instrument approaches for Napa Valley (KAPC), I noticed a discrepancy between the RNAV (GPS) Y/Z RWY36L missed approaches and the ILS/LOC RWY36L approach: Why is it that ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Do helicopters fly the same instrument approaches as fixed-wing aircraft?

Do helicopters fly the same instrument approaches as fixed-wing aircraft? If so, which approach category and minimums do they use?
8
votes
1answer
1k views

What runway alignment should I expect from a straight-in approach?

More precisely, in the case when a straight-in approach is present, what is the maximum angle between the final approach course and the runway heading for a straight-in minimum apply? I had thought ...
8
votes
1answer
7k views

Where to obtain a list of active NDB approaches?

Does anyone know where to find a list of active NDB approaches? I can find a list of ones proposed to be eliminated, but I'm having a problem coming across a list of remaining ones.
8
votes
1answer
1k views

How do you determine whether you can us LNAV/VNAV minima on an RNAV approach?

If we look at this approach plate it has LPV DA LNAV / VNAV DA LNAV MDA CIRCLING I understand that if you have WAAS you can shoot the approach to LPV DA minimums. If you have only a GPS with a DME ...
8
votes
1answer
386 views

How do I execute this instrument approach at Larnaca (LCLK)?

I am on course 200 degrees and got a clearance for the VOR-ILS X RWY 22 approach at Larnaca International Airport (LCLK): Where is the/an IAF in this case? Do I have to join a holding pattern over ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Are there types of instrument approaches besides precision and non-precision?

In the 1990s there used to be two basic types of instrument approaches: precision and non-precision. How many different kinds are there now, and what are the differences.
7
votes
1answer
543 views

How do you encode a radial to radial turn in ARINC-424?

I am building my own ATC simulator and for that purpose I need to include several instrument procedures. I have a problem with that particular one: My problem is on KEA transition, the leg between "...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

Why are some LNAV/VNAV mins lower than the LPV mins for the same approach?

Why are some LNAV/VNAV minimums lower than the LPV minimums for the same approach? See the RNAV (GPS) Rwy 5 approach at Scott Municipal (KSCX).
6
votes
1answer
4k views

When to go missed on a non-precision approach?

I am training to get my instrument rating and I have come across a confusing point. I understand that, when flying a precision approach, you go missed upon reaching the decision height for that ...
6
votes
1answer
6k views

Which approach category minimums should I use when conducting an instrument approach?

FAR 91.3 says: Aircraft approach category means a grouping of aircraft based on a speed of VREF, if specified, or if VREF is not specified, 1.3 Vso at the maximum certificated landing weight. ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Can civil pilots *ever* fly military high-altitude penetration approach procedures?

Let's say I'm flying some business types in a Gulfstream III (an approach category C aircraft) from Stockton to Palmdale to meet up with some USAF types there (new airplane deal, wooo!). Can I accept/...
6
votes
1answer
338 views

Is it practical to fly IFR into Hawthorne Airport (KHHR) in IMC?

I am an IFR rated pilot flying 172s and 182s out of Hawthorne Municipal Airport (KHHR) in Los Angeles. I've heard from other pilots that in actual IFR conditions (IMC) it can be difficult to get ...
6
votes
2answers
15k views

When should an Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) be used?

Buried away in the front matter of the FAA charts is a section titled "IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND (OBSTACLE) DEPARTURE PROCEDURES". Note that this is not a graphical departure procedure that is in with ...
5
votes
2answers
342 views

How can one fly a stabilized approach when the final approach path is curved?

Some approaches, like the KMTN VOR/DME RWY15 depicted below, have a final approach segment that is curved (in the case below, the entire leg from FAF to RWY is one big DME arc, but this could also ...
5
votes
1answer
778 views

Why are the minimums between these two ILS instrument approaches to the same runway so different?

The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Z Rwy 16R are 1095/40. The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Y Rwy 16R are 1461-1 1/2. Question: Why are the minimums for the ILS Z so much lower than the minimums for ...
5
votes
1answer
151 views

Why do some airfields not have a climb gradient for LPV?

Can anyone advise why for some airfields there are minimum approach climb gradients for LNAV with none for LPV, while at other airfields there are minimum approach climb gradients for both LPV and ...
5
votes
1answer
307 views

What is the reference plane for the ILS glideslope angle?

Is a 3-degree glideslope based from the runway surface slope at the point where the antenna is installed or is it referenced to a zero-degree plane? If you know of a design document or FAR/AIM ...
5
votes
1answer
329 views

Do Jeppesen SIDs have top altitude?

FAA SID charts show the top altitude, the maximum altitude you can climb to when cleared for the SID. Do Jeppesen SID charts also show the top altitude? I checked some of them but couldn't find it. If ...
5
votes
1answer
256 views

Can light GA aircraft with FDs or couplers use the RVR reduction clause on an ILS?

If you are in a modern GA aircraft, you may have a flight director and/or autopilot that can be coupled to your ILS receiver. (Certainly, this is true of GA glass...) Some ILS approaches provide a ...
5
votes
1answer
315 views

Why are the minima for Cat A higher than for other categories at KSEA ILS 16L?

I was looking at the KSEA ILS 16L approach (depicted below) and was wondering just why the minima are bumped up for Cat A aircraft (64 feet on both DA and HAT, as well as 200 feet of RVR). Thing is, ...
4
votes
2answers
337 views

Why is LGA's Instrument Approach Procedure VOR-H misaligned with the runway?

I was looking at LGA's Instrument Approach Procedures, and I noticed that on this IAP plate the final segment (CHUGG to MAFAS) is misaligned with the runway. How should I interpret this? Shouldn't be ...
4
votes
1answer
775 views

Are there benefits in training instrument students how to fly a DME arc?

With more instrument approach procedures being designed for RNAV/GPS equipped aircraft, and considering the high level of radar coverage currently available, is there a need to spend much valuable ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the missed approach procedure when initiated below MDA/DA/DH?

Let's say you continue below the DA/DH on an IAP because you have the APL insight; and of course no lower then 100 ft above TDZE. Now you arrive and don't see any required visual cues to continue to ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

Does a straight missed approach require all turns to be less than or equal to 15 degrees?

I am studying ICAO's PANS-OPS 8168 manual, and I am having trouble understanding the criteria applied to straight and turning missed approaches. In the manual, it clearly states: I-4-6-2 Types of ...
4
votes
0answers
196 views

What does the letter J mean at the start of an FAA instrument approach chart identifier?

To identify a specific Instrument Approach Chart in either the FAA Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP), or the Department of Defense (DoD) Terminal Low Altitude (TLA) Charts, the FAA uses what they ...