Questions tagged [iaps]

Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs) are procedures used by pilots to maneuver an aircraft by reference to their instruments during an approach, published by the FAA and other third parties (most notably Jeppesen).

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13
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2answers
3k views

Why is the missed-approach course for the “RNAV (GNSS) - A” approach to runway 28 at ENSB shaped all funny?

Svalbard-Longyear (ENSB) has one particular approach (the RNAV (GNSS) - A approach to runway 28) whose missed-approach course is... oddly-shaped, to say the least: (PDF by Avinor; screenshot and ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Is the arrival segment of an IAP in PANS-OPS the equivalent of FAA's feeder route?

In ICAO's manual 8168 ("Aircraft Operations"), the term "Feeder route" is never mentioned. Instead, it states: 8168 Volume II, "Approach Procedures": 1.2.3. Segments of the approach procedure. An ...
4
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1answer
129 views

Does a straight missed approach require all turns to be less than or equal to 15 degrees?

I am studying ICAO's PANS-OPS 8168 manual, and I am having trouble understanding the criteria applied to straight and turning missed approaches. In the manual, it clearly states: I-4-6-2 Types of ...
0
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0answers
23 views

Does transition to GBAS navigation require alignment of the intermediate segment with final segment? [duplicate]

I am studying how the Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) affects the Instrument Approach Procedures, and I noticed that in ICAO's Aircraft Operations manual (8168, Volume II) it states: Part ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Does transition to SBAS or GBAS navigation require alignment of the intermediate segment with final segment?

I am studying how the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) or the Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) affect the Instrument Approach Procedures, and I noticed that in ICAO's Aircraft ...
9
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1answer
2k views

What is “(CFMCC)” on an ILS approach chart?

I'm studying the ILS or LOC RWY 3 approach chart for KMKC. I'm trying to figure out what "(CMFCC)" at the runway means. Is it a computer navigation aid?
4
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2answers
295 views

Why is LGA's Instrument Approach Procedure VOR-H misaligned with the runway?

I was looking at LGA's Instrument Approach Procedures, and I noticed that on this IAP plate the final segment (CHUGG to MAFAS) is misaligned with the runway. How should I interpret this? Shouldn't be ...
0
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2answers
422 views

What does the “visibility” number mean on an approach plate?

In the profile view in an approach plate, there is a visibility number next to the MDA or DA. What does it mean? Is it limitation to use the approach?
3
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2answers
968 views

What is a “sidestep landing” in an instrument approach?

I have never seen a sidestep landing on an approach plate. What is a sidestep landing and when I can chose this approach?
4
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0answers
187 views

What does the letter J mean at the start of an FAA instrument approach chart identifier?

To identify a specific Instrument Approach Chart in either the FAA Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP), or the Department of Defense (DoD) Terminal Low Altitude (TLA) Charts, the FAA uses what they ...
5
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1answer
712 views

Why are the minimums between these two ILS instrument approaches to the same runway so different?

The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Z Rwy 16R are 1095/40. The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Y Rwy 16R are 1461-1 1/2. Question: Why are the minimums for the ILS Z so much lower than the minimums for ...
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2answers
143 views

PA/APV Glidepath Descent and Obstacle Clearance Slope's lowest point determination

I am studying the US Terminal Instrument Procedures manual (TERPS) and as I was skimming through the guidelines about Sloping Obstacle Clearance Surface, I came across the image below from section 2-1-...
2
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1answer
313 views

What's a stepdown fix in a non-precision approach procedure?

Could someone explain to me what's a stepdown fix in non-precision approaches?
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0answers
292 views

How do I use the “Inoperative Components or Visual Aids Table” when more than one component is inop?

I can't fully seem to understand this sentence: If more than one component is inoperative, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative Can ...
4
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2answers
850 views

What is the missed approach procedure when initiated below MDA/DA/DH?

Let's say you continue below the DA/DH on an IAP because you have the APL insight; and of course no lower then 100 ft above TDZE. Now you arrive and don't see any required visual cues to continue to ...
5
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1answer
147 views

Why do some airfields not have a climb gradient for LPV?

Can anyone advise why for some airfields there are minimum approach climb gradients for LNAV with none for LPV, while at other airfields there are minimum approach climb gradients for both LPV and ...
2
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2answers
227 views

Can some IAFs be skipped if more than one IAF exists?

Take, for example, this FAA official IAP plate (ILS RWY 13L CAT II JFK). Its Initial Segment consists of more than one Initial Approach Fix (IAF): COVIR, KMCHI, and BUZON. As far as I can interpret ...
5
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1answer
288 views

What is the reference plane for the ILS glideslope angle?

Is a 3-degree glideslope based from the runway surface slope at the point where the antenna is installed or is it referenced to a zero-degree plane? If you know of a design document or FAR/AIM ...
6
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1answer
3k views

When to go missed on a non-precision approach?

I am training to get my instrument rating and I have come across a confusing point. I understand that, when flying a precision approach, you go missed upon reaching the decision height for that ...
5
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1answer
301 views

Do Jeppesen SIDs have top altitude?

FAA SID charts show the top altitude, the maximum altitude you can climb to when cleared for the SID. Do Jeppesen SID charts also show the top altitude? I checked some of them but couldn't find it. If ...
8
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1answer
358 views

How do I execute this instrument approach at Larnaca (LCLK)?

I am on course 200 degrees and got a clearance for the VOR-ILS X RWY 22 approach at Larnaca International Airport (LCLK): Where is the/an IAF in this case? Do I have to join a holding pattern over ...
4
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1answer
735 views

Are there benefits in training instrument students how to fly a DME arc?

With more instrument approach procedures being designed for RNAV/GPS equipped aircraft, and considering the high level of radar coverage currently available, is there a need to spend much valuable ...
5
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1answer
299 views

Why are the minima for Cat A higher than for other categories at KSEA ILS 16L?

I was looking at the KSEA ILS 16L approach (depicted below) and was wondering just why the minima are bumped up for Cat A aircraft (64 feet on both DA and HAT, as well as 200 feet of RVR). Thing is, ...
19
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1answer
805 views

Why would an approach be Cat A NA?

I was looking at the RNAV (RNP) 6 approach into Gunnison (KGUC) and noticed something quite strange: If the image isn't clear enough -- the approach is Not Authorized for approach category A aircraft ...
3
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1answer
684 views

Do GA IFR flights out of airports w/ SIDs typically use them? What about STARs?

Besides the IAPs (which as an IFR flight you're guaranteed to use unless cleared for the visual), there are the STARs and SIDs, and using them in slow GA aircraft doesn't fully make sense to me. For ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Why are some LNAV/VNAV mins lower than the LPV mins for the same approach?

Why are some LNAV/VNAV minimums lower than the LPV minimums for the same approach? See the RNAV (GPS) Rwy 5 approach at Scott Municipal (KSCX).
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0answers
265 views

Why is my Garmin GFC 700 wandering a lot laterally on an ILS approach?

I've noticed that my Garmin GFC 700 autopilot is 'hunting' on ILS approaches. To be absolutely clear, I mean an approach using a localizer with glideslope. It is rock solid on RNAV, GPS, and other ...
5
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2answers
317 views

How can one fly a stabilized approach when the final approach path is curved?

Some approaches, like the KMTN VOR/DME RWY15 depicted below, have a final approach segment that is curved (in the case below, the entire leg from FAF to RWY is one big DME arc, but this could also ...
8
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1answer
1k views

What runway alignment should I expect from a straight-in approach?

More precisely, in the case when a straight-in approach is present, what is the maximum angle between the final approach course and the runway heading for a straight-in minimum apply? I had thought ...
8
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1answer
1k views

How do you determine whether you can us LNAV/VNAV minima on an RNAV approach?

If we look at this approach plate it has LPV DA LNAV / VNAV DA LNAV MDA CIRCLING I understand that if you have WAAS you can shoot the approach to LPV DA minimums. If you have only a GPS with a DME ...
14
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4answers
1k views

Can I circle to a different runway if cleared for an instrument approach without circling minimums?

Tom is flying a C172S/G on ILS RWY 31 approach to KSNS. He just established on the localizer at 6000, from the SNS-22 DME Arc. He obtained weather from ATIS, wind 240@20G23, ceiling OVC006, visibility ...
6
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1answer
328 views

Is it practical to fly IFR into Hawthorne Airport (KHHR) in IMC?

I am an IFR rated pilot flying 172s and 182s out of Hawthorne Municipal Airport (KHHR) in Los Angeles. I've heard from other pilots that in actual IFR conditions (IMC) it can be difficult to get ...
12
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2answers
901 views

Why are sidestep ILS minima not used in EASA-land? (specific example: EGKK)

If you are not aware, London Gatwick (aka EGKK) has a setup with a primary air carrier runway and a backup runway immediately next to it, such that only one runway can be used at a time. The main ...
16
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3answers
6k views

Why isn't an LPV SBAS approach considered a precision approach according to ICAO?

According to ICAO's classification, LPV SBAS approach is in the APV group, because it doesn't meet some specifications for precision approaches. But what exactly does it not meet? Glossary: LPV: ...
9
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4answers
1k views

Why do the RNAV (GPS) approaches to KAPC not use the same missed approach procedure as the ILS/LOC approach?

While looking at the various instrument approaches for Napa Valley (KAPC), I noticed a discrepancy between the RNAV (GPS) Y/Z RWY36L missed approaches and the ILS/LOC RWY36L approach: Why is it that ...
15
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1answer
13k views

Why do some approaches have suffix letters such as Y and Z?

There are cases with instrument approaches where there will be multiple approaches to the same runway, in many cases uses some of the same nav aids and positions, but differentiated using alpha ...
5
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1answer
247 views

Can light GA aircraft with FDs or couplers use the RVR reduction clause on an ILS?

If you are in a modern GA aircraft, you may have a flight director and/or autopilot that can be coupled to your ILS receiver. (Certainly, this is true of GA glass...) Some ILS approaches provide a ...
2
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1answer
166 views

Non-precision approaches for which constant descents are not approved?

I noticed an interesting note -- circled in red pencil below -- on the KEEO RNAV (GPS) RWY 03 approach the other day: Why would the FAA apparently prohibit constant-descent final approaches to this ...
5
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2answers
957 views

Can civil pilots *ever* fly military high-altitude penetration approach procedures?

Let's say I'm flying some business types in a Gulfstream III (an approach category C aircraft) from Stockton to Palmdale to meet up with some USAF types there (new airplane deal, wooo!). Can I accept/...
9
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1answer
1k views

Do helicopters fly the same instrument approaches as fixed-wing aircraft?

Do helicopters fly the same instrument approaches as fixed-wing aircraft? If so, which approach category and minimums do they use?
11
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3answers
643 views

How do you properly enter the NDB34 published approach at Friday Harbor (KFHR)?

I'm having trouble figuring out the correct procedure to enter an approach such as: Let's say you are cleared from ISLND for the NDB approach. How do you maneuver safely and legally to the the ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Are there types of instrument approaches besides precision and non-precision?

In the 1990s there used to be two basic types of instrument approaches: precision and non-precision. How many different kinds are there now, and what are the differences.
8
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1answer
7k views

Where to obtain a list of active NDB approaches?

Does anyone know where to find a list of active NDB approaches? I can find a list of ones proposed to be eliminated, but I'm having a problem coming across a list of remaining ones.
12
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5answers
2k views

Can pilots fly circling approaches at non-towered airports?

So the answer in my mind is "of course pilots can fly circling approaches at non-towered airports" (seriously, I could swear that I've done it before, but then again I can't think of any specific ...
7
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1answer
484 views

How do you encode a radial to radial turn in ARINC-424?

I am building my own ATC simulator and for that purpose I need to include several instrument procedures. I have a problem with that particular one: My problem is on KEA transition, the leg between "...
12
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5answers
5k views

Are crossing restrictions on an ILS/LOC approach mandatory when flying on the glideslope?

Some "ILS or LOC" approaches have crossing restrictions that are shown before and/or after the final approach fix/glideslope intercept. Are these restrictions for the LOC only approach, or do they ...
11
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3answers
7k views

Is it legal to fly the localizer approach when cleared for the ILS?

Most ILS approaches include localizer minimums that can be used if the glideslope transmitter or receiver fails. For example: In this case, to fly the ILS you would intercept the glideslope just ...
13
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3answers
7k views

When flying a circling approach, is it permitted to begin the visual circling segment prior to the final approach fix?

If it were a beautiful sunny VFR day and you were cleared for a circling approach, can you begin the circle prior to the final approach fix/circling DH in order to maneuver visually to land? Here are ...
15
votes
1answer
6k views

What is a SAAAR / RNP AR instrument approach?

I understand that a SAAAR / RNP AR is a "special" approach and that special approval is required to even get the approach plate, but what exactly is it? Aspen is an example of an airport that has one....
3
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2answers
2k views

Is there an online source for Canadian Instrument Approach Procedures?

The FAA offers instrument approach procedures on their website free of charge, and EASA does too. Does Canada have them online for us to use?