A heading is a compass direction, given in degrees (0-359°). It refers to the direction the nose of the aircraft is pointing, which may be different from the direction the aircraft is traveling (called a track). Use this tag for questions relating to the usage of the term heading, but should not be used for general navigation or ATC related questions.

53 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
156 views

### Why do some charts not have the "TRACKs are MAG" notification, while others do?

Why do some charts not have the "TRACKs are MAG" notification, while others do? As seen in the examples I gave below, some charts have "BRGs and TRACKs are MAG" notifications, ...
• 2,195
388 views

### How to Calculate Required True Airspeed to maintain desired ground speed?

Working on programming my own E6B and am stuck trying to calculate the following problem from Sporty's E6B: Given wind info and desired speed/course, what airspeed/heading should I have in order to ...
439 views

### Why do all trend vectors in the G1000 on airplanes indicate the status 6 seconds later? Why 6? Why not 5 or 10?

Why do all trend vectors in the G1000 on airplanes indicate the status 6 seconds later? Why 6? Why not 5 or 10? The fact that the trend vector shows after 6 seconds allows us to turn 3 degrees per ...
• 2,195
3k views

### Is the Garmin G1000's heading indicator based on a Magnetic compass?

How does the heading indicator displayed on the PFD of the G1000 work? A conventional cockpit uses a magnetic compass to correct the heading indicator. However, I don't know if the heading indicator ...
• 131
3k views

### Understanding UNOS and exceptions from it

I'm studying for my EASA PPL(A) exam, and one thing that I came across are the following questions: Q: An aircraft in the northern hemisphere intends to turn on the shortest way from a heading of 270°...
• 387
3k views

### Calculate/Measure Sideslip Angle from Heading Track and Drift Angle

Is there a way to measure the sideslip angle during flight through the relationship of heading, track and drift angle? For example if you turn the aircraft into head or tailwind - does the sideslip ...
• 51
236 views

### Should I set the runway heading to the course box on G1000 before takeoff or should I set the SID course I will intercept after takeoff?

To what degree should I set the course box on the G1000 screen? Runway heading or SID course? Because although the runway heading is 044 degrees in the SID chart I shared below, the SID departure ...
• 2,195
1 vote
809 views

### What are the limits for IFR legal heading indicator and compass?

I am a student pursuing CPL/MEIR at a flight school in Turkey that's equivalent of a part 141 in the US. Our instrument equipment check procedures for IFR flight contains comparing the compass heading ...
5k views

### Why would a pilot need to change their heading when flying through a cold front?

When doing my PPL written review there is a question, simply can't get my head wrapped around the reason why and have searched everywhere. It's definitely a very simple thing, however, I am missing ...
• 313
737 views

### What does the number in degrees indicate on an approach chart?

On the following ILS chart, there is a number 301°. Is the number 301° indicating a track angle, heading or something else?
• 41
805 views

### How do you realign a directional gyro in an area of magnetic unreliability?

The primary means of determining heading in most small aircraft is the directional gyro, as this instrument is unaffected by the magnetic dip errors that cause a magnetic compass to give the wrong ...
• 28.3k
308 views

### Does the radial needle of a HSI automatically deflect to the correct position when tuning the NAV radio to a localizer / ILS?

At least on small aircraft, the HSI is slaved to the NAV1 radio. The NAV1 radial is selected with a small knob of the HSI. Now, when I want to fly an ILS approach I don't need to set a radial myself ...
• 1,394
526 views

### How do airplanes measure cross-wind?

Are aircraft equipped with any instruments that measure actual crosswind velocity during a flight? What is that instrument called and is it used by autopilots to apply wind correction?
• 6,595
1 vote
300 views

I listen to aircraft land and take off weekly. I noticed in taking off they usually only use about 3 to 5 different directions. I don't understand what they mean when for example they said to the ...
107 views

### Could a high absolute difference between heading and course give a hint about weather conditions?

I am developing an application that tries to predict the future track of an airplane. At the moment I don't have access to weather data and I am trying to find a metric that could substitute that. If ...
• 9
1 vote
333 views

### How to visualize compass deviation? [duplicate]

What will the magnetic compass which has an Easterly deviation of 10 read when the true heading is North Will it read 350W or 10E? I understand that the 10E East variation means that the underlying ...
• 155
139 views

### Find the course or heading of an object [closed]

Im working with orientation using GPS + IMU, and before the actual implementation of the program, im working with simulation using a dataset that provides me some GPS data, such as latitude, longitude,...
345 views

### What is the purpose of aircraft localization? [closed]

I want to understand what is the purpose of doing localization while an aircraft is flying? What sensors are used by the instruments that do this localization of an aircraft? Is there more than one ...
• 155
93 views

### How do I calculate the wind angle relative to the aircraft's heading? [duplicate]

If I want to calculate the wind angle relative to the aicraft's heading, I use TAS and not IAS, right? I want to calculate the relative wind angle to the aircraft. I have this information to work with:...
• 399
1k views

### Are aircraft pilots required to fly runway heading for a certain distance?

If an aircraft rotates off the runway relatively quickly (runway mid-point for example), do pilots need to continue on the runway heading for a minimum distance before turning based on departure ...
• 71
1k views

### When resetting the heading indicator to match the magnetic compass, do I need to use the compass deviation card?

At least every 15 minutes we set the Heading Indicator's number to match the number of the magnetic compass. In this situation, should I consider the deviation card below the compass card or not?
• 61
3k views

### How does a flux gate compass system work?

I have heard of gyroscopes and AHRS being used for heading indication, but I haven't heard of a flux gate compass system until recently. What are the principles of its operation and what types of ...
• 8,822
300 views

### Can a commercial pilot decide where to make their turn after departure?

If there aren't published vectors to tell a commercial pilot which heading to take as they climb, can they decide where to make their initial turn on their own or would an ATC always involved in where ...
• 91
1 vote
933 views

### Question about CDI/OBS and HI [duplicate]

Could somebody please explain me the differences between using the OBS and the Heading Indicator? As much as I could understand, once you tune into the VOR, the OBS starts to show how much deflection/ ...
• 21
2k views

### How would you use the mental clock code to solve this dead reckoning problem?

Can someone explain the question below in details? You plan to fly a cross country flight at 2 000 feet at a true airspeed of 120 knots. Your track is 270° (True) and the wind is from 225° (True) at ...
• 311
6k views

### Does ATC use True Course or Ground Track?

Reading the practice questions for PAR, I came accross this ATC advises, "traffic 12 o`clock." This advisory is relative to your A) true course B) ground track C) magnetic heading I was ...
• 309
1 vote
2k views

### What principle does the attitude indicator in the G1000 use?

The heading indicator in the G1000 uses a magnetometor, but how can the attitude indicator work in the G1000? Does it work with a tilt sensor, rate sensor or accelerometer?
• 487
1 vote
4k views

I am currently struggling to understand the following question regarding a VOR station and an aircraft. The aircraft is found in the 30 degree radial from the VOR station at time T(1) and T(2). During ...
8k views

### How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
• 1,445
4k views

### What is an autopilot washout filter?

In the context of aircraft autopilot design, I do not understand what is washout filter is [Heading Hold - Lateral Dynamics] and what is it used for. May anyone explain to me?
1 vote
7k views

### What are Altitude, Attitude and Heading Hold?

Can someone give a good and simple explanation about these three dynamics? Altitude Hold Attitude Hold Heading Hold
5k views

### How do you find the difference in degrees between two headings?

This may be more of a math question, but it is specific to aviation so here goes: Given an origin heading and a destination heading (origin heading is the heading you're already flying at and ...
• 1,172
1k views

### How does the attitude and heading reference (AHRS) work on Boeing 737 aircraft?

I would like to know how the AHRS work on Boeing 737 aircraft. If this aircraft (like every the other ones I guess) has an Inertial Reference System (IRS), composed of 3 accelerometers and 3 ...
• 779
7k views

### How to calculate the heading correction with a circular flight computer?

While flying between 2 points 120 nautical miles apart, after about 40 nautical miles we discover we are 5 nautical miles off to the right of the track. What heading correction is necessary in ...
• 1,158
842 views

### What trajectory do I fly if bearing angle is constant?

Let's suppose I am flying at constant bearing (initial and final heading are equal and constant) relative to the geographical north pole; what kind of trajectory would I be flying?
• 1,054
691 views

### Why isn't the course fixed along an airway?

Why does in some cases magnetic course (not magnetic variation) change between navaids along a same airway? Isn't it supposed that a straight line in an aeronautical chart representing an airway has ...
729 views

### How is heading / windspeed written? [closed]

You have been given wind direction and speed, how would it be expressed? Thanks
• 613
483 views

### How does ATC deal with apparent compass errors when giving vectors?

Pilots should strive to fly precisely, but we sometimes reach task saturation. When ATC gives a heading, receives the correct readback, but observes a 10- to 15-degree difference between the actual ...
• 5,710
23k views

### What is the difference between azimuth and heading?

What is the difference between azimuth and heading? I understand heading, track, radial, course and bearing but I don't know what azimuth is. I rarely hear it used. The Wikipedia definition is a ...
• 28.5k
3k views

### How heading bug is calculated during cross wind and tail wind?

From this question, it is been suggested to ask different question, rather than keep discussing it under comment section. How is the heading bug calculated and used for navigation when there is a ...
• 1,922
10k views

### What is the use of heading bug?

When I started searching for Heading Bug (other bugs like altitude, speed bugs), I didn't get much clear idea about it. Usually this is displayed on Horizontal Situation Indicator display on the ...
• 1,922
14k views

### What is the meaning of “American 755, turn right, heading 320"?

I am studying a text entitled Unmanned Aircraft Systems. How can we simplify the instruction in quotes so that it is more understandable and can be understood by a nontechnical. Please note I am not ...
1k views

### Is the heading used near the pole?

If I understand correctly, heading is usually measure relative to the pole (either magnetic or true). Traveling at a constant heading can't be approximated as travelling straight ahead when near the ...
• 16.5k
3k views

### Why Heading Indicator is not magnetic itself and need magnetic compass?

I read this while I was preparing for my knowledge test: The heading indicator is not direction-seeking. It is important to check its indication frequently and reset it with reference to the ...
• 2,025
5k views

### Do autopilot headings consider the earth's shape?

How do you set correct heading while cruising across latitudes? On a flat map, point A might be to point B at, say, heading 060 (intentionally no cardinal headings taken for example, as they don't ...
986 views

### How quickly should heading changes be accomplished?

While airborne if there needs a change in heading, then what is the rate of change of heading with respect to time? Like, I want to change my heading from x degrees to y degrees, where the difference ...
• 6,869
6k views

### Do aircraft carriers always face into the wind?

When landing at a normal ground airport, the runway facing the compass point nearest to the heading of the wind is always operated, so that aircraft landing and taking off alway have to use the least ...
• 16.6k
3k views

### Where do I land if I fly from KLAX with a constant east heading, crossing the US and the Atlantic ocean?

Los Angeles KLAX and Casablanca GMMN (Morocco) are at the same latitude. If the aircraft follows a magnetic 090° heading, the initial true heading will be 102° due to the declination. (source ...
• 72.9k