Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [flight-instruments]

Flight instruments provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, speed and direction; and are of particular use in conditions of poor visibility, such as in clouds, when such information is not available from visual reference outside the aircraft.

24
votes
1answer
6k views

How does the head-up display on a spitfire work?

It turns out that the Spitfire from World War 2 had a head up display. Does anybody know how it worked exactly? All I could find was this picture, but no explanation: Source The source does not ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

How much computing power is needed to keep commercial and military planes flying?

I've always wondered, what sort of computing power is needed to keep modern commercial and military planes in the air? There are many systems of a modern commercial plane (e.g an Airbus A350), that ...
-4
votes
1answer
692 views

What kind of OS or programming language does the aviation use? [duplicate]

Windows XP because its the most stable system ever ? C++ because its the most verstatile thing ever ? Also I am not limiting this question to avionics but to Garmin GPS/Glass cockpit B737 Flight ...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

What instruments are used to indicate aircraft attitude in acrobatic airplanes?

As aerobatic airplanes don’t use gyroscopic instruments such as attitude indicators, what instruments are used to indicate the aircraft’s attitude in flight?
12
votes
3answers
3k views

What's the difference between orientation and position?

In INS (Inertial navigation system) sensors, is there a distinction between the following? Orientation (heading, pitch and roll) Position (latitude, longitude and altitude) Is the orientation ...
2
votes
2answers
236 views

Why do Western aircraft manufacturers use FPS system while Russian aircraft manufacturers use MKS system for flight instruments?

Why is there a variation in aircraft flight instruments of aircraft from Western & Russian origin? Foot–pound–second system (FPS) Meter-kilogram-second (MKS)
-3
votes
1answer
265 views

Why do ATC displays use flight data sent by the aircraft they are tracking?

Why does ATC use data coming from an aircraft itself instead of using the readings from the airport radar? Also could Aeroperú 603 have been saved if the pilots had ignored the pitot static altitude ...
3
votes
2answers
607 views

What is the difference between a “compass swing” and “check swing” procedure?

What is the difference between a "compass swing" and a "check swing" procedure?
20
votes
3answers
4k views

What was the first flight instrument ever used in an airplane?

It's not magnetic compass, turn coordinator, stopwatch, wind meter, VVI, and airspeed indicator. I want to know what is the first flight instrument.
4
votes
1answer
735 views

What are the differences between ADS + INS and ADIRS / ADIRU?

What is the main difference and advantage in the Air Data System, between the former architecture (ADS + INS) and the newer one (ADIRS/ADIRU)?
3
votes
3answers
1k views

What is Engine Pressure Ratio?

I kind of know what it is but I don't fully understand it. Wikipedia says, the engine pressure ratio (EPR) is the total pressure ratio across a jet engine, measured as the ratio of the total ...
0
votes
1answer
167 views

In the ARINC specification, why is baro altitude (label 204) measured in Knots?

I am currently designing a system that reads the baro altitude (on label 204) from an LRU. Ultimately in my software I would like to display the baro altitude reading in real-time using a graphical ...
1
vote
1answer
524 views

How does an engine driven vacuum pump used in gyroscopic instrument work?

In general aviation light airplanes (C152,C172,PA28..) how does the engine driven vacuum pump work?How is it made? and if the filter of one of the gyro instrument is clogged would the vacuum ...
1
vote
2answers
395 views

Is there any instrument similar to a compass but which I can electrically drive?

I would like to build a home weather station with analog instruments showing for example temperature, wind speed and wind direction. I would like to use a salvaged flight instrument to show the wind ...
0
votes
0answers
192 views

What is the correlation between RNP level and the CDI indication?

I got a question regarding the connection between RNP (required navigational performance) accuracy and cdi sensitivity of the HSI. According to the instrument flying handbook the standard for RNP on ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

What navigational aid(s) would WWII bomber pilots have used while flying in instrument conditions?

In my furthering attempt to understand the accident mentioned in this post, I've become interested in how WWII Bombers would have flown on instruments. In the accident report, the pilots states: ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

Would fuel quantity indications be affected by extended flight at nonzero bank angles?

If flying with a 20kt crosswind requiring yaw input as well as roll input to maintain course, would the fuel indicators show different loads depending on the roll angle of the aircraft (in this case, ...
2
votes
2answers
256 views

Measuring speed and altitude from personal phone midflight [duplicate]

Given that there is no need now for one to swith off their cellphone midflight, inflight wifi is now a norm and common, Is it possible for me to measure the velocity and altitude of an aircraft using ...
1
vote
1answer
203 views

Are GPS airspeed meter and altimeter going to replace traditional measurements?

When are GPS Airspeed meters and Altimeters going to be introduced if they not already in use? Are they more accurate than systems in use now and? How much would it cost to install them to older ...
4
votes
1answer
609 views

Are there benefits in training instrument students how to fly a DME arc?

With more instrument approach procedures being designed for RNAV/GPS equipped aircraft, and considering the high level of radar coverage currently available, is there a need to spend much valuable ...
18
votes
1answer
3k views

What do the yellow lashes/wings on the B737 PFD indicate?

When I was looking at a YouTube clip of a B737 doing a landing, I couldn't help but notice something on the PFD: What do these yellow lashes/wings indicate on the artificial horizon? Image Source (...
6
votes
1answer
550 views

How do instructors simulate instrument failure in basic training aircraft with glass cockpits?

While working towards my private pilot's license in the United States in 2004-2005 (in a steam gauge only airplane), I very much remember my instructor covering one or more instruments to simulate ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

What prevents a Machmeter from being the standard airspeed indicator?

Airspeed is more accurate when displayed by a Machmeter than when displayed by an airspeed indicator. It isn't affected by ambient temperature / density changes. It is still affected by position error,...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

How does an Airbus pilot decide whether to use HDG-V/S or TRK/FPA guidance?

The Flight Control Unit of modern Airbus aircraft has a pushbutton for selection of either heading / vertical speed (HDG-V/S), or track / flight path angle (TRK-FPA) guidance for the Autopilot and ...
12
votes
1answer
365 views

How should this Bendix course deviation indicator from the '50s be read?

This is a Swissair photo from a DC-7C panel. Source I have seen photos on airliners.net of these in DC-6s, VC-118 and Constellations. It appears that other companies besides Bendix made these ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Statute miles to runway visual range [duplicate]

Is there a formula to converting statute miles to runway visual range? If so, what would it be? I'm seeing how 1 mile is equal to 5000 feet, but I am so confused because 1/2 of a mile is equal to 2,...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between a pitot tube and a pitot-static tube?

What is the difference between a Pitot tube and a Pitot-static tube? If an aircraft fitted with Pitot tube and static holes on the fuselage, is it necessary to consider the static pressure ...
27
votes
3answers
3k views

What's the UX in modern airliner avionics for diversion choices, and does it integrate to autopilot?

This question mentions a flight that had to divert, in that case to Iqaluit (YFB). I was wondering: in modern large airliners, what is the user interface like when diverting? How is the case of "what ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

What are the pros and cons of vacuum and pressure gyros?

Inspired by this question, I would like to know what the pro's and con's of the mostly used vacuum-gyro and the less used high-pressure-gyro is. Side-question: Are there any other ways to make the ...
15
votes
2answers
838 views

What is this nose cowl mounted display?

(YouTube) A crop duster's nose mounted display. It looks like a poor man's HUD to keep the display and the outside view at roughly the same focus distance, but what is its function?
6
votes
1answer
389 views

On an inverted aircraft, is the ILS glide slope sensing reversed?

If I'm halfway through a barrel roll on final descent, on an ILS, will I get reverse sensing on my glide slope indicator?
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Why $\frac{\Delta p}{\overline q}$ is depending by weight, flap deflection and other parameters? Which are other parameters?

As you can see in this link (Roskam, Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance, Chapter 2.5.3 Airspeed corrections) ... ... in the first and second line of page 30 Roskam tells that, in hypothesis of ...
2
votes
1answer
511 views

What caused the loss of “everything” on Swiftair Flight QY-2939?

I found this from a youtube video, and more info from this avherald article. One of the pilots declares an emergency because right after takeoff they lost "everything", as in all instruments. ATC ...
4
votes
1answer
554 views

At what altitude do vacuum powered gyros become ineffective?

Obviously, in space a vacuum powered gyro would not work because there is no air to move, but, how high do you have to go before they are unable to spin fast enough to work properly? would a vacuum ...
3
votes
1answer
181 views

What techniques, tools, or instruments are used while performing zero-g parabolic dives? [duplicate]

There are companies that sell "zero g" rides, where the aircraft is configured specifically to take people and possibly experiments through a parabolic dive to experience a short period of micro-...
20
votes
2answers
4k views

How can pilots lacking instruments interpret vectors given by ATC?

This video is about European Air Transport flight 2939, a Boeing 737, which "lost all the instruments of the aircraft" shortly after takeoff. BCS2939: We are flying heading now, and we don't have ...
4
votes
2answers
787 views

How does altimeter reading vary when departing from ISA conditions?

I am a soon-to-be student-pilot and am struggling with a basic concept that is altitude. After watching multitude of online videos, I feel that most of the people do not have good teaching skills. ...
13
votes
5answers
4k views

What will the pilot do if all the airspeed indicators fail?

Are there any alternate instruments to indicate the airspeed in case of pitot tube failures?
7
votes
2answers
660 views

What causes the phenomenon that pilots don't believe their instruments, while they're working well?

I read in a comment on another question that pilots not believing their instruments while they work perfectly well is common in aviation: The flight leader reported that his compasses had failed [.....
10
votes
1answer
547 views

Why vacuum instead of pressure to power gyros?

Why are most air powered gyro instruments powered by vacuum rather than positive pressure?
5
votes
1answer
282 views

How does Pitot Heat influence airspeed indication (assuming no ice or moisture)?

Should Pitot Heat ON (in dry weather conditions) decrease airspeed indication because warmer (so less dense) air flows through the tube?
7
votes
2answers
443 views

How does a Machmeter behave if the static port is blocked during a constant CAS climb?

Question: How will the machmeter behave in a constant CAS climb if the static source becomes blocked? Answer: The machmeter reading will decrease. Why? I couldn't find any logical reason for the ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

What does it mean when pitch numbers move all over the HUD screen?

In this video from an F-16: You can see pitch angle move out of screen or be on the side at the end.
3
votes
1answer
1k views

How is the terrain displayed on the ND in a A320?

When you turn on "TERR ON ND" in a A320, you see terrain info on you navigation display (ND), but where does its source come from ? if data comes from FMGS stored inside its memory, then how come it ...
2
votes
1answer
444 views

Does an RMI show true or magnetic north?

Does the compass card of a Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) point to true north or magnetic north ?
1
vote
1answer
196 views

How do fighter jets measure how high they are?

I know most of the commercial planes use altimeter to find how high they are. I was just curious in finding out what fighter jets use to to find their height and what are the other technologies that ...
24
votes
13answers
10k views

How did planes measure their speed relative to the ground before GPS?

How did planes measure their ground speed before GPS? If they used some sort of anemometer to measure speed, that would only measure the speed of the plane relative to the air through which it is ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

How is a conflict between aircraft with TCAS I and II resolved?

Let's say there are two aircraft in a risk of collision, one of them is equipped with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) I so it will get only a Traffic Advisory (TA), however the second one is ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Are turn and slip indicators calibrated to a certain speed? If so, what speed?

Are turn and slip indicators calibrated to a certain speed? If they are, What speed are they calibrated to, and why aren't all the turn and slip indicators calibrated for the same speed?
5
votes
2answers
544 views

What is the most accurate geometric plane for referencing terrestrial flight attitude?

I have found various definitions for attitude. Merriam Webster: inclination of the three principal axes of an airplane in flight to the relative wind. Wikipedia - Attitude Indicator: the orientation ...