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Flight instruments provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, speed and direction; and are of particular use in conditions of poor visibility, such as in clouds, when such information is not available from visual reference outside the aircraft.

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2answers
789 views

How to navigate an aircraft without GPS? [duplicate]

In case of loss of GPS: how can an aircraft not only be navigated but navigated so precisely that it can pinpoint its destination airport ? (case in point: Finland and Norway are telling airline ...
2
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1answer
161 views

Lindbergh's panel— Ryan NYP— what is this instrument and how was it useful?

Lindbergh's panel-- Ryan NYP-- what is this instrument and how was it used? See this link-- it should allow you to zoom in by mousing around https://www.amazon.com/Instrument-Successfully-Atlantic-...
10
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3answers
666 views

During “partial panel” flying, in what ways is a turn rate indicator more useful than a turn coordinator?

This question deals with flying by reference to old-fashioned "steam gauges", not a modern "glass cockpit". I recall hearing some pilots very experienced (ATP) pilots advocate for the older-style "...
-1
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1answer
143 views

How was a looping possible with an Alaska Airlines plane? [duplicate]

Someone has stolen an empty airplane from Seattle Airport and crashed it down after performing some loopings. I am wondering how this was possible. (Source)
9
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2answers
201 views

What are the fonts used in MCDU screens?

All MCDUs (and other screens) I've seen share a very similar, if not identical, set of fonts - a monospaced, sans-serif, very clean and easily readable font, often in two vertical sizes at the same ...
0
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3answers
97 views

Are there (ideas for) GNSS based attitude indicators?

With upcoming GNSS systems that have better accuracy than GPS, could there be an GNSS based attitude indicator? Does maybe one already exist? I could imagine having 4 sensors (front, aft, left ...
15
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3answers
1k views

Are NDBs and VORs dying as a navigational method?

I am new to aviation, so bear with me on this question: I have read in multiple places that the VOR/NDB navigational aids are dying out to GPS. Is this true? Are more modern aircraft being built with ...
0
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0answers
57 views

What is the difference between an Instrument and Equipment?

In an aircraft, what things is an instrument and what things is an equipment? For example the ILS, is the Antennas located in the runway considered to be an instrument or an equipment? Or is there ...
4
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0answers
243 views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
3
votes
4answers
493 views

Which fonts were used in old (1930s) aircraft cockpit displays and instruments?

This is probably more of a graphic design question than aviation but maybe a few hangar rats around here know the answer. What type fonts were used on the old instruments in aircraft from the 1930s ...
5
votes
1answer
158 views

How does the radio altimeter reading change with the bank angle?

How does the radio altimeter reading change with the bank angle? Following example: Let's say, we're flying at 1000' AGL and a bank angle of 0° above a endless flat surface. The radio altimeter shows ...
1
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2answers
133 views

What causes the inside glass of flight instruments to get hazy?

Sometimes on analog flight instruments (aka steam gauges) there is a haze or fogginess on the INSIDE of the glass that is NOT condensation. You can often find it on older aircraft with older ...
7
votes
1answer
362 views

What is this instrument that has “PACK” written on it and a temperature scale?

All I know right now is that it’s made in 1973. Another instrument I have is from a b727 and is dated 1982. This one I have no clue. Serial number- H 2590. The brand is Amphenol. That’s all the info I ...
3
votes
2answers
167 views

How to maintain your pitch when looking for other traffic in the pattern?

I am a student pilot and I fly in a desert region where turbulence often changes the pitch and airspeed of my aircraft. I am having an issue maintaining pitch while scanning for other aircraft in the ...
21
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4answers
4k views

What is this INOP instrument and when is it safe to fly with INOP instruments?

I flew ZRH->LHR on BA0711 today on G-EUOG. I noticed through the cabin door one of the instruments had a yellow INOP sticker across it (see photo). Which instrument was it? I am presuming the ...
4
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1answer
335 views

Why would a Mode-C transponder report a different altitude than an altimeter/GPS?

This is related to a small single-engined plane. On a recent flight, the controller kept telling me that I was 300 ft higher than it appeared on my altimeter and GPS (which were in sync). This was ...
7
votes
2answers
375 views

What instruments were “standard” in WWI aircraft?

What instruments made up a typical panel of a WWI airplane? Did any country regulate the required cockpit instruments prior to the United States "Air Commerce Act" of 1926?
50
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2answers
8k views

Why are cockpit instruments white on black dials?

Which is easier to read: white on a black dial or black on a white dial? It would seem most aviation instruments are white on black.
6
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5answers
1k views

How is a confusion possible between Western and Russian Attitude Indicators?

Yesterday I watched a documentary on Crossair Flight 498 accident. One of the factors that might have contributed to the accident was the confusion of the pilot on interpreting the attitude indicator; ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

How does the mechanical linkage of the airspeed indicator convert dynamic pressure to KIAS?

I understand the underlying principle of an airspeed indicator, ie. that it uses the Pitot-static system to measure the dynamic pressure as the difference between total pressure and static pressure. ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What other circumstances may cause the autopilot to trip out?

I recently watched Air Crash Investigation, Air France Flight 447. The autopilot handed back control to the flight deck after the pitot tubes temporarily froze. The autopilot knew it was getting ...
3
votes
1answer
181 views

How is the drift corrected in INS-driven attitude/heading indicators?

(wikimedia.org) EFIS instruments during a test flight. How is the drift (accumulated error) nullified in INS-driven attitude/heading indicators? The related post 'How are attitude indicators kept ...
10
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1answer
313 views

When was the pitot-based ASI first used on aircraft?

The pitot was first invented well before aircraft, yet early aircraft lacked an airspeed indicator (ASI). What aircraft first had a pitot-based ASI, and when?
5
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1answer
2k views

Why is Landing Altitude displayed in amber on B777?

When I set the landing altitude manually, an amber LDG ALT and Landing Altitude EICAS message is displayed. There are no failures nor has the landing altitude been set incorrectly. Why do I still ...
3
votes
0answers
138 views

What aircraft manufacturer uses an HSI with DME, VOR, and G/S in one Instrument?

Which aircraft manufacturer uses a horizontal situation indicator (HSI) with DME, Glide Slope, VOR, and ADF in one Instrument?
7
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2answers
952 views

What is that missing instrument on a Beechcraft 1900C?

(Full image) Beechcraft 1900C. I cannot find the name of the missing instrument even in the manuals.
11
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3answers
2k views

How (and when) to use the BFO button on an ADF?

BFO (Beat Frequency Oscillator) is a function of the ADF, I know that it has something to do with different types of NDB, but I do not know which type. And how and when do I use it? I heard that ...
24
votes
1answer
5k views

How does the head-up display on a spitfire work?

It turns out that the Spitfire from World War 2 had a head up display. Does anybody know how it worked exactly? All I could find was this picture, but no explanation: Source The source does not ...
7
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3answers
656 views

How much computing power is needed to keep commercial and military planes flying?

I've always wondered, what sort of computing power is needed to keep modern commercial and military planes in the air? There are many systems of a modern commercial plane (e.g an Airbus A350), that ...
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1answer
473 views

What kind of OS or programming language does the aviation use? [duplicate]

Windows XP because its the most stable system ever ? C++ because its the most verstatile thing ever ? Also I am not limiting this question to avionics but to Garmin GPS/Glass cockpit B737 Flight ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

What instruments are used to indicate aircraft attitude in acrobatic airplanes?

As aerobatic airplanes don’t use gyroscopic instruments such as attitude indicators, what instruments are used to indicate the aircraft’s attitude in flight?
12
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3answers
2k views

What's the difference between orientation and position?

In INS (Inertial navigation system) sensors, is there a distinction between the following? Orientation (heading, pitch and roll) Position (latitude, longitude and altitude) Is the orientation ...
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0answers
112 views

Why do Western aircraft manufacturers use FPS system while Russian aircraft manufacturers use MKS system for flight instruments?

Why is there a variation in aircraft flight instruments of aircraft from Western & Russian origin? Foot–pound–second system (FPS) Meter-kilogram-second (MKS)
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votes
1answer
242 views

Why do ATC displays use flight data sent by the aircraft they are tracking?

Why does ATC use data coming from an aircraft itself instead of using the readings from the airport radar? Also could Aeroperú 603 have been saved if the pilots had ignored the pitot static altitude ...
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1answer
360 views

What is the difference between a “compass swing” and “check swing” procedure?

What is the difference between a "compass swing" and a "check swing" procedure?
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3answers
4k views

What was the first flight instrument ever used in an airplane?

It's not magnetic compass, turn coordinator, stopwatch, wind meter, VVI, and airspeed indicator. I want to know what is the first flight instrument.
4
votes
1answer
519 views

What are the differences between ADS + INS and ADIRS / ADIRU?

What is the main difference and advantage in the Air Data System, between the former architecture (ADS + INS) and the newer one (ADIRS/ADIRU)?
3
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3answers
778 views

What is Engine Pressure Ratio?

I kind of know what it is but I don't fully understand it. Wikipedia says, the engine pressure ratio (EPR) is the total pressure ratio across a jet engine, measured as the ratio of the total ...
0
votes
1answer
132 views

In the ARINC specification, why is baro altitude (label 204) measured in Knots?

I am currently designing a system that reads the baro altitude (on label 204) from an LRU. Ultimately in my software I would like to display the baro altitude reading in real-time using a graphical ...
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1answer
389 views

How does an engine driven vacuum pump used in gyroscopic instrument work?

In general aviation light airplanes (C152,C172,PA28..) how does the engine driven vacuum pump work?How is it made? and if the filter of one of the gyro instrument is clogged would the vacuum ...
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2answers
251 views

Is there any instrument similar to a compass but which I can electrically drive?

I would like to build a home weather station with analog instruments showing for example temperature, wind speed and wind direction. I would like to use a salvaged flight instrument to show the wind ...
0
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0answers
130 views

What is the correlation between RNP level and the CDI indication?

I got a question regarding the connection between RNP (required navigational performance) accuracy and cdi sensitivity of the HSI. According to the instrument flying handbook the standard for RNP on ...
11
votes
2answers
841 views

What navigational aid(s) would WWII bomber pilots have used while flying in instrument conditions?

In my furthering attempt to understand the accident mentioned in this post, I've become interested in how WWII Bombers would have flown on instruments. In the accident report, the pilots states: ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Would fuel quantity indications be affected by extended flight at nonzero bank angles?

If flying with a 20kt crosswind requiring yaw input as well as roll input to maintain course, would the fuel indicators show different loads depending on the roll angle of the aircraft (in this case, ...
2
votes
2answers
167 views

Measuring speed and altitude from personal phone midflight [duplicate]

Given that there is no need now for one to swith off their cellphone midflight, inflight wifi is now a norm and common, Is it possible for me to measure the velocity and altitude of an aircraft using ...
1
vote
1answer
192 views

Are GPS airspeed meter and altimeter going to replace traditional measurements?

When are GPS Airspeed meters and Altimeters going to be introduced if they not already in use? Are they more accurate than systems in use now and? How much would it cost to install them to older ...
4
votes
1answer
461 views

Are there benefits in training instrument students how to fly a DME arc?

With more instrument approach procedures being designed for RNAV/GPS equipped aircraft, and considering the high level of radar coverage currently available, is there a need to spend much valuable ...
17
votes
1answer
2k views

What do the yellow lashes/wings on the B737 PFD indicate?

When I was looking at a YouTube clip of a B737 doing a landing, I couldn't help but notice something on the PFD: What do these yellow lashes/wings indicate on the artificial horizon? Image Source (...
5
votes
1answer
445 views

How do instructors simulate instrument failure in basic training aircraft with glass cockpits?

While working towards my private pilot's license in the United States in 2004-2005 (in a steam gauge only airplane), I very much remember my instructor covering one or more instruments to simulate ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

What prevents a Machmeter from being the standard airspeed indicator?

Airspeed is more accurate when displayed by a Machmeter than when displayed by an airspeed indicator. It isn't affected by ambient temperature / density changes. It is still affected by position error,...