Questions tagged [commercial-operations]

Questions pertaining to the operation of aircraft for commercial purposes.

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1answer
787 views

Where can I find United 757 Checklists? (CRM, Pre Start, Pre Takeoff)

Where can I find United 757 Checklists (CRM, Pre-Start, Pre-Takeoff)? I need these for a writing project that I am doing. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance! Thanks, Charlie :)
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1answer
112 views

Is more cargo loaded if there is less passengers than expected?

When pre-flight weigh in is done, if the plane weighs less than expected because people don't turn up, is more cargo added? Conversely - if the plane is over the estimated weight - does cargo get ...
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1answer
1k views

What do the abbreviations on this Jeppesen Dataplan mean?

Attached is a screenshot from a flightplan created with Jetplan. Can someone help with decoding the format? What do the abbreviations mean in the table header? I understand the following: FLT = ...
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4answers
657 views

Is there a KPI to measure average hours flown?

I am working on a report for a small charter airline and I want to set a key performance indicator (KPI) to measure average hours flown. Is there a practice in aviation field to consider optimum ...
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1answer
271 views

If I ferry an aircraft to the United States (from say the UK) is it a commercial or private flight?

If I am paid to ferry an aircraft from the UK to the US and then leave the aircraft in the US, is it a private or commercial flight? I am not carrying passengers or cargo, but perhaps the aircraft ...
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7k views

How are banners kept upright?

Banners are towed with a single line trailing from the plane. source: © Raimond Spekking / CC BY-SA 4.0 (via Wikimedia Commons) How can they guarantee the banner is vertical and not upside down?
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1answer
9k views

What is the difference between Part 121, Part 135, and Part 91 operators?

What are the important differences between Part 121, Part 135, and Part 91 operators?
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1answer
769 views

What is the business purpose of scheduling two separate flights on the very same route with 5-10 minutes separation?

As in question. I have noticed, for example, that Berlin-Tegel has TXL-CDG route served by both AirBerlin and AirFrance with exactly five minutes separation. First plane takes off at 09:50 and second ...
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1answer
2k views

For flight planning must the forecast weather be above minima one hour before, after or at ETA? (EU-OPS)

Citing EU-OPS: CAT.OP.MPA.185 Planning minima for IFR flights — aeroplanes (a) Planning minima for a take-off alternate aerodrome The operator shall only select an aerodrome as a ...
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2answers
2k views

Which clearances are issued by ATC without the pilot requesting them?

Some clearances are only provided after specifically requesting them, such as the departure, engine-start, taxi or oceanic crossing clearance. Line-up and Take-off clearances are issued once the pilot ...
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3answers
4k views

When is the descent clearance requested from ATC?

Is there a rule / Standard Operating Procedure as to when request the descent clearance during cruise flight? Something like one minute before reaching the Top of Descent point?
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1answer
3k views

Why are only captains allowed to taxi the aircraft?

At most airlines, only the captains are allowed to taxi the aircraft (i.e. Lufthansa). Even if the copilot is pilot flying, the captain will taxi the aircraft to the runway, and later from the runway ...
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905 views

Is GPS considered to be a navigational facility for the purposes of Ops Spec C055?

For 14 CFR 119 certificate holders, Alternate Airport IFR Weather Minimums are prescribed by Operations Specification (Ops Spec) C055, specifically Table 1 of that specification. Below is a generic ...
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2answers
5k views

Does the pilot in command always sit on the left seat?

Are there any rules (i.e. airline-specific) or regulations (laws) that state that the pilot in command (PIC) must sit on the left seat in commercial airliners? This question specifically asks for ...
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1answer
1k views

When may pilots leave the flight deck during flight?

Are there regulations as to when commercial pilots may leave the flight deck during flight, i.e. due to physiological needs? Anytime when it is practical (obviously it would not be practical during ...
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3answers
2k views

From which ATC station is push-back clearance requested?

When parked at the gate that requires a push-back onto the taxiway, from which ATC station is the push-back clearance requested? Is this the ground or apron station, or is that still departure ...
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3answers
2k views

When are ATC frequencies preset in the radios?

I've noticed that sometimes pilots tend to present the next ATC frequency in the standby radio, and when required to switch frequencies, they can just push the frequency transfer switch to switch the ...
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2answers
601 views

Does operation under ETOPS rules require additional procedures in flight during the ETOPS segment?

During Extended-range Twin-engine Operations (ETOPS), are there any special procedures pilots have to follow? I am asking for specific procedures / tasks during the ETOPS segment of a flight, not what ...
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1answer
452 views

Which incidents did not result in accidents because of the actions of the second pilot on board?

In accordance with 14 CFR §25.1523 and §121.385c3, commercial airline aircraft must be operated by at least two pilots. This provision mainly bases on workload and pilot incapacitation considerations (...
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1answer
925 views

Why is the V1-speed callout automated in modern commercial aircraft while VR is not?

In some modern aircraft such as the Airbus A380 or Boeing B787, the callout of the V1 speed is automated through a synthetic voice, based on the V-speeds entered into the flight management system. ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the process to disconnect ground electric power before pushback?

While commercial airliner are parked at the gate, they have electrical power connected to the aircraft (if available at the airport). This needs to be disconnected before pushback - what is the ...
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1answer
378 views

When and how is CPDLC established?

On a typical commercial trans-Atlantic flight, say from Frankfurt (EDDF) to New York Kennedy (KJFK), on a typical airliner (B777, A380, B787, etc.), when are Controller–Pilot Data Link Communications ...
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1answer
544 views

Under what circumstances do planes poop? [duplicate]

I had always assumed that human waste was removed from commercial aircraft while they were on the ground, some inscrutable machine coming by to suck the material out and carry it away. Although that ...
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1answer
3k views

How much leverage do commerial pilots have on cruise speed?

If you fly frequently there are chances you have seen some delays in departure where you end up waiting in the aircraft sometimes for multiple hours. Almost every time that happened I remember the ...
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2answers
2k views

What's the shortest amount of time a commercial airplane will be on the ground in between flights?

What's the shortest amount of time a commercial airplane will be on the ground in between flights? After a commercial flight lands the passengers and luggage have to be unloaded, the airplane needs ...
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5answers
2k views

How has weight been reduced in commercial aircraft design and how will this trend continue?

Reducing weight of aircraft has become a priority as the aviation industry seeks greater fuel efficiency and commits to strict emissions targets. How much weight has been cut from single and twin ...
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377 views

Are aircraft transferable between companies with different Air Operator Certificates?

Can Company A use Company B's aircraft if the two companies are not on the same Air Operator Certificate (AOC)? Company A will provide the crew. This would be a transfer of equipment use with no ...
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1answer
1k views

You are a commercial airline pilot flying between two large US airports. Who do you talk to along the way on the radio and for what purpose? [duplicate]

I am a non-pilot who has been listening to various ATC feeds and trying to understand what is going on. I've been able to find surprisingly little information on the various layers that make up the ...
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3answers
388 views

Was a 7300-mile non-stop flight possible in 1979?

I'm listening to the On Wings of Eagles audiobook by Ken Follett and found some information about a non-stop transatlantic flight between Teheran (IKA) and Dallas (DFW). GCM says that this is 7,300 ...
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3answers
5k views

What is the relation between pressure and airflow speed above an airfoil?

Does decreased pressure on the top surface of an aerofoil cause high velocity airflow or does the high speed airflow result in decreased pressure?
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2answers
4k views

What is the role of the flight dispatcher? How do the dispatcher and the flight crew interact?

The flight dispatcher is known as the ground pilot. Air Canada flight dispatcher (source: On the job: Flight Dispatch) It's not clear to me what is their role related to a given flight, or where are ...
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1answer
747 views

Why might a passenger jet fly at altitudes in a strong headwind when the winds are more favorable at a different altitude?

I was a passenger on an east to west flight recently. During the flight I was playing with Garmin Pilot's new "Flight profile" feature that nicely shows the wind speeds at various altitudes, and I ...
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1answer
195 views

Can I apply for a commercial-utility licence for an auto-gyro?

Can an auto-gyro apply for commercial purposes? Utility in remote areas, Alaska for example. What license is needed (airworthiness, etc.)? How much does it cost approximately? Can I build my own ...
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1answer
3k views

What are the regulations involved in aerial advertising?

I often see small aircraft flying at a low altitude around beaches and the like with banner advertisements trailing behind them on a rope sort of structure. I have a few questions about them: What ...
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4answers
882 views

Is it possible to divert a plane to a distant airport?

Some years ago I have spotted that an Eurolot flight from Amsterdam to Gdansk, diverted close to final approach to a distant airport on the other side of Poland: Is this another example of ...
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0answers
197 views

Possible reason for diverting domestic flight to a distant country [closed]

I have just spotted something weird (at least to me) on Flightradar24. A Lufthansa domestic flight from Munich to Frankfurt flying toward... Warsaw in Poland: My first, and quite obvious conclusion ...
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3answers
2k views

Why do commercial pilots always engage reverse thrust even if it is not necessary?

Most of the time the usage of reverse thrust is not needed. I wonder if it's an authority (e.g. FAA) requirement to land safely. Obviously, in bad weather conditions or when the runway is ...
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7answers
1k views

Why are there full-fledged entertainment systems on aircraft when today everyone has a smart phone?

Today, many large commercial aircraft have full-fledged entertainment systems, sometimes going as far as putting a personal LED screen in every seat. Let's just consider the costs of this for a ...
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2answers
3k views

Why don't large commercial airplanes have electric motors in the wheels? [duplicate]

The cost of jet fuel during taxiing can be a pain. Concorde in particular had very large fuel expenditure for taxiing. So why not put electric motors in at least 2 wheels to drive the plane that way? ...
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4answers
1k views

What was the commercial speed of Concorde?

I work on time-space cartography in a historical perspective and need to establish a commercial speed of Concorde aircraft flights based on timetable data. This issue differs from the issue of the ...
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2answers
398 views

Can a someone with just a PPL log PIC time on a non-transport commercial flight?

I have a job that requires me to travel on a small company plane with a company "commercial"pilot. I only have my PPL. If I am certified in the type of aircraft may the pilot allow me to fly "solely ...
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1answer
791 views

Has there ever been an commercial airplane with rear-facing seats? [duplicate]

Has there ever been a commercial airliner that the seats have been facing rearwards? It sounds like rear-facing seats would be significantly safer. In addition, the procedure for rear-facing bracing (...
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2answers
26k views

Can a commercial pilot fly passengers for hire without an air carrier certificate? [duplicate]

I have my private multi instrument and almost done with my commercial multi. A collegiate school's football team has requested that I fly the coaches (2-4) to their away games and other travel events ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the printouts/paperwork a captain does at the check-in desk?

While flying American out of Chicago yesterday I noticed that when the captain arrived he went to the check-in desk and first read the monitor of a computer there for a minute or two, then he printed ...
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2answers
1k views

How does passenger unloading order prevent plane tipping?

This answer to the question about an emergency landing very early in a trans-continental flight indicated that the fuel in the aft auxiliary tanks could cause the plane to tip on its tail if the ...
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2answers
388 views

Could improper deplaning of a flight with full fuel tanks cause the plane to tip?

Reading this article regarding an Alaska Airlines 737 Flight that had to turn around back to the gate. There was a following statement: At the gate, passengers were unloaded five rows at a time, to ...
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2answers
374 views

How can a plane fly far longer than designed? [duplicate]

The current record for longest commercial flight is 21,602.22km by Boeing 777-200LR. However the designed maximum range for B777-200LR is 15,800 km. So how is this possible?
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What could cause a rear twin-jet's throttle to oscillate on descent?

I rode a smaller twin-tail-engined jetliner for a few short hops last month, and I noticed that their airport approaches are much rougher than the widebody airliners I am used to. I believe that it ...
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3answers
10k views

What aircraft could make non-stop transatlantic flights in 1958?

According to Wikipedia: TWA flew to Europe nonstop from O'Hare starting in 1958 The Great Circle Route distance from ORD/KORD to LHR/EGLL is 3953 miles. Other major European airports would have ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between point-to-point and low-cost airlines?

In describing major airlines, are "point-to-point" and "low-cost" synonymous? Or is this an over-generalization?