Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions pertaining to the operation of aircraft for commercial purposes.

0
votes
0answers
42 views

What are the disadvantages of airplane variants compared to the baseline airplane? [on hold]

It is known that an aircraft family is made of stretched and shortened variants of a baseline airplane. This baseline aircraft is the economically optimal version of the design, while the other ...
6
votes
1answer
211 views

Can an amateur-built aircraft ever be used for commercial activities?

There are some non-recreational activities, such as aerial photography, wildlife observation, environmental monitoring, etc., that seem well-suited to certain amateur-built aircraft. The open-cockpit ...
2
votes
1answer
186 views

Do special procedures exist for commercial pilots flying over Russia?

Since Russia, and in particular the Asian part of it, is huge, I was wondering if there are special procedures for commercial pilots to follow over Russia (in particular and specifically Siberia and ...
7
votes
2answers
561 views

Did these pilots break any regulations by hand-flying an A320 for most of the cruise?

A couple of days ago, I flew with a popular budget airline within Europe. The aircraft was an A320. It was also a brand new one (only in service since June 2018 and produces 15% less noise and fuel ...
0
votes
1answer
269 views

How much hand-flying does a commercial pilot do? [duplicate]

What is the ratio of hand-flying to autopilot for a typical commercial pilot working for a large airline (British Airways, Virgin, EasyJet etc.) and how many hours a year might a typical captain rack ...
0
votes
0answers
102 views

Does the responsibility for the plane shift from the PIC, if they leave the plane?

Is the PIC still responsible for everything when they leave the plane and a co-pilot is staying on board? Are there differences between operational reasons for leaving the plane (doing the walk-around)...
4
votes
2answers
235 views

Why are emergency-instructions by cabin crew like “heads down!” not given via PA?

I just saw a YouTube video of a landing airliner with the gear not fully extended and the cabin crew gave the instructions "Stay down! Heads down!" repeatedly to passengers but without any technical ...
-4
votes
4answers
226 views

Could ejector seats save lives in commercial aircraft? [duplicate]

If cost were no issue (it could be done cheaply), would installing ejection seats for passengers possibly save lives? There are certain scenarios (albeit extremely rare ones), where the crew may know ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

What is the cargo capacity of a Boeing 737-200/-300? [duplicate]

I would like to know the maximum commercial load of a cargo aircraft B737-200 & 300.
1
vote
0answers
41 views

What’s the steepest possible descent for big commercial jets? [duplicate]

What’s the highest descent rate, an A320/737/A380/younameit can achieve in safe controlled flight and how do they achieve it? E.g. can those jets do side slips to have a steep approach angle (maybe ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

What is the shortest regularly scheduled commercial flight?

Interesting to know is this flight profitable or not. Why this route exist? Maybe train or car will be cheaper?
7
votes
1answer
395 views

Most time-consuming tasks while a plane is on the ground

How long should commercial planes stay on the ground after landing before they can take off again? What is the most time-consuming thing/task/operation that happens during this time? Is downloading ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

During the holding procedure is it required that the pax must have the seat belt on?

Imagine to have to hold at a busy airport before landing for a quite long time (let's say 20 plus minutes), does it requires that the pax must have the seat belt on during the whole holding procedure? ...
0
votes
0answers
105 views

Where can I find information about the safety record of Westwind Air Service in Arizona?

I've been trying to find out how safe Westwind Air Service is. I know that there was a crash in Canada, but I think it's a different Westwind. I know that it's a flight school but how well maintained ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

During single-engine taxi, how is the asymetric power compensated for?

For various reasons (e.g. noise, fuel savings), some airlines allow single engine taxiing. Obviously, this produces an asymetric thrust during the taxi. If the left engine is used, the aircraft always ...
11
votes
1answer
407 views

Why did flight NH175 divert back to Los Angeles?

In the news recently is All Nippon Airways flight NH175, which returned to LAX after four hours towards NRT when it was discovered that a passenger aboard did not have the correct ticket, although his ...
0
votes
0answers
74 views

Can an N registered aircraft operate scheduled service from USA to/from a Category 2 country?

Am looking at economics of a scheduled service between Honolulu and Tarawa but need an N registered aircraft to do it.
0
votes
1answer
1k views

What are the drug testing procedures for EU airlines?

How do EU airlines test aircrew for drug use, specifically marijuana? Do they use hair tests, and how far back in time can they detect marijuana use?
4
votes
2answers
993 views

What is the requirement to become a flight attendant?

We know that flight attendants, on top of serving passengers (which is what they do 99% of the time), are there to ensure the safety of passengers on board. For example, they are trained to operate ...
1
vote
1answer
185 views

Where can I find United 757 Checklists? (CRM, Pre Start, Pre Takeoff)

Where can I find United 757 Checklists (CRM, Pre-Start, Pre-Takeoff)? I need these for a writing project that I am doing. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance! Thanks, Charlie :)
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Is more cargo loaded if there is less passengers than expected?

When pre-flight weigh in is done, if the plane weighs less than expected because people don't turn up, is more cargo added? Conversely - if the plane is over the estimated weight - does cargo get ...
1
vote
1answer
454 views

What do the abbreviations on this Jeppesen Dataplan mean?

Attached is a screenshot from a flightplan created with Jetplan. Can someone help with decoding the format? What do the abbreviations mean in the table header? I understand the following: FLT = ...
1
vote
4answers
416 views

Is there a KPI to measure average hours flown?

I am working on a report for a small charter airline and I want to set a key performance indicator (KPI) to measure average hours flown. Is there a practice in aviation field to consider optimum ...
2
votes
1answer
184 views

If I ferry an aircraft to the United States (from say the UK) is it a commercial or private flight?

If I am paid to ferry an aircraft from the UK to the US and then leave the aircraft in the US, is it a private or commercial flight? I am not carrying passengers or cargo, but perhaps the aircraft ...
49
votes
2answers
7k views

How are banners kept upright?

Banners are towed with a single line trailing from the plane. source: © Raimond Spekking / CC BY-SA 4.0 (via Wikimedia Commons) How can they guarantee the banner is vertical and not upside down?
3
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the difference between Part 121, Part 135, and Part 91 operators?

What are the important differences between Part 121, Part 135, and Part 91 operators?
4
votes
1answer
505 views

What is the business purpose of scheduling two separate flights on the very same route with 5-10 minutes separation?

As in question. I have noticed, for example, that Berlin-Tegel has TXL-CDG route served by both AirBerlin and AirFrance with exactly five minutes separation. First plane takes off at 09:50 and second ...
5
votes
1answer
739 views

For flight planning must the forecast weather be above minima one hour before, after or at ETA? (EU-OPS)

Citing EU-OPS: CAT.OP.MPA.185 Planning minima for IFR flights — aeroplanes (a) Planning minima for a take-off alternate aerodrome The operator shall only select an aerodrome as a ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Which clearances are issued by ATC without the pilot requesting them?

Some clearances are only provided after specifically requesting them, such as the departure, engine-start, taxi or oceanic crossing clearance. Line-up and Take-off clearances are issued once the pilot ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

When is the descent clearance requested from ATC?

Is there a rule / Standard Operating Procedure as to when request the descent clearance during cruise flight? Something like one minute before reaching the Top of Descent point?
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are only captains allowed to taxi the aircraft?

At most airlines, only the captains are allowed to taxi the aircraft (i.e. Lufthansa). Even if the copilot is pilot flying, the captain will taxi the aircraft to the runway, and later from the runway ...
1
vote
1answer
416 views

Is GPS considered to be a navigational facility for the purposes of Ops Spec C055?

For 14 CFR 119 certificate holders, Alternate Airport IFR Weather Minimums are prescribed by Operations Specification (Ops Spec) C055, specifically Table 1 of that specification. Below is a generic ...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Does the pilot in command always sit on the left seat?

Are there any rules (i.e. airline-specific) or regulations (laws) that state that the pilot in command (PIC) must sit on the left seat in commercial airliners? This question specifically asks for ...
5
votes
1answer
776 views

When may pilots leave the flight deck during flight?

Are there regulations as to when commercial pilots may leave the flight deck during flight, i.e. due to physiological needs? Anytime when it is practical (obviously it would not be practical during ...
5
votes
3answers
814 views

From which ATC station is push-back clearance requested?

When parked at the gate that requires a push-back onto the taxiway, from which ATC station is the push-back clearance requested? Is this the ground or apron station, or is that still departure ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

When are ATC frequencies preset in the radios?

I've noticed that sometimes pilots tend to present the next ATC frequency in the standby radio, and when required to switch frequencies, they can just push the frequency transfer switch to switch the ...
9
votes
2answers
329 views

Does operation under ETOPS rules require additional procedures in flight during the ETOPS segment?

During Extended-range Twin-engine Operations (ETOPS), are there any special procedures pilots have to follow? I am asking for specific procedures / tasks during the ETOPS segment of a flight, not what ...
6
votes
1answer
298 views

Which incidents did not result in accidents because of the actions of the second pilot on board?

In accordance with 14 CFR §25.1523 and §121.385c3, commercial airline aircraft must be operated by at least two pilots. This provision mainly bases on workload and pilot incapacitation considerations (...
6
votes
2answers
265 views

When may passengers board the aircraft and who makes the decision?

Who decides when the passengers may board the aircraft? Is this a pilot or cabin crew decision, and what are the prerequisites / conditions (cabin checks completed, flight plan filed, ...?) for this ...
7
votes
1answer
503 views

Why is the V1-speed callout automated in modern commercial aircraft while VR is not?

In some modern aircraft such as the Airbus A380 or Boeing B787, the callout of the V1 speed is automated through a synthetic voice, based on the V-speeds entered into the flight management system. ...
5
votes
1answer
787 views

What is the process to disconnect ground electric power before pushback?

While commercial airliner are parked at the gate, they have electrical power connected to the aircraft (if available at the airport). This needs to be disconnected before pushback - what is the ...
5
votes
1answer
217 views

When and how is CPDLC established?

On a typical commercial trans-Atlantic flight, say from Frankfurt (EDDF) to New York Kennedy (KJFK), on a typical airliner (B777, A380, B787, etc.), when are Controller–Pilot Data Link Communications ...
-5
votes
1answer
348 views

Under what circumstances do planes poop? [duplicate]

I had always assumed that human waste was removed from commercial aircraft while they were on the ground, some inscrutable machine coming by to suck the material out and carry it away. Although that ...
23
votes
1answer
3k views

How much leverage do commerial pilots have on cruise speed?

If you fly frequently there are chances you have seen some delays in departure where you end up waiting in the aircraft sometimes for multiple hours. Almost every time that happened I remember the ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

What's the shortest amount of time a commercial airplane will be on the ground in between flights?

What's the shortest amount of time a commercial airplane will be on the ground in between flights? After a commercial flight lands the passengers and luggage have to be unloaded, the airplane needs ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

How has weight been reduced in commercial aircraft design and how will this trend continue?

Reducing weight of aircraft has become a priority as the aviation industry seeks greater fuel efficiency and commits to strict emissions targets. How much weight has been cut from single and twin ...
0
votes
2answers
234 views

Are aircraft transferable between companies with different Air Operator Certificates?

Can Company A use Company B's aircraft if the two companies are not on the same Air Operator Certificate (AOC)? Company A will provide the crew. This would be a transfer of equipment use with no ...
5
votes
1answer
906 views

You are a commercial airline pilot flying between two large US airports. Who do you talk to along the way on the radio and for what purpose? [duplicate]

I am a non-pilot who has been listening to various ATC feeds and trying to understand what is going on. I've been able to find surprisingly little information on the various layers that make up the ...
5
votes
3answers
303 views

Was a 7300-mile non-stop flight possible in 1979?

I'm listening to the On Wings of Eagles audiobook by Ken Follett and found some information about a non-stop transatlantic flight between Teheran (IKA) and Dallas (DFW). GCM says that this is 7,300 ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the relation between pressure and airflow speed above an airfoil?

Does decreased pressure on the top surface of an aerofoil cause high velocity airflow or does the high speed airflow result in decreased pressure?