Questions tagged [aerodynamics]

Aerodynamics is the study of how air moves and interacts with solid objects. It is an essential part of aircraft design.

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How to calculate angular velocity and radius of a turn?

How can I calculate with known tangents of different angles and by rules of thumb? Which formulae should I use for fps and NM?
user1876's user avatar
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15 votes
3 answers
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Does an aircraft's nose landing gear extend on take off?

Something I noticed while flying - while on takeoff it feels as if the plane is tilting upwards even though the plane is clearly still on the ground with all sets of landing gear. Does the nose gear ...
codedude's user avatar
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0 answers
120 views

How can an airplane fly upside down? [duplicate]

I thought the shape of the wing gave an airplane upward lift. How can it fly if it's upside down?
zundi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Do the effects of turbulence change when banking/turning compared to level flight?

Are the effects created by turbulence on the aircraft different when the aircraft is banking or in level flight? By logic I'd say yes but I would like some technical and practical explanation. When ...
Fabrizio Mazzoni's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
494 views

Why is the altimeter unwinding unevenely during a spin?

Spencer Suderman recently did a world record 81-turn inverted flat spin, and dropped over 21 thousand feet while doing so. The entire thing is documented on youtube. The spin starts at 3 minutes into ...
falstro's user avatar
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How does aileron reversal work?

I want to know how aileron reversal takes place when control reversal velocity is higher than divergence speed and operating speed is in between them (for conventional wing)
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1 answer
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Why do hydraulic jack stalls result in pitch up and right roll?

Quoting from page 162 of the book "Fatal traps for helicopter pilots" by Greg Whyte: Hydraulic jack stall (servo transparency) in (AS-350) helicopter is an aerodynamic phenomenon can occur ...
Yadi's user avatar
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17 votes
5 answers
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Can the pitch be very different from the angle of attack?

How much the pitch (horizontal orientation) can differ from the angle of attack? I am trying to understand the claim that "angle of attack indicator was unfortunately not available", contributing to ...
h22's user avatar
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24 votes
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How does a flying wing keep from going into a flat spin when maneuvering?

How do flying wings, like the B-2 Stealth bomber, actually keep themselves from yawing out of control without a vertical stabilizer? For the record, I assume this has to be a simple mechanics process....
Jae Carr's user avatar
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19 votes
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What does the zig-zag pattern on Hawker Hunter's leading edge represent?

On some Hawker Hunters, there is a zig-zag on the leading edge of the wing, as shown below. Why do only some Hawker Hunters have this feature, and what is it for?
flyingfisch's user avatar
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What is the difference between flaps and slats?

I have heard pilots talk about flaps and slats, seemingly interchangeably. Is there a difference between a flap and a slat or they are the same thing?
flyingfisch's user avatar
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Why do some military aircraft use variable-sweep wings?

There are a couple of American military aircraft (the retired F-14 and the B-1 come to mind immediately), that have variable swept wings. I know that they keep the wings full out (roughly ...
Jae Carr's user avatar
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How significant is antenna drag on light GA aircraft?

Antennas sticking out of an aircraft obviously increase profile drag, but the folks who design antennas have done a lot to improve aerodynamics: High performance aircraft can have antennas mounted ...
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22 votes
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Should full flaps be deployed on takeoff?

Are full flaps ever used on takeoff? One flying book I read strongly discouraged anything more than quarter flaps on most planes due to the amount of drag produced. I was just wondering if there are ...
flyingfisch's user avatar
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74 votes
10 answers
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What happens when an airplane stalls and why do pilots practice it?

When a non-pilot hears the word stall, it brings to mind what happens when a car stalls - the engine quits. It seems like that would be a dangerous scenario in an airplane. From a non-pilot ...
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Why do commercial flights turn / bank so sharply?

When I take commercial flights, or you see turns in the vapour trails, they turn very sharply. What's the reason for this - wouldn't it be more efficient to turn gradually?
mirams's user avatar
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4 answers
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How do conventional and T-tails differ?

What design considerations go into the decision between conventional tails and T-tails? Functionally the horizontal stabilizer/stabilator are the same in both cases, providing negative lift, the ...
casey's user avatar
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What is the benefit of spoilerons compared to ailerons?

Some airplanes like the B-52 or the MU-2 use spoilerons instead of ailerons to control roll. What is the benefit of ailerons vs spoilerons and vice versa?
Lucas Kauffman's user avatar
24 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why is the wrong explanation of "air travels a longer distance and creates a lift" so popular?

When I was learning for my license, one of the first diagrams I remember was about the wing profile. The air going around the wing and on the upper side it has to travel a longer way, thus generating ...
Krumelur's user avatar
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27 votes
5 answers
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If the profile of a wing pulls a plane up, why can planes fly inverted?

I'm simplifying here, but every introduction to flying shows us that the profile of a wing leads to lower pressure on the upper side of the wing, hence the wing and the plane attached to it will be ...
Krumelur's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
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Is it possible to fly a large aircraft inverted?

I am curious if the inverted plane in the movie Flight 2012 has anything to do with reality / emergency practices. And if it does, can you please explain the concept/ aerodynamics behind of it , or ...
blended's user avatar
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1 answer
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When Boeing designed the 737NG, what factors influenced the change in the flap system?

The early Boeing 737 models had wings with triple-slotted flaps that appeared to be derived from the 727. When the 737 was redesigned as the Next Generation series (dash 600 through 900), these flaps ...
egid's user avatar
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16 votes
2 answers
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What happens in a stall during a slip?

In flight training we're warned against skidding turns since they have a higher potential for a stall/spin (the classic example being the stall/spin on the base to final turn). However, how does the ...
maimou's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Where are the first structural damages after maximum speed is passed? [closed]

What 2 parts of the airframe are the first to have structural failure after exceeding maximum speed? Sorry. I just thought there might be a part that usually failed first.
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35 votes
3 answers
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What are the effects of the Boeing 787's very flexible wings?

I recently came across this picture of the Boeing 787 series aircraft's incredible wingflex: I suppose this is a consequence of using very light CFRP wings, but how does the wingflex itself improve ...
shortstheory's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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Is flutter speed always smaller than divergence speed for aircraft?

In aeroelasticity, there are three main phenomena that one should take care of: divergence, aileron reversal and flutter. Each of them has an associated speed at which the phenomenon might start to ...
Ludovic C.'s user avatar
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26 votes
5 answers
9k views

Would connecting propeller blades with a continuous ring reduce induced drag?

Turbine engines are covered, which of course is to contain the process (just like a super/turbocharged engine is as soon as the air enters the intake). But it got me thinking, doesn't this also reduce ...
falstro's user avatar
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40 votes
9 answers
91k views

What are the pros and cons of high-wing compared to low-wing design?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a high-wing vs. low-wing aircraft design? When might one prefer one to the other? Is the answer the same for large and small aircraft?
maimou's user avatar
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42 votes
8 answers
31k views

Why would a glider have water ballast? If it is trying to stay aloft without an engine, wouldn't it be better to be as light as possible?

So I was looking at the description of a ASW 27 B glider and ran across this statement: Two water tanks in the wing plus a further 35 liter tank in the fuselage enable the ASW 27 B to carry more ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
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What are the differences in aircraft performance between tractor and pusher propeller designs?

Some aircraft have pusher type propellers. In what ways is it different from a tractor type propeller? What's are the advantages and disadvantages over a tractor type.
Katz's user avatar
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22 votes
4 answers
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Why would an airplane pilot choose to intentionally use more runway than required for a takeoff?

An assumed temperature takeoff intentionally requires a pilot to use more runway than would be normally required. Why would someone want to do that instead of getting off the runway in the minimum ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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30 votes
4 answers
5k views

How do I explain what makes an airplane fly to a non-technical person?

As an engineer I can explain in very technical terms exactly what makes an airplane fly, however, it isn't easily understood by non-technical people. How can I explain it to a non-technical person, ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
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27 votes
5 answers
11k views

How does an aircraft tailplane work?

How does an aircraft tailplane keep the aircraft stable, and prevent it from tipping over? Also, how does the lift generated by a tailplane compare to that generated by the wing?
Pranav's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
2k views

Is a slip an intentional consequence of a cross-control?

In flight training, you're always told not to cross-control, (for example, rolling right aileron, and stepping on the left rudder), but it seems to me that is exactly what a slip is doing. Is it that ...
Canuk's user avatar
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10 votes
3 answers
31k views

How can I calculate maximum rate of climb?

By what way and with which variables could you determine a plane's maximum rate of climb per time? If I'm not mistaken, I'm looking for VY.
user2247969's user avatar
14 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why do only some aircraft require tail anti-icing?

Why do some aircraft require anti-icing on the tail while others (Dassault Falcon Jets, Boeing 737, 747, etc.) don't?
Falconpilot's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why should isobars be aligned with the leading edge of the main wing for a transonic cruiser?

When designing an airplane meant to cruise at transonic speeds (or supersonic speeds), I heard that one should look at the isobars on the main wing in order to assess if the shape, sweep angle and ...
Ludovic C.'s user avatar
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18 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why the different wing and tail designs in similar sized jets vs turbo prop?

I was flying on Porter Airlines and they had an info card about how similar the Bombardier (I still say DeHavilland) Dash 8 Q400s are to the Bombardier CSeries they have ordered. There was a cool ...
geoffc's user avatar
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27 votes
3 answers
26k views

What's P-Factor and why does it occur?

Whenever I hear anyone talking about P-Factor, (whether it be single-engine left turning tendencies or multi-engine loss of directional control scenarios), someone always brings up the fact that the ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
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30 votes
10 answers
10k views

What is ground effect?

We've all heard the "acts like a cushion of air" explanation tossed casually around by CFIs. There's also plenty of books and reference materials that give a detailed, accurate, and complete ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
22k views

What's the difference between a two-blade prop and three-blade?

I read that a three blade can improve climb performance and decrease noise. How does that work?
Garrison Neely's user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
10k views

What causes aileron and elevator flutter?

This video shows a Hawker jet with the wing fluttering up and down like it's about to break. What can cause flutter like that? Can it actually cause a wing or stabilizer failure? How can flutter be ...
xpda's user avatar
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13 votes
2 answers
20k views

What are the operational differences between an airplane equipped with a constant speed propeller and one with a fixed pitch propeller?

What makes a constant speed prop different from a fixed pitch prop, and what are the operational differences between airplanes with the two?
Lnafziger's user avatar
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39 votes
4 answers
4k views

Is a rotary wing craft capable of supersonic flight?

Just what the title states. Since the Wright brothers, aviation technology for fixed-wing craft has advanced by an order or more. Rotary wing craft on the other hand (I know little about aviation; ...
Everyone's user avatar
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31 votes
2 answers
10k views

What is the cause of unusually strong wake turbulence from the 757?

The Boeing 757 (at least in the US) is in a special class of its own with respect to air traffic control wake turbulence advisories and separation. This is apparently due to it producing stronger wake ...
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