Questions tagged [aerodynamics]

Aerodynamics is the study of how air moves and interacts with solid objects. It is an essential part of aircraft design.

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5
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3answers
253 views

How to calculate lift and drag coeffecients for VTOL aircraft in the takeoff stage?

How would I calculate CL and CD for a VTOL aircraft while it is in it's takeoff/landing stage? The particular aircraft is a fixed wing/quadcopter hybrid so I know that I can treat this as a thin ...
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2answers
338 views

How does an aircraft's weight affect the V-n diagram?

I have a reasonable understanding of what a V-n diagram shows and what the envelope and the boundaries mean. However, the question I have is how does the weight of the aircraft specifically affect the ...
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0answers
126 views

How do active blades work on helicopters?

Can someone throw some light on 'active blades' as used in helicopters? I'm mostly interested in the use of piezoelectric material and actuators. How are the actuators able to sense the change of ...
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Has there been any research on plasma-producing planes?

Many years ago I read in an expository scientific journal[1] an article about what the future of high speed aviation could be. It said that there were studies on airplanes capable of "plasma-izing" ...
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0answers
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Do contra-rotating props have worse tip vortices than single props?

As I understand it, blades from a propeller have their own tip vortices, because the blades produce lift via the same aerodynamic principles as wings. So they must have tip vortexes too. So with ...
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1answer
165 views

How is the flow of air through a NACA submerged inlet determined?

This question pertains to the design and/or selection of NACA submerged inlets. I am trying to understand what kind of airflow would enter a NACA submerged inlet/scoop and am looking for a good ...
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0answers
414 views

How to properly implement and understand Theodorsen's function?

I'm attempting to implement Theodorsen's lift deficiency function for an airfoil experiencing a harmonic variation in angle of attack due to an oscillating freestream (i.e., not pitch oscillations). ...
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1answer
435 views

What is the constant in this formula for additional lift?

Let’s consider the case of a plane flying s/l in a headwind with a positive gradient. A wing produces lift by inducing a bound vortex superimposed on the relative wind., and in the particular case of ...
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1answer
81 views

What are the standard stability derivative formulas and typical GA values?

What are the standard stability derivative formulas and typical GA values? I suppose values for the C172 would be the best benchmark.
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1answer
101 views

How do I calculate the total cruise power from the propelers accounting for the losses?

Let's say I have an aircraft with four propellers (see diagram below) and I am supposed to calculate the cruise power required to drive the aircraft forward. The wing creates the lift and propellers ...
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0answers
46 views

Could a moving film of gas reduce aerodynamic drag?

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coanda_effect_6.jpg In the image linked there is depicted a system which creates, using the Coandă effect, a film of gas traveling along the surface of a body. If ...
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3answers
459 views

Aerodynamics moment of a wing

An old flight book that I am reading discusses the aerodynamic moment about a wing and talks about an upper and lower lifts. I can see how the pressure distribution on the top surface produces an ...
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0answers
209 views

Are there any airplane designs that are (relatively) insensitive to the effects of airframe icing?

Snow and ice buildup on airplanes (especially the wings) is a well-known and feared hazard of cold-weather operations; it roughens the surface of the wings and changes their profile, which combine to ...
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0answers
228 views

What are stick position stability and stick force stability?

What are stick position stability and stick force stability? What are the difference between them? How will changing trim of an aircraft affect them?
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215 views

How to demonstrate that an elliptical circulation distribution can be induced by an elliptical chord distribution?

I intend to demonstrate that a wing with an elliptical chord distribution, without torsion ($\alpha(z)=\alpha=const$) and constant section ($\beta(z)=\beta=const$, and $a_{2D}(z)=a_{2D}=const$), can ...
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234 views

What Inertial effects should be considered to achieve blade stability on a Variable Pitch Propeller tailoredby aerodynamic loads?

I am developing a self adjusting variable pitch propeller tailored by its pitching moments due to aerodynamic loads setting the blade rotation axis in an offset from the aerodynamic center as shown ...
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0answers
184 views

Determination of a Joukowski airfoil chord (demonstration)

I'm currently studying Aerodynamics, and one thing that I noticed is that the maximum and minimum $x$ coordinate of the airfoils (which are necessary to compute the chord) on the transformed plane (...
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270 views

Where can I find information on dethermalizer aerodynamics?

A dethermalizer is a device that alters the aerodynamics of an airplane, glider etc, allowing it to descend quickly. Are there any sources - including equations and derivations - on dethermalizers, ...
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0answers
921 views

How does corrugated skin influence the effectiveness of ailerons?

Recently I found a paper about incorporating corrugated skins in aircraft called 'Corrugated composite structures for aircraft morphing skin applications' by C. Thill, J.A. Etches, I.P. Bond, K.D. ...
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447 views

What orders of Ram Rise Coefficient (Recovery Factor) are commonly encountered?

The answer to the question about OAT, RAT, TAT, and SAT has the following: Problem is, not all instruments will compress that air in the same way, and not all of them will pick up this Ram Rise ...
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129 views

If props throw air outwards, why do some prop diagrams show a reduction in airstream diameter behind the prop disc?

If props throw air outwards, why do some prop diagrams show a reduction in airstream diameter behind the prop disc, or are these velocity vectors? Diagram showing airflow outwards as shown on nap.edu ...
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84 views

Are there any lift or lift coefficient equations which factor in the flap deflection angle?

I'm asking this because I tested a NACA 2412 wing with an adjustable flap in a subsonic wind tunnel and I'm getting the lowest Cl values for the highest flap deflection angle.. which to my knowledge ...
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1answer
84 views

Individually controlled feather like winglets work?

I want to know how the individually controlled feather like winglets work on controlling and rolling by reducing drag.(concept of airbus bird's of prey) I just need a detailed review of the ...
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141 views

What is effective airflow?

As I understood, when the relative airflow meets the wing it changes, and the resulting flow is called effective airflow?
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174 views

If an fighter jet that it have twin rudders, in use the angle of deployment it is not identical. Which is more deflected and why?

If an aircraft have two vertical tails then pilot push in the rudder pedal the rudders will not be deployed at the same angle.It is used throughout the all envelope of flight or is it possible only ...
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23 views

How to calculate the moment/torque at the center axis of a blade?

How do I calculate the moment/torque at the center axis (same plane with lift and drag force) of a blade with NACA airfoil standard when it is placed inside a wind tunnel or exposed to airflow?
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71 views

Why the lift and drag coefficients for the simulations differ from the experimental value?

I am doing CFD simulations for NACA Airfoil 2415 using K-Omega SST model on ANSYS fluent. I am using an tetrahedral unstructured mesh with 20 Inflation layers on the wall. I have been comparing my ...
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61 views

How to choose an angle of incidence?

How to choose an angle of incidence? Looking at typical airfoil polars, it seems most classic NACA GA wing airfoils like the NACA2415, have similar properties: A max Cl/Cd at about 5-7deg Lowest ...
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1answer
191 views

Would a triplane be way more efficient if the wings intersected at the tips to create one wing tip vortex instead of 3?

Would a triplane be way more efficient if the wing tips were joined at the tips to create one wing tip vortex instead of 3, at RE 200-600k? At that low of a speed, I assume interference and form drag ...
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40 views

Do open propellers experience pre-entry drag (additive drag) like an engine in nacelle?

Engines in a nacelle experience pre-entry (also called additive) drag. Do unducted propellers experience it too?
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81 views

Is there a relationship between 2D airfoil aerodynamic results and a revolution body from that airfoil?

The airfoil would be symmetric and the axis of revolution would be its chord line. Edit1: To clarify the question, suppose we have a NACA 0010. Then, using for example XFoil, I'm able to get, for ...
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73 views

Compute Thrust from RPM and Induced Velocity

I'm attempting to calculate the difference in thrust in a secondary propeller operating in the wake behind a primary propeller, in the context of a trailing quad-copter following a leading quad-copter ...
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116 views

What are the effective span and lifting properties of a circular wing?

Today I read an article on FlightGlobal about the Bell air taxi demonstrator. It includes some paraphrased quotes from the Bell VP of innovation, Scott Drennan, among which the following stood out: ...
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272 views

What is the relationship between the Center of Pressure and flap deployment?

I have been reading regarding the Center of Pressure of an airfoil (Cp) and the relationship with angle of attack. What is a good way to explain in layman's terms why the pressure changes in such a ...
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75 views

What is subcritical and supercritical boundary layer?

What is subcritical and supercritical boundary layer? What is the difference between them?
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147 views

How to calculate the shear centre of a wing?

How is shear centre of a wings calculated? i.e. how can I calculate the wing shear centre of a two spar wing with main spar at 0% of wing chord and rear spar at 75% of wing chord? (Assuming the two ...
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209 views

How to transform a NACA airfoil into a near-circle using the inverse Karman-Trefftz?

Is there anyway to find the leading-edge's center of curvature of a NACA Airfoil? I'm trying to transform a NACA airfoil into a near-circle using the inverse Karman-Trefftz transformation. the ...
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0answers
88 views

How much lift can be generated by the intake lip of a duct?

How to calculate the extra lift gained by the intake lip of a duct? Aside from improving efficiency by preventing tip vortices, if a duct has a bell-shaped intake, this lip around the edge creates ...
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84 views

What does “lower flatness” mean in airfoil terminology?

What does lower flatness mean in these parameters of a Glenn Martin airfoil?
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429 views

What aircraft has the highest critical Mach number?

What aircraft has the highest critical Mach number? The highest I heard of was BAC/English Electric Lightning at Mach 0.95. Are there planes with higher Mcrit. and is it plausible to go higher than ...
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307 views

Why are Leading Edge Flaps (LEFs) create lift while down at slow speeds but decrease lift while down at higher speeds?

When taking off or landing, both LEFs and trailing edge flaps (TEFs) for fighter aircraft are in the down position to provide more lift. However, when flying around at higher speeds (let's say 500-600 ...
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348 views

How do the actuator loads (e.g. for the ailerons) vary between different flight phases?

Assume the hinge moment is given as $HM = 0.5\rho v^2*C_{h\delta} \delta*S*c$ $\rho$ = air density $v$ = air speed $C_{h\delta}$ = Hinge moment coefficient $S$ = Control surface area $c$ = ...
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63 views

Why does Lift and Drag calculation over an airfoil ignore shear stress?

why in Lift and Drag calculation over an airfoil we ignore shear stress effect and focus on pressure distribution?
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33 views

Would a slotted flap still work if the prop is located mid wing between the wing and flap?

Would a slotted flap still work if the prop is located in a slot mid wing between the wing and flap? This would be for a distributed propulsion application for an multi prop ultralight triplane, ...
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1answer
85 views

What is the best prop location for distributed propulsion - pusher, tractor or blown flap for an ultralight?

What is the best prop location for distributed propulsion - pusher, tractor or mid top wing ( blown flap) for an ultralight, max speed about 60mph, for MINIMUM takeoff distance ( 20-40') and about ...
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28 views

Can prop exit speed be used to estimate effects of distributed propulsion?

Can prop exit speed be used to estimate effects of distributed propulsion, if the props are in front of the wing? If distributed propulsion is "just extra air", it is similar to the wings just seeing ...
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1answer
140 views

Will an axial compressor work with an ideal fluid?

Will an axial compressor, like the one described starting on page 275 of this book, work if the flow was assumed to be ideal (i.e. incompressible and inviscid)? Specifically, what mechanism will slow ...
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34 views

Where can I find data comparing coefficient of lift (and drag) curves for any airfoil with and without flaps deployed

I'm doing my masters thesis on a FISHBAC wing so I'm hoping to find coefficient of lift and drag curves for any airfoil with and without (any type of) flaps deployed (and preferably leading edge ...
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81 views

What is the effect of moving a propeller closer to a wing?

Does it improve efficiency? What if the wing is just a plate? Certainly increasing plate thickness will decrease efficiency.
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50 views

What is the effect of adding a slat and a slotted flap when using distributed propulsion?

What is the effect of adding a slat and a slotted slap when using distributed propulsion? I understand that distributed propulsion changes the local AOA to single digits. I understand that slats ...