The A220-100 and -300 variants have relevant specs of (respectively)
- fuel capacities of 21,805L and 21,508L
- MTOW of 63T and 71T
- Range of 3450 nmi and 3600 nmi
How is the bigger, heavier variant specified to go further on less fuel?
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I assume the numbers you found are from the Wikipedia article. If you look closely at the specifications table, you'll see that the numbers are from two different publications:
The Airbus Family Figures Booklet (2019), which lists the following data:
|MTOW||63.1 t||69.9 t|
|Fuel Capacity||21 805 l||21 508 l|
|Range||3400 NM||3350 NM|
An article (2021) about improved MTOW and range for the A220-300:
It will take the MTOW of the -300, the larger of the A220 variants, to 70.9t from the current 69.9t and will provide some 200nm additional range.
So the range of the A220-300 was originally lower than the -100, but was improved due to the higher MTOW. It still has a lower fuel capacity, but range (with payload) is not limited by fuel capacity. It is limited by MTOW as you can see in the payload/range plots:
As you can see from these plots, the maximum range (ferry range) of the A220-100 is higher than the -300, but the -300 can fly further with 140 passengers than the -100 with 120 passengers due to its higher MTOW, therefore giving it a higher typical range.