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The New York Times' March 17, 2023 Banned From Russian Airspace, U.S. Airlines Look to Restrict Competitors includes the following:

On its route from New Delhi to New York City, American Airlines has been forced to stop flights in Bangor, Maine — an hour and a half short of the mark — on 19 occasions, a person familiar with the recent history said. Those stops, which were typically caused by unfavorable winds or weather that depleted the jet fuel supply and ran out the flight crew’s duty hours, delayed passengers and forced a swap-out of 14 pilots and flight attendants.

Those flights were already operating with dozens of the seats deliberately left unfilled, the person added, because less weight on board was required to make the fuel last as long as possible.

Yet many foreign airlines are not banned from flying over Russia, U.S. airlines and their lobbyists say — and are winning more passengers on routes to and from the United States as a result. Continued access to the shorter and more fuel-efficient routes that Russian airspace provides is giving carriers like Air India, Emirates and China Eastern Airlines an unfair advantage, the industry lobbying group Airlines for America said in a recent presentation on Capitol Hill.

and further down:

U.S. airlines for years had access to Russian airspace through a series of agreements with Moscow. In exchange for that access, they — and other foreign airlines — paid fees to the Russian government for air traffic control support that amounted to hundreds of millions of dollars per year, according to an airline official and an industry advocate.

But after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine last year prompted government officials in the United States, Britain, Canada and Europe to ban Russian aircraft from flying over their airspace, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia immediately prohibited the United States and other supporters of Ukraine, including Canada and much of Europe, from flying through his skies.

Yet further down, the NYTimes article says

Representatives for Air India declined to comment, and representatives for Emirates and China Eastern did not respond to requests for comment.

Question: Which airlines are banned from flying over Russia? Is there a list?

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First of all, it should be noted that the Russian Federation is not a signatory to the International Air Services Transit Agreement (see list here), which would allow overflight according to the First Freedom of the air. Therefore, Russia does not have to ban specific airlines from overflight; it's rather the opposite: the airline needs to apply for an overfly permit. As far as I know, there is no public list of airlines that have an overflight permit or airlines where such an application for the permit has been declined.

Russia did react to the ban of Russian aircraft by issuing NOTAMs, which effectively do the opposite of these bans: they prohibit any overflight or other operation for aircraft that are in any way associated to one of the countries that banned Russian aircraft. You can search for these NOTAMs on the FAA NOTAM Search by entering UUUU as location. Here is an example for the United States:

U0609/22 NOTAMR U0606/22
Q) UUWV/QOAXX/IV/BO/A/000/999/5535N03716E999
A) UUUU B) 2205190000 C) PERM
E) AS A RESPONSE MEASURE TO THE DECISION OF AVIATION AUTHORITIES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS TO ALL RUSSIAN AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT OPERATORS, IRRESPECTIVE OF REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT, ALL RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, ALL STATE RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT, IRRESPECTIVE OF STATE OF REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT, AND ALL ACFT IRRESPECTIVE OF STATE OF REGISTRATION, OWNED, CHARTERED, RENTED OR OPERATED FOR OR FOR THE INTERESTS OF RUSSIAN NATURAL PERSON OR ENTITY, STATED IN SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED LIST OF THE UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL STATE ADMINISTRATION, AS PER NOTAM A0049/22, ARE PROHIBITED TO OPERATE FLIGHTS TO, WITHIN, FROM OR VIA TERRITORIAL AIRSPACE OF THE USA, THE AVIATION AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION HEREBY DECLARE THE PROHIBITION OF OPERATIONS OF ALL AIRCRAFT, REGISTERED IN THE USA OR OPERATED BY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OF THE USA OR AFFILIATED WITH THE USA, ALL TYPE BOEING 737MAX AIRCRAFT, IRRESPECTIVE OF STATE OF REGISTRATION OR STATE OF OPERATION, WITHIN OR VIA AIRSPACE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, INCLUDING TRANS-SIBERIAN AND CROSS-POLAR ROUTE SYSTEM (TRANSIT) FROM 0000 UTC 17 MAY 2022, EXCEPT EMERGENCY, HUMANITARIAN, SANITARIAN FLIGHTS AND FLIGHTS WHEN SPECIAL PERMISSION FOR OPERATION OF SUCH FLIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THE FEDERAL AIR TRANSPORT AGENCY OF RUSSIA OR THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, AS APPROPRIATE.

(emphasis mine)

There is a list of countries and the associated NOTAMs on makgas.com, which claims to be updated regularly (I haven't checked). The current list of countries and territories, which are banned, is:

Albania, Anguilla, Austria,
Belgium, Bermuda, Canada,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Gibraltar,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia,
Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turks and Caicos, United Kingdom, USA

They also have a map with these countries on the site:

Banned Countries
(makgas.com)

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  • $\begingroup$ What the heck is a "SANITARIAN FLIGHT"? (Had to read it 3 times before I realized it wasn't "Sanitation Flight"...) $\endgroup$
    – FreeMan
    Mar 21, 2023 at 17:39
  • $\begingroup$ @FreeMan: Probably a mistranslation of "sanitary flight", which is another phrase for a medical transport flight. Someone who knows Russian better than I do might comment on whether such a phrase is common in Russian. $\endgroup$ Mar 21, 2023 at 22:17

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