This multi-part question contained a question about using the stars or moon to navigate--
Most pilots probably know how to find Polaris, which would be extremely useful, for flight north of the equator, but not too close to the north pole.
The moon (and the constellations of the zodiac) always rise generally in the east and set generally in the west, with "generally" meaning "somewhere between SE and NE, etc, at most latitudes." Are most pilots aware of this? Do they know how to recognize the constellations of the zodiac? Hard to say-- but probably not.
Orion rises with his belt nearly exactly east and sets with his belt nearly exactly in the west. Most pilots probably don't know this either.
Some pilots may have a general awareness of what constellations of the zodiac are due south in the northern hemisphere (or due north in the southern hemisphere) around midnight at certain times of the year, but most probably don't.
The location of a star, or the moon, that is not near the horizon, i.e. has not recently risen or set, is probably not going to be all that helpful to the average pilot. And directly over the north or south pole nothing is rising or setting. So-- it depends on a lot of things, including the pilot's level of knowledge about the night sky, and the aircraft's location, specifically the latitude.
In general I suspect the average pilot would be hard pressed to do much more than find the location of Polaris and understand that that is due north, which is really only useful at low to mid latitudes in the northern hemisphere.
Training in recognizing the constellations is definitely not a part of any pilot training curriculum!
This answer assumes the wet compass is unusable due to failure (or due to the aircraft being very near one of the magnetic poles), and focuses on using the stars to determine heading. If the wet compass still works, then all you need the stars for is for a stable (well, slowly drifting) reference point so you don't have to constantly stare at the wet compass-- any pilot should be able to manage that. Actually determining latitude with any meaningful precision is not going to be possible without a sextant even if Polaris is visible, and accurately determining longitude is going to be impossible without a sextant, navigational tables, and a precise chronometer.