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What are the FAA regulations for aircraft separation on the ground, outside of active runways?

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FAA ATC is responsible for issuing instructions in order to prevent collisions during operations on the airport's "Movement Area," which is defined in the FAA Pilot/Controller Glossary as:

MOVEMENT AREA− The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized for taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. At those airports/heliports with a tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement area must be obtained from ATC.

There are no specific ATC distance separation requirements between aircraft on the ground (exclusive of the runways as per your question). However, paragraph 3-7-3 of the FAA's JO 7110.65Z (Air Traffic Control Handbook) states the following with respect to issuing cautionary verbiage during ground operations:

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Except in relation to active runways, the FAA defines no specific minimum separation between aircraft operating on the ground.

JO 7110.65 paragraph 2–1–1 states that "the primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision involving aircraft operating in the system." So ATC must issue instructions that ensure aircraft do not "trade paint" (collide) with another aircraft, a vehicle, a structure, a pedestrian, etc.

Furthermore, the ATC system is intended to "[provide] a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic." So ATC instructions should also ensure that aircraft do not end up pointing nose-to-nose on the same piece of pavement with no way to turn around and no room to pass by each other: a "Golden Towbar Award" moment.

For pilots, 14 CFR 91.111(a) requires that "no person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard."

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