What is the difference between VOR(D), VOR(V) and VOR(S) seen in the table? What do the letters D, V and S stand for or represent?
Those letters are different ARINC 424 Route Type identifiers for instrument approaches:
5.7 Route Type (RT TYPE)
Definition/Description: The “Route Type” field defines the type of Enroute Airway, Preferred Route, Airport and Heliport SID/STAR/Approach Routes of which the record is an element. [...]
Source/Content: The content of this field (for approach procedures) will be as indicated in the following tables: [...]
Approach Route Type Description Route Type Field Content Approach Transition A Localizer/Backcourse Approach B VORDME Approach D Flight Management System (FMS) Approach F Instrument Guidance System (IGS) Approach G Instrument Landing System (ILS) Approach I GNSS Landing System (GLS) Approach J Localizer Only (LOC) Approach L Microwave Landing System (MLS) Approach M Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) Approach N Global Positioning System (GPS) Approach P Non-Directional Beacon + DME (NDB+DME) Approach Q Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach R VOR Approach using VORDME/VORTAC S TACAN Approach T Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) Approach U VOR Approach V Microwave Landing System (MLS), Type A Approach W Localizer Directional Aid (LDA) Approach X Microwave Landing System (MLS), Type B and C Approach Y Missed Approach Z
(ARINC 424 - 5.0 NAVIGATION DATA - FIELD DEFINITIONS)
So in your case, the V is a VOR approach without DME, the D includes DME and the S is for combined VOR/DME and TACAN (VORTAC).
Similarly, the ILS I, L and B correspond to regular ILS, localizer and backcourse approaches respectively.