There’s very different use cases for the information.
If I am putting up a 200 foot meteorology tower in a city, this is of no concern to commercial, military, or general aviation operators. So it will be placed in the DOF right away, but since it doesn’t affect flight in the normal IFR or VFR environment, it doesn’t have to be propagated to all pilots right away. But there may be some special operators--mosquito spraying, ag application, etc.--that may want to check the DOF before a specific sortie, so the daily is available for them. Organizations that work with this data to create, or consume this data can get a an "OE/AAA" online account.
A taller tower that penetrates routine use airspace or even a shorter tower that approaches the obstacle clearance gradient near an airport is another story completely. In these cases, the proposed tower is coordinated with the FAA OEG (Obstruction Evaluation Group) and goes through a process called OE/AAA. The obstruction goes through an analysis because VFR charts and instrument procedures all need to be updated. Oddly, the notice required by the FAA is only 45 days before start of construction, so they're assuming it will take you a few weeks to penetrate airspace. If needed, new obstacles that do penetrate airspace and are not yet charted will be addressed by NOTAM.
Also, any tower over 2,000 feet AGL falls in a different category. Below 2,000 feet you are primarily "coordinating" with the FAA.
But anything over 2,000 feet is considered a "potentially inefficient use of airspace" which triggers a required approval process by the FAA, similar to an impact statement. There are no buildings over 1,500' in the US, 20 radio towers exactly at 2,000', and only 4 taller; so this isn't a call the FAA gets often.
The FAR that covers this is Part 77. 14 CFR 77.9 states:
Any person/organization who intends to sponsor any of the following construction or alterations must notify the Administrator of the FAA:
- Any construction or alteration exceeding 200 ft above ground level
- Any construction or alteration
- within 20,000 ft of a public use or military airport which exceeds a 100:1 surface from any point on the runway of each airport with at least one runway more than 3,200 ft.
- within 10,000 ft of a public use or military airport which exceeds a 50:1 surface from any point on the runway of each airport with its longest runway no more than 3,200 ft.
- within 5,000 ft of a public use heliport which exceeds a 25:1 surface
- Any highway, railroad or other traverse way whose prescribed adjusted height would exceed that above noted standards
- When requested by the FAA
- Any construction or alteration located on a public use airport or heliport regardless of height or location
As is often the case on Stack Exchange, you now officially have too much information.