I assume by "primary surface" you mean the elevator, not the stabilizer, so we are not talking about moveable stabilizers.
Most gliders with stabilzer/elevators, and a lot of homebuilts and ultralights, (and a few production power planes like the Piper Pawnee ag plane) use bungee springs as the sole method of applying trim forces via the elevator. The spring is linked into the control circuit, like someone holding a clothesline to pull it toward one pulley or the other (or elsewhere in the linkage to do the same thing). When you move the trim control, you're moving the "relaxed" position of the bungee spring.
If you are on the ground, and you move the trim control without holding the stick, the stick will move back and forth with the trim control as it follows the unloaded position of the spring. When you apply, say, nose up trim in the air, the effect is identical to hooking an elastic band anchored to the seat to the stick itself to apply back pressure for you.
In another variation, some power planes, notably the Piper Super cub, use both an adjustable stabilizer moved by a jackscrew, AND a passive, non adjustable spring bungee within the tail assembly, that applies tension that tends to keep the elevator aligned with the stabilizer chord wise. This improves the trimmable range achievable by the jackscrew system without having to make the stabilizer bigger (if you see a Super Cub parked without the controls being locked, you'll notice the elevator sags just below neutral instead of dropping all the way down - that's the internal bungee holding it up).
Now when you see the term bungee, an elastic shock cord you buy at the hardware store comes to mind, but a bungee in an airplane can be made from a rubber shock cord, axial springs doing the same thing, or springs inside a housing with internal linkages and an external lever that provides the springy element to connect to the control system (the Cirrus line uses such spring bungee-box units for trim).
It's not trim per se, but on some jets with hydraulic controls that need artificial pitch feel, a box with internal springs, cams, and levers called a pitch feel bungee unit actually provides the pitch force you feel at the stick.
Anyway,in the several dozen types of power planes and gliders I've flow over the years, I've found that cockpit adjustable tabs always provided more precise and responsive trim control than bungee devices, so I don't think of bungee trims as optimal, but in a design where tabs are impractical, it's a useable alternative.