We can say that practically there are minor differences in AOA for each flight (in the same range of weight). But is there any document that states what flight angle is recommended for each of the flight phases? (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, and approach)
There's no such thing as "recommended angle of attack".
The angle of attack affects the amount of lift generated by the wing. In level flight, the lift of the wing must exactly equal the weight of the plane, so the pilot is just going to fly at whatever AoA gives that amount of lift.
The amount of lift is also affected by the speed at which the airplane flies. So, if the plane speeds up or slows down, the pilot must adjust the AoA to maintain altitude.
There are also things entirely outside the pilot's control that can change the AoA. For instance, updrafts and downdrafts change the direction of the relative wind, which (momentarily) affects AoA.
Given that is not possible to give proper generic flight angles (it depends on a lot of parameters), I suggest you to have a look to this site. For example you can have a look to the pilot's notes section. Here you can find different notes i.e you can retreive information of the AoA and aerodynamic configurations used in different phases of the flight (e.g here you can find infos about the landing).
Normally, in commercial aviation crew operate their aircraft based on speeds and thrust settings. The angle of attack (AOA) that is required for each speed/thrust combination and phase of flight will then be attained by flying the correct speed and thrust setting. As there is no AOA instrument on many (most!) aircraft, this is the normal mode of operation. The speeds which are "recommended" (read: required) for each of these phases of flight are given - or at least roughly explained - in the aircraft manuals, from memory you will have a performance section in the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) and the Quick Reference Handbook (QRH) for normal and non-normal operations. Some operators elect to publish climb angle data (not: AOA!) for their aircraft in the manuals, and there will be tables for body angle/pitch angle (not: AOA, but at least closer) in the QRH to use as a reference in case the speed indicator fails.
For flying the aircraft, that is all that is required, and the angles are more or less a result of controlling speed and thrust.
If you're really after more detailed data for aerodynamics and flight physics modelling, what you get in the QRH for pitch/power tables may serve as a rough indication for the AOA for various conditions, but it's rounded to whatever crew will be able to read on the instruments and is thus not sufficiently precise for meaningful calculations. More detailed data is only available to aircraft operators and their aircraft performance experts. For example, Boeing used to issue a Performance Engineer's Handbook for their aircraft, which contained more detailed data on aerodynamics and engines. However, these reference books are not publicly available, as from the data you could directly derive information on aircraft performance characteristics which one would rather not share with the competitors.
My favourite book to approximate aero models for real life aircraft, by the way, is Obert's Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft.