As you may already know since you linked the wikipedia article about spatial disorientation, it's not really just about maintaining awareness about left/right, north/south etc. It is about one's orientation in 3d space, and in the specific case or being in an aircraft, which can be manuevered to create all kinds of false cues as to in which position one is, and what it the actual cause of accelerations felt, there is no way a human can maintain full spatial awareness without the aid of visual cues. There are good answers on that here, and research on the topic is clear:
Humans can only learn to act properly to mitigate the effects of spatial disorientation, but full "immunity" is not possible to achieve.
As to the claim that language would affect the ability to maintain spatial orientation, there is no proof that I know of, and if there was, we surely would know about that. The study you provided a link to did mention a case in which a person was spun 20 times in a darkened room blindfolded, and was still able to maintain sense of orientation. This was not, however a "study", but a "report", and as such carries very little, if any, scientific value. We do not know how the experiment was carried cout, it may have had serious flaws in it. The footnote about this report states:
Levinson (2003) also reported formal studies showing that speakers of languages that use geocentric systems (Tseltal and Hai||om) were more accurate than speakers of languages that use egocentric systems (English and Dutch) at pointing to distant landmarks. However, the testing situations (type of environment, distance travelled, how participants arrived there, relative familiarity with surrounding, etc.) varied between the comparison groups (e.g., Dutch vs. Hai||om), making comparisons difficult
So, to say the least, no proof whatsoever that a language can provide protection against spatial disorientation within the scope of aviation.
Indigineous people, one's that are not as disconnected from nature as us city dwellers, can read their surrounding quite well to determinen geocentric directions even if no sunlight is providing shadows. Most trees have more foliage on the southern side, erosion varies according to the amount of direct sunlight on rock formations (this varies greatly depending on type of rock), plants and animals prefer inclines of specific direction etc. People who rely on a geocentric system most likely have a constantly updating map in their minds about how objects are oriented. When they enter a building for example, the orientation of this building and its inner structure is locked into the map, and they can continue using the orientation of the geocentric system. If the building had no windows, and it was slowly rotating, the people inside would very quickly lose track of the geocentric coordinates, unless they had very acute magnetoperception, which humans do not have.