Yes, anti-ice equipment is sometimes used on the ground, but is usually not sufficient to clear the plane of ice.
Airplane systems are generally referred to as anti-ice, because they are designed to prevent ice from forming or accumulating. Airport equipment is referred to as de-ice, because it is designed to remove ice as well as preventing it from forming (to some degree). So, as others have said, the real de-icing equipment available on the ground is much more effective than what is on the plane.
Anti-ice systems are generally designed to protect key areas of the airplane where ice is most likely to form in flight; leading edges of the wings, engine cowls/props, and pitot-static or other sensors. However, on the ground, it will accumulate on other exposed surfaces like wings/stabilizers/fuselage. This is why the de-ice measures are needed, to clear off those surfaces as well, because ice on the wings is bad.
However, anti-ice equipment may be used on the ground as well when needed. Air Florida Flight 90 crashed shortly after takeoff in icing conditions, and a contributing factor was ice accumulating on engine sensors which prevented the engines from providing full thrust. So when icing is expected, the anti-ice systems will certainly be used on the ground to provide added protecting to the most critical surfaces, in addition to the protection from de-icing procedures. Failing to have the wing and control surfaces properly de-iced also contributed to that accident.
Also, see this related question: Why turn off pitot tube heating?